主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    30 April 2021, Volume 44 Issue 4 Previous Issue   
    Theoretical Studies
    Interpretation of naturized life perspectives based on the chapter titled Discussion on the Regular Five-Motions in Suwen*
    Wang Yongyan, Ji Xinyu, Zhang Huamin
    2021, 44 (4):  293-297.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.001
    Abstract ( 28 )   PDF (959KB) ( 15 )   Save
    The chapter titled Discussion on the Regular Five-Motions in Suwen (Plain Questions, Vol.1 of Huangdi's Internal Classics) discusses five motions, natural geography, six qi, six transformation and treatment based on pattern identification. It also states that human being should follow the main principle of maintaining normal qi by striking a dynamic balance between yin and yang, acivity and inactivity, engendering and inhibiting relations as the norm while living in the complex system of nature and society. This chapter aligns with the theory of Chinese Physics (Gezhi), embodies the idea of unity beween nature and human, and highlights the naturalized life perspectives. This paper analyzes the naturalized life perspectives from the following three aspects: firstly, using the yin-yang properpety of five-motion six-qi theory as the headrope to pull the mesh of originality and essence of humanity and life; secordly, taking Hetu Luoshu diagram as an example to analyze qi of yin and yang (high, low, greater or lesser), observe the manifestations of diseases to grasp the pathogenesis of yin-yang exuberance and debilitation. The internal naturalized generating, growing, transforming, collecting, and storing motions result in normal qi. Finally, regularity is the aim of naturalized life perspectives. We need to inherit the essence of Chinese gezhi ideology, optimize the medical humanistic environment, and lift up the intellectual and spiritual perspectives of health care providers.
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    On “difficult to treat” in Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases
    Zhang Qingling, Jiang Yuanan
    2021, 44 (4):  298-301.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.002
    Abstract ( 15 )   PDF (469KB) ( 9 )   Save
    The esentials of medicine is to know how to treat diseases, which is based on differentiating the curable from incurable diseases. This should be a critical step for any practitioner. The book Treatise on Cold-induced Diseases (Shanghan Lun) also states about identifying incurable diseases besides depicting how to diagnose and treat three-yin and three-yang diseases. Diseases that are “difficult to treat” could be referring to the incurable or dying cases, yet formulae are sometimes recommended for these conditions. The question thus arises: does “difficult to treat” mean incurable? The article elaborates on the relations between curable, incurable and difficult to treat diseases by analyzing the principle of treatment, application of acupuncture and medication, and rationale of predicting prognosis in order to demonstrate how to treat diseases in traditional Chinese medicine.
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    Treating kidney excess patterns by treating liver based on the theory of liver governing free coursing
    Gao Hedan, Li Honghai, Ma Yuexiang
    2021, 44 (4):  302-307.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.003
    Abstract ( 16 )   PDF (797KB) ( 11 )   Save
    Since Qian Yi of Song Dynasty stated that “kidney deficiency patterns predominate over excess patterns”, kidney excess patterns have been rarely mentioned, thus they are far from fully understood in clinical practice. Their etiology and pathogenesis were unclear, and treatment effects were unsatisfactory. Studies have shown that the prevalence rate of kidney excess patterns is increasing in modern times. Based on research on literature and ancient books, the author analyzed the kidney excess patterns based on the theory of liver governing free coursing, which has a close correlation with kidney's storing fucntion and kidney excess patterns. Liver governs free coursing, regulating the kidney essence accumulation and the opening and closing of kidney qi. Liver failing to govern free coursing with liver qi stagnation could result in kidney failing to store, kidney water imbalnce and obstruction of orifices and channels. Kidney qi movement is thus disordered, leading to obstruction of pathogenic factors in kidney. Such kidney excess patterns are characterized by fullness, stuffiness, obstruction and blockage. Qi stagnation is the major underlying mechanism. Therefore, it is proposed that liver failing to govern free coursing is the main pathogenesis of kidney excess patterns. Treatment methods are to soothe the liver, regulate qi, relieve depression, regulate heart and calm mind, activate blood circulation and remove blood stasis, warm yang and disperse cold, etc. By restoring the liver's ability to regulate the qi movement, kindey qi stagnation can be resolved, and kidney excess pattern can be rectified.
