主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R
30 January 2021, Volume 44 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
Voice of Guidance
Theoretical Studies
On “deficient pathogen” in Huangdi’s Internal Classic*
He Juan
2021, 44 (1):  9-13.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.002
Abstract ( 66 )   PDF (879KB) ( 30 )  
The pathogen,also known as “deficient pathogen”,falls into the core category of etiology in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), where there are specific statements of its properties,occurrence,and the timing of disease onset.The pathogen refers to non-seasonal pathogenic qi of natural climate.The concept of deficient pathogen originates from the doctrine of five evolutive phases and six climatic factors.The deficient pathogen,also termed as the alternating qi,refers to the climate deriving from other seasons triggered by qi deficiency due to failure of transportation in the middle jiao. An in-depth analysis of the pathogen and the deficient pathogen is of great significance for interpreting the etiological theory of Huangdi Neijing and giving full play to its role in prevention and treatment of diseases.
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TCM understanding of acute radiation injury from “spleen losing its duty as the guard”*
Wang Lei, Hu Sumin
2021, 44 (1):  14-18.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.003
Abstract ( 26 )   PDF (727KB) ( 9 )  
The etiology,pathogenesis,diagnosis and treatment of acute radiation injury (ARI) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are still being explored.The theoretical system has not been established yet,which greatly limits the application and development of TCM in radiation protection.In the previous studies,we analyzed the Chinese medicine etiology of ARI and named it ionization toxin.Based on the pathogenic characteristics of ionizing toxin,and the theoretical connotation of “spleen acting as the guard”,we conclude that the core pathogenesis of ARI is “spleen losing its duty as the guard”.At the early stage of ARI,the pathogenesis is ionization toxin injures the spleen.When it progresses,spleen loses its duty as the guard,thus leading to various diseases.At the later stages the recovering spleen starts to expel the pathological products.Understanding the pathogenesis of acute radiation injury in TCM sets the theoretical stage for prevention and treatment.
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“Heaven, earth and human” experiential philosophy in yin and yang theory of traditional Chinese medicine*
Liu Ning, Jia Chunhua
2021, 44 (1):  19-25.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.004
Abstract ( 33 )   PDF (921KB) ( 123 )  
As the second-generation watershed of cognitive science,experiential philosophy emphasizes the embodied mind,unconscious cognition and metaphorical thinking.The embodied cognition of yin-yang theory in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is about astronomy,geography and people,which are mentioned in Su Wen (Plain Questions) called “heaven,earth and human” cognitive metaphor pattern for the development of medicine.According to this pattern,based on the deconstruction of yin-yang theory,the metaphors of sun and moon,four seasons,water and fire,mountains,men and women,guardians,doors and containers were the most basic metaphors of the connotation of yin-yang theory.It shows that the formation of yin-yang theory is the product of metaphorical cognition of “heaven,earth and human”.Based on this pattern,the same content of yin-yang theory could be derived from different embodied experiences.The contradiction of some contents in yin-yang theory may be caused by different types of metaphor.Taken as a root,yin and yang may be derived from the transmission of the original metaphor.
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On the concept of “nishun” in Huangdi’s Internal Classic*
Zhou Yongjie, Gu Man
2021, 44 (1):  26-33.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.005
Abstract ( 32 )   PDF (1122KB) ( 91 )  
The term “nishun” (ni, abnormality;shun, normality) repeats many times in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic) with two chapters titles containing this term,including the chapters of Nishun Feishou and Nishun of Lingshu (The Spiritual Pivot). It can also be found from the chapter of Bian Que,Cang Gong Liezhuan (Biography of Bian Que and Cang Gong) in Shiji (Historical Records) and the newly unearthed Tianhui medical manuscript on bamboo slips with a chapter named Nishun Wuse Maizang Yan Jingshen that the medical term “nishun” was widely used in pre-Qin,Qin and Han Dynasties.This article analyzed the medical connotations of “nishun” in Huangdi Neijing in detail,and found that it embodied the relationships between natural and human body,physiology and physique,diseases,clinical treatment,as well as taboos,etc.At the same time,Shiji was also used as a reference to explore its medical value clearly.
