主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

北京中医药大学学报 ›› 2016, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (9): 709-713.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.09.001

• 理论研究 •    下一篇

论五行学说起源、发展和演变*

颜隆, 贺娟#   

  1. 北京中医药大学基础医学院 北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-16 出版日期:2016-09-30 发布日期:2016-09-30
  • 通讯作者: 贺娟,女,博士,教授,博士生导师,研究方向:中医基础理论、五运六气学说,E-mail: hejuan6428@sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上资助项目(No.81273874)

On the origin, development and evolution of five-phase theory*

YAN Long, HE Juan#   

  1. School of Preclinical Medicine,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029
  • Received:2015-12-16 Online:2016-09-30 Published:2016-09-30

摘要: 五行是中国古代哲学的重要内容,但关于五行的起源以及五行学说的本质,当今学术界存在很大分歧。通过对历代文献的分析,本文提出以下观点: 古人对“五”的崇拜是五行形成的基础,五行的概念源自对生活中5种基本物质的概括,形成于商末周初;五行相胜源于古人对五材之间相互关系的观察,形成于西周,春秋时期五行相胜在政治、军事等方面已有运用,而且发现五行无常胜;五行相生源于四时的轮替,是五行学说与时令学说结合的产物,形成于战国时期。五行学说在战国时期逐渐发展成熟,五行生克结合形成了完整的五行学说。汉代五行学说达到鼎盛,五行乘侮的观念是对五行学说的补充和完善。

关键词: 五行, 五材, 四时, 五行相生, 五行相克

Abstract: The theory of five phases is an essential component of philosophic theories in ancient China. However, the contemporary scholars have different views on the origin and the essence of this theory. Based on analysis of ancient literature,the following points of view are proposed. The ancient’s worship of the digit "five" was the basis of formation of five-phase. Formed in the Shang Dynasty late and early Zhou Dynasty,the concept of five phases came from the characteristics of five basic materials in life. Formed in the Western Zhou Dynasty, the viewpoint of restriction in the five phases was derived from the observations of the relationship between the five materials. In the Spring and Autumn Period, the restriction in the five phases was applied to political, military and other fields, and the uncertain restriction in the five phases was discovered.The concept of generation in the five phases which originated in the alternation of seasons was formed in the Warring States Period. It was the production of combination of four-season doctrine and five-material doctrine. Five-phase theory matured during the Warring States Period. The combination of generation and restriction in the five phases completed five-phase theory. Five-phase theory reached its peak in the Han Dynasty. The over-restriction and counter-restriction of five phases were proposed as the improvement of five-phase theory.

Key words: five phases, five materials, four seasons, generation in the five phases, restriction in the five phases

中图分类号: 

  • R226