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    Literature Studies
    On the jingjie style in Huangdi Neijing*
    Lai Xueyu, Yang Mingming, Wan Yulin
    2021, 44 (4):  308-312.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.004
    Abstract ( 14 )   PDF (660KB) ( 8 )   Save
    In Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi's Internal Classic), there exists the structure of jingjie style (a combination of original text and interpretation). Jing means original text, and jie refers to its interpretation and notes. The coexistence of jing and jie in the same book is called “the unified style of jing and jie”. By sorting out the relationship between jing and jie in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi's Internal Classic), it's found that “the unified style of jing and jie” could be observed in chapters of Zhenjie (Interpretation of needles), Xiaozhenjie (Interpretation of needles), Yangming Maijie (Interpretation of yangming channel) and Maijie (Interpretation of channels), and certain chapters without the word “jie” in the tile. Specifically, the object of interpretation is put forward first, then interpretation follows, similar to the explanation method of exegesis of later generations.
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    Research on Ye Qizhen's biography and clinical experience*
    Gao Yanzi, Yu Zhimin
    2021, 44 (4):  313-317.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.005
    Abstract ( 9 )   PDF (760KB) ( 6 )   Save
    Ye Qizhen was a famous TCM specialist in Chuansha area (now Pudong New Area, Shanghai) in Qing Dynasty. He was specialized in pediatrics and gynecology although his specialty areas covered 13 subspecialities of traidtional Chinese medicine (TCM). There are two existing medical books-Nv Ke Zhi Zhang (Guidance to Gynecology) and You Ke Zhi Zhang (Guidance to Pediatrics). Ye Qizhen's medical achievements were based on his assiduous devotion to reading books and his experience in treatment orginated from numerous clinical practice and communication with other practitioners. His legacy had been passed down to at least two generations in his family with various disciples such as Wu Yungong and Liu Jialong. Ye had made significant achievements in clinic and literature of TCM, as he extensively cited numerous ancient documents as references in his works. He had unique insights into pediatric diarrhea, chronic convulsion, cough, and postpartum diseases. Moreover, he advocated the flexible use of prescriptions and attached importance to the inheritance and innovation of prescriptions.
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    TCM Constitution
    Establishing animal constitution models for research on nine classification of TCM constitution*
    Wang Ji, Zhao Xiaoshan, Zhou Yumei, Wang Qi
    2021, 44 (4):  318-322.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.006
    Abstract ( 15 )   PDF (702KB) ( 12 )   Save
    Constitution (Tizhi) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a newly emerged subject developed in recent years, but there has been no established approaches to establishing such animal models. Based on the constitution theory and “nine classification of TCM constitution”, this paper puts forward several areas of focus in the construction of constitution animal models: firstly, the constitution theory of traditional Chinese medicine should be aligned; secondly, constitution characteristics of different animals should be taken into consideration; thirdly, the evaluation system of animal model according to the characteristics of different constitutions needs to be established. Taking rodents (rats and mice) as examples, the parameters for evaluating eight kinds of abnormal constitution were recommeded. The establishment of animal model of TCM constitution can be used for the following research: in-depth study of the rationale of TCM constitution and its micro biological characteristics; establishment of two-dimensional or three-dimensional model of constitution, disease and pattern in order to explore the correlation between constitution and disease and pattern; efficacy evaluation of the constitution-adjustment effect and mechanism of action; research on the constitution susceptibility to toxicity.
