主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

北京中医药大学学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (9): 789-795.doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.09.004

• 理论研究 • 上一篇    下一篇

六经“开、阖、枢”解读*

陈明   

  1. 北京中医药大学中医学院 北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2021-03-15 出版日期:2021-09-30 发布日期:2021-10-08
  • 作者简介:陈明,男,博士,教授,主任医师,博士生导师,主要研究方向:《伤寒论》六经辨治规律研究,E-mail:cmwg185@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    *北京中医药大学重点攻关项目(No.2020-JYB-ZDGG-002)

Interpretation of the “opening-closing-pivoting” functions of the six meridians*

Chen Ming   

  1. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China
  • Received:2021-03-15 Online:2021-09-30 Published:2021-10-08
  • Contact: Prof. Chen Ming, Ph.D., Doctoral Supervisor. Beijing University of Chinese Medicine. No. 11 Beisanhuan Donglu Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029. E-mail: cmwg185@163.com

摘要: 六经“开、阖、枢”理论由《素问·阴阳离合论篇》首次提出,是《黄帝内经》理论体系的重要组成部分。其理论源于四时阴阳气数离合的变化,因三阴三阳的气数不等,各有出入,而反映出“开、阖、枢”的具体表现形式,四时阴阳变化的过程就是通过“开、阖、枢”的功能形式来完成的。及与人体之阴阳“开、阖、枢”,则是对六经气化功能状态的高度概括,阴阳“离”则有开、有阖、有枢,阴阳“合”则为一阴一阳。阴阳的“离”与“合”既分工又合作,分则三,合则为一。“开、阖、枢”是以六经的标本中气为物质基础,以气机的升降出入为功能状态。太阳为老阳、巨阳,守正御邪,气机为开,因此而敷布营卫,通畅津液;阳明为“两阳合明”,多气多血,气机为阖,而善蓄能纳阳,腐熟水谷;少阳为初生之阳,生机盎然,气机为枢,主枢转阴阳,沟通表里,贯通上下,畅达脾胃;太阴为老阴,老成持重,居阴之表,气机为开,而主运化精微,化生营气,吐故纳新;厥阴为“两阴交尽”,阴气盛极,气机为阖,故主阖禁阴气,藏血舍魂,蕴以生阳;少阴为初生之阴,心肾朋居,水火并蓄,气机为枢,而能既济水火,交通心肾。三阴三阳“开、阖、枢”理论对六经病辨治具有重要的指导意义。

关键词: 内经, 伤寒论, 六经, “开、阖、枢”, 经典理论

Abstract: The theory of the “opening, closing and pivoting” functions of thesix meridians, first proposed in the chapter of Separation and Combination of Yin and Yang in Suwen (Plain Conversation), was an important part of the theoretical system of Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi's Internal Classic). This theory originated from the change in the separation and combination of yin and yang in the four seasons. As the variations and the exiting and entering of qi in the three yin and three yang are reflected as the concrete manifestation of “opening-closing-pivoting”, the yin-yang alternation in the four seasons is achieved through the“opening-closing-pivoting” function. The yin-yang “opening-closing-pivoting” function in the human body is a high-level generalization of the function of qi transformation of the six meridians. The separation of yin and yang generates the opening, closing, and pivoting functions while the combination of yin and yang generates one yin and one yang. The separation and combination of yin and yang work both independently and closely, i.e. in separation, there are three functions and in combination, there is one.The “opening-closing-pivoting” function is based on the manifestation, root cause, and medial qi of the six meridians as the material basis, and reflected by the ascending, descending, exiting, and entering of qi movement as the functional state. The taiyang, also known as the old yang and giant yang, safeguards the healthy qi against pathogens with the qi movement of opening, which distributes the nutrient qi and defensive qi, and promotes the circulation of body fluid. The yangming, or the combination of two yang, boasts sufficient qi and blood with the qi movement of closing, which stores energy and yang and decomposes food. The shaoyang, the new yang,is full of vitality with the qi movement of pivoting, which pivots yin and yang, relates the interior and the exterior, connects the upper and the lower, and facilitates the qi movement of the spleen and stomach.The taiyin, the old yin which is mature and steady, is located on the surface of the yin with the qi movement of opening, which transports and transforms the nutrients, generates nutrient qi, and maintains the metabolism of the body. The jueyin, the extremity of two yin, enjoys exuberant yin with the qi movement of closing, which preserves yin, stores blood and soul, and induces the generation of yang. The shaoyin, the new yin which pertains to the heart and kidney, stores both water and fire with the qi movement of pivoting, which harmonizes water and fire and coordinates the heart and kidney. The theory of “opening-clos-ing-pivoting” of the three yin and three yang provides important reference for pattern differentiation and treatment in accordance with the theory of the six meridians.

Key words: Huangdi Neijing, Shanghan Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage), six meridians, opening-closing-pivoting, classical theory

中图分类号: 

  • R221