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Literature Study
Textual research on years of Wang Haogu’s birth and death, completion of his works and whether he had been a disciple of Zhang Yuansu*
Liu Yuzhuo, Wang Yulin
2021, 44 (1):  34-38.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.006
Abstract ( 31 )   PDF (668KB) ( 17 )  
There are very few records about Wang Haogu’s life in the extant historical materials.Therefore,many questions are now still in dispute.From the perspective of historical origin study,this paper collated and analyzed relevant materials and made a textual research on the connotation of the Chinese word “xianshi (late master)”,and this paper concluded that it was an groundless claim made by the editors of Imperial Collection of Si Ku Quan Shu(Four Treasuries) that Wang Haogu had ever studied directly under Zhang Yuansu’s tutorship.Moreover,by means of a chronological approach,this paper ascertained the completion time of Yin Zheng Lue Li(Synopsis and cases of Yin patlerns),Tang Ye Ben Cao(Materia Uedica for Decoltons),Yi Lei Yuan Rong(Clinician is Like a Uillitany Commandor) and Ci Shi Nan Zhi(Uedicine Is A Oifficult Art) by Wang’s works and prefaces.Based on this study,this paper came to the conclusion that Wang Haogu was born at the beginning of 13th century and died after 1308.
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Chinese Medicinal Pharmacology
Effects of Tongyan spray Formula on motility related neurotransmitters in hypoglossal nuclei of rats with dysphagia*
Jian Guoxuejiao, Li Chunrui, Hu Suqin, Guo Jian
2021, 44 (1):  39-44.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.007
Abstract ( 10 )   PDF (2420KB) ( 6 )  
Objective To explore the mechanism of relieving dysphagia by using Tongyan spray formula.Methods Adult Wistar male rats were randomly divided into sham operation group,model group and Tongyan spray formula group.Rats in the sham operation group were only Operated to isolate hypoglossal nerve,and rats in the model group and the Tongyan spray formula group were Operated to isolate hypoglossal nerve and then the vulnus was compressed with hemostatic forceps for 10s to make a model.From the second day after modeling,Tongyan spray formula group was given drugs on the tongue (0.3 mL per time,once a day),and the sham operation group and model group were given the same dose of saline.After administration for 7 days,rat medulla oblongata tissue was collected,Nissl body was detected with Nissl staining,and serotonin (5-HT),Acetylcholinesterase (AChE),p38,Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were detected by using immunohistochemical method.Results Compared with the sham operation group,the expressions of Nissl body,5-HT and AChE were decreased,and p38 and nNOS were increased (P<0.05) in the model group,which referred to the success of modeling.After administration,the expressions of Nissl body,5-HT and AChE were increased (P<0.05),but p38 and nNOS were decreased (P<0.05).There was also a significant difference in the expression of neurotransmitters between the sham operation and Tongyan spray formula group.Conclusion Tongyan spray may relieve the dysphagia due to hypoglossal nerve clamp injury,and its possible mechanism seems to be related to the inhibition of p38 and NO and the increasing of 5-HT and ACh.