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    Chinese Medicinal Pharmacology
    Effects of Bugansan on learning and memory function of aging rats based on BDNF/TrkB mediated hippocampal synaptic plasticity*
    Wang Shuo, Li Wei, Wang Hao, Wang Jiepeng, Fang Fang, Wang Shaoxian, Wang Jian, Fang Chaoyi
    2021, 44 (4):  323-331.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.007
    Abstract ( 14 )   PDF (1839KB) ( 13 )   Save
    Objective To explore the aging mechanism based on the theory of liver qi deficiency and hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and to observe the effects of Bugansan (Liver-tonifying Powder) formula on the learning and memory abilities of D-galactose induced aging rats. Methods Forty SPF male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group, piracetam group and Bugansan group (n=10 in each group). Rats in the model group, piracetam group and Bugansan group were intraperitoneally injected with 400 mg/kg D-galactose to establish aging rat models, while blank control group was intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of normal saline daily for eight consecutive weeks. From the day of modeling, Bugansan group was given Bugansan decoction (14.06 g/kg), while piracetam group was given piracetam suspension (0.40 g/kg); blank control group and model group were given the same amount of distilled water (10 mL/kg) daily for 8 consecutive weeks. The body weight of the rats was measured the day before sampling; grip strength test was used to detect the grip strength of rats; Eight-arm maze and step-down test were used to evaluate the learning and memory abilities of rats; Nissl staining method was used to measure the pathological changes of hippocampal neurons while immunohistochemical staining was used to assess the expression characteristics of synaptophysin (SYN) and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95); Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) genes and proteins in hippocampus. Results Compared with the blank group, body weight and grip strength of rats in model group decreased. The number of working memory error (WME), reference memory error (RME) and total memory errors (TE) were significantly increased. The platform latency was shortened; the number of hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced. The expression levels of SYN and PSD95 were significantly decreased, and the expression levels of BDNF and TrkB genes and proteins were significantly decreased (all P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the body weight and grip strength of rats in Bugansan group increased. The number of WME, RME and TE were significantly decreased. The platform latency was prolonged. The number of hippocampal neurons was significantly increased. The expression of SYN and PSD95 was increased, and the expression levels of BDNF and TrkB genes and proteins were significantly increased (all P<0.05). Conclusion Deficiency of liver qi is an important mechanism of body aging. Regulating and replenishing liver qi is an effective treatment. Bugansan can enhance synaptic plasticity in hippocampus of aging rats by up-regulating BDNF and TrkB levels, thereby improving learning and memory abilities and achieving the purpose of delaying aging.
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    Effects of Zuogui Jiangtang Shuxin formula medicated plasma on pyroptosis and apoptosis induced by ox-LDL in J774A.1 cells*
    Yang Jinwei, Yu Rong, Wu Yongjun, Xiao Fan, Liu Xiu, Deng Yihui
    2021, 44 (4):  332-339.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.008
    Abstract ( 9 )   PDF (1073KB) ( 7 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the effects of Zuogui Jiangtang Shuxin (kidney-supplementing glucose-lowering heart-soothing) formula medicated plasma on ox-LDL-induced pyroptosis and apoptosis and to explore new targets in the treatmert of diabetic atherosclerosis with this formula. Methods SD rats were administered intragastrically with 7.2 g/kg Zuogui Jiangtang Shuxin formula or 0.83 g/kg metformin combined with 12.45 mg/kg atorvastatin calcium to prepare drug-containing plasma. Zuogui Jiangtang Shuxin formula medicated plasma was then extracted for J774A.1 cells treatment. J774A.1 cells were pretreated with ox-LDL to establish the experimental model of pyroptosis and apoptosis. CCK-8 essay was used to meausre the effect of medicated plasma or ox-LDL on proliferation of J774A.1 cells and to determine the optimal concentration. J774A.1 cells were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal group, model group, Zuogui Jiangtang Shuxin medicated plasma group and Western medicine combination (metformin+atorvastatin calcium) medicated plasma group. After inducting and administration for 24 hours, LDH releasing test was used to evaluate the cell membrane integrity. Cell apoptosis were measured by using flow cytometry. The expression of NLRP3, Caspase-1,GSDMD, Caspase-3 and Bax were detected by using Western blot assay. Results 10% medicated plasma and blank plasma showed no inhibition of cells, the concetnration of which was chosen to be suitable for experiment. The cell survival rate decreased when J774A.1 cells were treated with 100 mg/L ox-LDL for the induction concentration. Compared with the blank group, 100 mg/L ox-LDL suppressed the growth of J774A.1 cells. It was also shown with LDH releasing test that LDH activity and apoptosis rate increased in the model group cells significantly(P<0.01). Moreover, ox-LDL could up-regulate the expression of NLRP3, Caspase-1,GSDMD, Caspase-3 and Bax in the model group(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, Zuogui Jiangtang Shuxin medicated plasma reduced inhibition rate, LDH release and the rate of apoptosis (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the expression of pyroptosis related protein (NLRP3, Caspase-1 and GSDMD) and apoptosis related protein Caspase-3 and Bax expression were significantly reduced(P<0.01). These effects were significantly superior to Western medicine combination group (P<0.01). Conclusion Zuogui Jiangtang Shuxin formula medicated plasma can maintain the function of J774A.1 cells, and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of pyroptosis and apoptosis induced by ox-LDL.
