主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

北京中医药大学学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 43 ›› Issue (9): 714-717.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.09.002

• 理论研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

医学儒学化与明代医家身体观转型*

刘鹏   

  1. 广州中医药大学基础医学院 广东 510006
  • 收稿日期:2020-03-20 发布日期:2020-09-29
  • 作者简介:刘鹏,男,博士,研究员,博士生导师
  • 基金资助:
    *教育部人文社科研究项目(No.20YJCZH099)

Confucianization of TCM and transformation of TCM physicians’ concepts of human body in the Ming Dynasty*

Liu Peng   

  1. School of Basic Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong 510006, China
  • Received:2020-03-20 Published:2020-09-29
  • Contact: Prof. Liu Peng, Ph.D., Doctoral Supervisor. Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine. No.232 Outer Ring East Road, Panyu District, Guangzhou 510006. E-mail: liupeng@gzucm.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    Humanities and Social Sciences Research Project of Ministry of Education (No.20YJCZH099)

摘要: 受理学直接影响,探求人身太极以体会宇宙太极之理,成为儒家和医家共同的诉求。明代医家仿照理学宇宙论模式,通过重新探寻生命的本原所在,以实现身体的儒学化改造。明代医家在重新探索和建构人身本原时,寻求了医学与文化两个层面的论据。就医学层面而言,借用了《黄帝内经》中原本用以指称“目”的“命门”,以及《难经》中被作为生命根本的“肾间动气”,两者相合,加以改造,命门即为肾间动气,成为生命的新本原,从而获得了医学经典的支撑。就文化层面而言,明代医家再探生命本原的动力,直接来源于当时社会理学思想对宇宙本体的追问,他们借助易理,尤其是周敦颐的新诠释,对命门与两肾进行了形而上的塑造,使医理拥有了获得更广泛社会认可的儒家文化思想的支撑。但是,以命门学说为代表的明代医家身体观转型,更倾向于一种对儒学的比附,并未带来传统辨治体系的真正突破与超越。

关键词: 儒学化, 命门, 理学, 身体观

Abstract: Under the direct influence of Neo-Confucianism, it became the common pursuit of Confucianists and TCM doctors to understand the tai chi principle of the universe by exploring tai chi of the body. Therefore, in order to understand and explain the body from a Confucian perspective, physicians in the Ming Dynasty re-explored the origin of life by applying the cosmological model of Neo-Confucianism to life. As they re-explored and reconstructed the origin of human body, they sought evidence from perspectives of both medicine and culture.From the medical perspective, they borrowed the term “mingmen” (life gate), originally referring to “eyes”, from Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), and the concept “the stirring qi of the kidney region”, which is regarded as fundamental to life from Nanjing (Classic of Difficult Issues). Through combination and transformation, mingmen began to refer to the stirring qi of the kidney region and became the new origin of life, thus forming the textual support from medical classics.In terms of culture, TCM physicians’ re-exploration of the origin of life in the Ming Dynasty were motivated directly by the pursuit of the ontology of the universe by Neo-Confucianism at that time. Drawing on Yi-ology, especially Zhou Dunyi’s new interpretation, they reshaped mingmen and the two kidneys in a metaphysical way, which gained the medical theory support from Confucianism that was widely acknowledged by the society. However, the transformation of the concepts of body by TCM doctors in the Ming Dynasty represented by the mingmen theory was more an analogy to Confucianism than any real breakthrough in and transcendence over the traditional system of pattern differentiation and treatment.

Key words: confucianization of TCM, mingmen, Neo-Confucianism, view

中图分类号: 

  • R2-05