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Effect of Shenlin Baizhu San on protein and mRNA expression of TLR2, MyD88, COX-2 in ulcerative colitis rats with spleen deficiency and dampness stagnation pattern*
Li Zihui, Cai Ronglin, Sun Juan, Wen Yinjun, Wang Rui
2021, 44 (1):  45-53.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.008
Abstract ( 18 )   PDF (2635KB) ( 10 )  
Objective To observe the effect of Shenling Baizhu San (Ginseng-Poria-Atractylodes Powder,SLBZS) on the expression of Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2),myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colonic tissue of rats with ulcerative colitis (UC) of spleen deficiency and dampness stagnation pattern,and to explore the mechanism of SLBZS in relieving UC.Methods The model of UC with spleen deficiency and dampness stagnation pattern was reproduced by TNBS/ethanol enema combined with environment at and dietarg intervention.Rats were randomly divided into five groups:normal group,model group,SLBZS group,SLBZS+ TLR2 agonist (Pam3csk4) group,and SLBZS+ TLR2 antagonist (T2.5) group (n=12 in each group for continuous intervention of 14 days).The levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β in the serum were detected by ELISA,the expression of TLR2,MyD88 and COX-2 protein in colon tissue was measured with immunohistochemical method and Western Blot Assay,and the expression of TLR2 mRNA,MyD88 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA in colon tissue of rats in each group was measured by using real time PCR.Results The levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β in the serum of UC rats with spleen deficiency and dampness stagnation pattern were increased (P<0.05),and the expressions of TLR2,MyD88,COX-2 and TLR2 mRNA,MyD88 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA in the colon tissue were increased (P<0.01).After the treatment of SLBZS,the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β in the serum of UC rats were decreased,and the expression of TLR2,MyD88,COX-2 protein and mRNA were decreased,compared with the model group (P<0.01).Compared with SLBZS group,there was no difference in the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β in the serum,and the expression of TLR2,MyD88,COX-2 protein and mRNA in colon tissue,in SLBZS+TLR2 antagonist group (P>0.05).Compared with SLBZS group,the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β in the serum,and the expression of TLR2,MyD88,COX-2 protein and mRNA in colon tissue of SLBZS+TLR2 agonist group were higher (P<0.01).Conclusion SLBZS may significantly decrease the expression of TLR2,MyD88,COX-2 protein and mRNA in colon tissue of UC rats with spleen deficiency and dampness stagnation pattern,and reduce the release of inflammatory factors.It is one of the important mechanisms of SLBZS in the treatment of UC by negatively regulating TLR2/MyD88 signal pathway to reduce intestinal inflammation.
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Kangxian Yixin Formula improved cardiac function in rats with dilated cardiomyopathy via AMPK/mTOR pathway*
Chang Hongbo, Wang Zhentao, Liu Shunyu, Ren Xueping, Wu Hong
2021, 44 (1):  54-59.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.009
Abstract ( 12 )   PDF (1331KB) ( 3 )  
Objective To investigate the effect of Kangxian Yixin Formula (KXYXF) on cardiac function and adenosine 5‘-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway of cardiomyocytes in rats with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).Methods 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group,model group,KXYXF group and captopril group.Rat DCM model was established by administering furazolidone solution.After 8-week intervention,the changes of left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD),left ventricular end diastolic diameter(LVEDd),fraction shortening (FS),left ventricular ejection fraction(LVEF) were measured by using echocardiography;the pathological changes of heart tissue were evaluated with HE staining;autophagy related proteins LC3,Beclin1,p62,AMPK,mTOR and their phosphorylation levels were detected by using Western blot assay.Results Compared with the normal group,LVESD and LVED increased while FS and EF decreased in the DCM model group.Compared with the model group,the rats in the KXYXF and captopril group had decreased LVESD and LVED,and increased FS and EF.The expression of LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin1 protein in the model group was lower than that in the normal group,and p62 protein expression was higher.The expression of LC3-II/LC3-I and Beclin1 protein in the KXYXF group and captopril group was higher than those in the model group,and p62 protein expression was lower.Compared with the normal group,the p-AMPK/AMPK ratio of myocardial tissue in the model group was reduced,and the p-mTOR/mTOR ratio was increased;compared with the model group,the p-AMPK/AMPK ratio of myocardial tissue in the KXYXF group and the captopril group was increased,and the p-mTOR/mTOR ratio was reduced.Conclusion KXYXF could promote autophagy of cardiomyocytes and improve cardiac function in DCM rats,and its mechanism may be related to AMPK/mTOR pathway.