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    Multi-level mechanisms of Chuanlong decoction in treating rheumatic arthritis from the perspective of systems pharmacology*
    Jiang Li, Liang Shengnan, Wang Haiqing, GuoZihu, Wang Yonghua
    2021, 44 (4):  340-349.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.009
    Abstract ( 8 )   PDF (4867KB) ( 3 )   Save
    Objective To study the effects and mechanism of Chuanlong Decoction (CLT), a formula containing Chuanshanlong (Rhizoma Dioscorae Nipponicae) as the major ingredient and also a regional featured herb in Mt. Qingling area. Methods The candidate active ingredients of each herb in CLT Decoction were screened by using the Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology (TCMSP). Potential targets of these compounds were identified with System Drug Target Model (SysDT) and Weighted Ensemble Similarity (WES); a compound-target network was subsequently constructed. Further, network analysis and functional enrichment analysis were used to uncover the biological processes and signal pathways involved in these pharmacological targets. β-sitosterol, the main active ingredient in CLT Decoction, was selected to test in mice in vivo. Chronic inflammation model was established by using Freund's complete adjuvant (0.02 mL/per mouse). Mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal group, model group, β-sitosterol group and dexamethasone group (n=6 in each group for 7-day continuous intervention). The degree of synovial inflammation was measured with HE staining; The mRNA expressions of TNF-α and IL-6 in synovial tissue were detected by using RT-PCR. Results 27 candidate active ingredients in CLT Decoction were screened, and 148 pharmacological targets of arthritis were predicted. Network analysis and enrichment analysis revealed that the main active ingredients in CLT Decoction including diosgenin, β-sitosterol, cyasterone, lonicerin and onychin can regulate bone cellular proliferation, apoptosis, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppression processes via PI3K-AKT, TNF and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. The results showed that the synovial layer significantly thickened, and that the inflammatory infiltration increased in the model group. After treatment with β-sitosterol and dexamethasone, the severity of synovial inflammation were significantly reduced, and the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were also reduced compared with the model group (P<0.05). These results were consistent with the system pharmacological prediction results, indicating that the system pharmacological prediction was quite accurate. Conclusion Different herbal medicines in CLT Decoction may have played different roles in mechanism of action in the treatment of RA, mostly involved in TNF-α and Toll-like signaling pathways.
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    Science & Technology
    Variation of pulse parameters in patients of primary dysmenorrhea with the pattern of cold congelation and blood stasis based on multi-temporal dynamic observation*
    Yang Yingying, Wang Tianfang, Zhao Lihong, Wang Yanping, Tang Ling, Li Ning, Li Xin, Zhang Wenzheng
    2021, 44 (4):  350-357.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.010
    Abstract ( 9 )   PDF (799KB) ( 3 )   Save
    Objective To analyze the dynamic changes of pulse parameters and their correlation with pain degree in patients of primary dysmenorrhea (PD) with the pattern of cold congelation and blood stasis. Methods PD patients with the pattern of cold coagulation and blood stasis were the PD group and healthy subjects were the control group. Electroacupuncture treatment was administered at the typical onset of dysmenorrhea. Four observation points (T0-7~10 days before menstruation, T1-menstrual dysmenorrhea typical attack, T2-after the acupuncture analgesia treatment for 30 min immediately,T3-30 min after acupuncture analgesia treatment) were made. Pulse parameters were collected by using DS01-C pulse imager, including amplitude(h), time(t), width(w), amplitude ratio, time-figure ratio, width-to-time-fiure ratio, heart rate(HR)and so on, and the Visual Analogue Score (VAS) was evaluated to assess pain severih. Repeated measurement variance analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Spearman correlation coefficient and the descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation were used in statistical analysis. Results A total of 35 PD patients and 32 healthy controls were included. In terms of pain severity, VAS at T1,T2 and T3 were all significantly higher than T0 (P<0.05) while the scores at T2 and T3 were all significantly lower than T1 (P<0.05). As for pulse parameters, compared with T0,h2,h4,t1 of T1 all increased significantly (P<0.05); compared with T1, t5 of T2 increased significantly (P<0.05) and h3/h1,w1,w1/t,t1/t,t1,HR all decreased significantly (P<0.05); compared with T2, h3/h1,w1/t,t1/t,t1of T3 all increased significantly (P<0.05). Compared with healthy controls at the same time: the h2,h4 of the syndrome of cold congelation and blood stasis were all significantly lower than those in the healthy control (P<0.05), the h3/h1,w1/t、t1,t1/t were all significantly higher (P<0.05) at the T1 (P<0.05); the t1,t1/t were all significantly higher (P<0.05) at the T3 (P<0.05). In the correlation between pulse chart parameters and pain degree, the pulse chart parameters that were positively correlated with the VAS were: h2,h3,h4,h3/h1,h4/h1,w1(P<0.05); negatively correlated: h5,h5/h1(P<0.05).Conclusion Pulse parameters in patients of PD with the pattern of cold congelation and blood stasis seem to change after the onset of pain and compared to the healthy population. The changes of the pulse parameters correlated with the severity of pain
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    Applied research of SANN model in the diagnosis of traditional Chinese patterns with six diseases data as examples*
    Xue Zhe, Zhao Zongyao, Chen Jiaxu, Liu Yueyun, Wang Xihong, Xu Mengbai, Dong Shuo, Li Tongtong, Wang Jun
    2021, 44 (4):  358-365.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.011
    Abstract ( 12 )   PDF (2160KB) ( 3 )   Save
    Objective To study the applicability and strength of the statistical attention-based neural network (SANN) model in the diagnosis of TCM patterns, and to explore whether the generated feature contribution is aligned with TCM principles. Methods A total of 1,110 cases of hyperlipidemia, menopausal syndrome, coronary heart disease, chronic gastritis, chronic nephritis, urinary tract infection, and fatty liver recorded in the ancient and modern medical records cloud platform and the Chinese medicine Xinglinyuan database were selected. Diagnostic models were established through artificial neural network (ANN), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVC), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and statistical attention-based neural network model (SANN) respectively. Evaluation indicators include Macro-F1, Macro-Precision, Macro-Accuracy, and Macro-Recall. Results The statistical attention-based neural network model (SANN) in the 6 diseases has an average of Macro-F1 at 0.78, Macro-Precision at 0.79, Macro-Accuracy at 0.79, and Macro-Recall at 0.8, which were better than the other 4 benchmark models. The interpretability of its parameters and the support of derived features conformed to the principles of Chinese medicine. Conclusion The neural network model based on statistical attention (SANN) is applicable and advanced in undertaking tasks such as the intelligent diagnosis of TCM patterns, feature screening of TCM data, and the development of disease evaluation scales, thus providing an innovative methodological reference for related study.
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    Acupuncture & Moxibustion
    Protective mechanism of electroacupuncture serum on neurons after cerebral ischemia based on H4K16AC-mediated autophagy*
    Xu Shuying, Shen Yan, Peng Yongjun, Yang Sha, Li Wenqian
    2021, 44 (4):  366-373.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.012
    Abstract ( 11 )   PDF (1522KB) ( 2 )   Save
    Objective To study the protective mechanism of electroacupuncture serum on neurons after cerebral ischemia from the perspective of autophagy regulation by acetylation of histone H4 16 lysine (H4K16ac). Methods 1) Preparation of electroacupuncture serum: The improved rat model of acute focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion was established. Electroacupuncture intervention was performed 5 at min and 16 h after the model was successfully established. Acupuncture was performed at the points of Renzhong (GV 26) and Baihui (GV 20), and electroacupuncture treatment was applied for 30 mins. The samples were collected 7 h after the second electroacupuncture treatment, and the serum of the rats was used for reserve. 2) Cell experiment: The rat cerebral cortex neuron cells were divided into control group, model group, electroacupuncture group, hMOF inhibitor group and Sirt1 inhibitor group. All cells were deprived of oxygen and sugar for 3 h and then re-oxygenated and re-glycated for 24 h except the control group. Meanwhile, all these cells were treated with 2% electroacupuncture serum, 15 g/L hMOF siRNA and 8 g/L Sirt1 siRNA. Cell proliferation was measured by using CCK-8 after 48 h of cell treatment. Cell apoptosis was measured by using flow cytometry after 48 h treatment. hMOF, Sirt1, H4K16ac, LC3-Ⅱ, and Beclin1 protein expression in rat cerebral cortex neurons were measured with Western blot assay. The expression of hMOF, Sirt1 and Beclin1 mRNA was detected by using qPCR. ChIP was used to detect the binding degree of H4K16ac of neurons in each group in the Beclin1 promoter region of autophagy target gene. Results Compared with the model group, the cell proliferation activity was significantly increased (P<0.05), and the cell apoptosis rate was significantly decreased (P<0.05). Compared with model group, both electroacupuncture and hMOF inhibitor decreased the expression of hMOF and H4K16ac proteins (P<0.05), and increased the expression of Sirt1, LC3-II and Beclin1 (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between Sirt1 inhibitor group and model group (P>0.05). According to qPCR results, compared with model group, both electroacupuncture and hMOF inhibitor could inhibit hMOF mRNA expression (P<0.05), while Sirt1 and Beclin1 mRNA expression were up-regulated (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, the enrichment of H4K16ac in the Beclin1 promoter region of autophagy target gene was significantly increased in the electroacupuncture group (P<0.05). Conclusion Electroacupuncture serum has a protective effect on OGD/R injured neurons, and its anti-cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury may be that electroacupuncture regulates autophagy by regulating the expression of hitin H4K16ac, thereby reducing cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury and playing a protective effect on nerve cells.
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    Clinical Studies
    Application of focus on identification of pathogenesis in the prevention and treatment of malignant tumors*
    Wang Li, Li Ping
    2021, 44 (4):  374-379.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.013
    Abstract ( 9 )   PDF (855KB) ( 6 )   Save
    Pathogenesis theory is an important component of the theoretical system of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Identification of pathogenesis is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of malignant tumors. From the perspective of accurate diagnosis and treatment and disease prediction, this paper compares pathogenesis and pattern, highlighting the advantages of focus on identification of pathogenesis in the prevention and treatment of malignant tumors. This paper elaborates on the application of pathogenesis theory into the prevention and treatment of malignant tumor combining the theory of constitution and based on the understanding of the pathogenesis of malignant tumor, emphasizing the “adherence to the pathogenesis”, clarifying the development stage of malignant tumor, from the four aspects of “stabilizing and generating, invigorating the vitality, clearing away tumor toxin and disease collateral”, so as to improve the clinical efficacy of TCM in the prevention and treatment of malignant tumor.
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    Exploring the underlying biological rationale for high incidence of eczema in late summer based on the theory of “spleen corresponding to late summer with aversion to dampness”*
    Zhu Pei, Liu Leilei, Sun Yike, Zhang Hairong, Ma Shuran
    2021, 44 (4):  380-384.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.04.014
    Abstract ( 12 )   PDF (745KB) ( 11 )   Save
    Eczema tends to occur in damp heat environment in the season of late summer, and its specific biological rationale is not clear. This paper elaborates the theory of “the spleen corresponding to late summer” from the perspective of seasonal temperature and humidity changes on human being, and analyzes the existing scientific evidence. There is a close link between the theory of “the spleen corresponds to late summer, prefers dryness and dislikes dampness” and immune balance maintained by melatonin regulating NF- κB-mediated Th1/Th2, which is the key factor related to the high incidence of eczema in late summer. In order to reveal the biological rationale of the high incidence of eczema in late summer, this paper also analyzes the important influence of seasonal climate change on human physiology and pathology. Dampness related to external and internal pathogenic factors and immunity is more likely to develop in late summer, which is an important cause of eczema in late summer. It is proposed that the theory of “the spleen corresponding to late summer with aversion to dampness” is related to the seasonal changes of skin NF-κB-Th1/Th2 regulatory chain by pineal melatonin: the external factor leading to the high incidence of eczema in late summer is mainly due to the seasonal changes of temperature and humidity, and the mediator is melatonin. The regulatory mechanism is the seasonal change of Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion mediated by NF-κB in skin.
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