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Using network pharmacology to study the molecular mechanism and validate the key pathway of Kidney-qi pill against Type 2 diabetes mellitus*
Yang Jinwei, Yu Rong, Wu Yongjun, Liu Xiu, Deng Yihui
2021, 44 (1):  60-68.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.010
Abstract ( 13 )   PDF (2137KB) ( 5 )  
Objective To explore the active components,core targets and mechanism of Kidney-qi Pill in treating for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM),based on network pharmacology and preliminarily verify it through in vitro experiment.Methods The TCM database@Taiwan,Chemistry Database and TCMSP database were used to filter the chemical composition and target of Kidney-qi pill.The corresponding gene name of each target was obtained in UniProt database.Then,the target genes of Kidney-qi pill and T2DM were plotted,depending on the relationship between chemical composition and target.The String software was used to construct Kidney-qi pill ingredients-targets network.The DAVID database was used to analyze the pathway enrichment of the interaction gene,and core signaling pathways were performed by using KEGG pathway analysis tool.Insulinoma cell line INS-1 cells in rats were used to establish damage model by using high concentration of glucose.SD rats were administered intragastrically with 8.64 g/kg Kidney-qi pill to prepare medicated plasma,which was then extracted for INS-1 cells experiment.The growth inhibition was tested by using CCK-8 essay.Key signal pathways were validated by using Western blot assay.Results 58 chemical composition of Kidney-qi pill were analyzed.A total of 198 human target genes related to T2DM were obtained.The network analysis indicated that Kidney-qi pill can treat T2DM by regulating AKT1,JUN,TNF and PTGS2 targets,involving phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/ protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway,tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway,Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and hypoxia inducible factor-1(HIF-1) signaling pathway.Kidney-qi pill medicated plasma significantly promoted the proliferation of INS-1 cells,and apparently increased the expression of PI3K,AKT and p-AKT (P<0.01).There was no significant difference in Kidney-qi pill medicated plasma group and 740 Y-P group (P>0.05). Conclusion Conclusion Kidney-qi pill contains herbs of the same or different active ingredients,and this prescription can effectively treat T2DM.Based on the network pharmacology,Kidney-qi pill can promote cell signal transduction,regulate mitochondrial function and energy metabolism.The experiments have confirmed that Kidney-qi pill can affect the expression of PI3K/ AKT pathway related proteins.This research can provide theoretical basis for further experiments and clinical application.
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Chinese Medicinal Chemistry
Comparative study on quality of snow chrysanthemum and its variation type*
Zhuo Bingyu, Wei Shengli, Feng Ziwei, Shi Yue, Ren Mimi, Zhao Ting, Zhang Yuan
2021, 44 (1):  69-77.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.011
Abstract ( 8 )   PDF (2672KB) ( 4 )  
Objective In order to provide theoretical basis for the directional cultivation of snow chrysanthemum,the differences and similarities of different batches of snow chrysanthemum (coreopsis tinctoria nutt.) and its variant type CTv-1 were compared.Methods The morphological characteristics of inflorescence of snow chrysanthemum and CTv-1 were observed under microscope.The tissue structure of corolla and bracts was observed with paraffin section,and the HPLC fingerprints,the contents of marein and okanin,and the total sugar content of the two species were measured by using HPLC and UV spectrophotometry.Results There was no significant difference in the microstructure,fingerprint similarity and the contents of three components between snow chrysanthemum and its variant CTv-1.As for appearance,the tongue shaped corolla of CTv-1 is pure yellow;the flowers are complete and not easy to break,while the snow chrysanthemum is composed of yellow and dark brown.Conclusion There was no significant difference in quality between the two kinds of snow chrysanthemum and CTv-1.The CTv-1 that is not easy to break seems more suitable for tea drink,and the easily broken snow chrysanthemum can be used as medicinal raw material.This study could provide theoretical basis for the directional classification of the use of snow chrysanthemum commodity market.
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TCM Constitution
Treatment of stomach yang deficiency pattern in yang-deficiency constitution with classical formulas based on Ye Tianshi’s medical records*
Ma Han, Wang Qi, Guo Wenqian, Wan Jinyi, Yao Haiqiang
2021, 44 (1):  78-82.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.013
Abstract ( 21 )   PDF (692KB) ( 147 )  
Yang-deficiency constitution is one of the nine basic types of constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),with yang-deficiency of the spleen and stomach disorders as the main pattern that is frequently observed in clinical practices.The ancient practitioners usually used middle yang to refer to the spleen and stomach yang,or simply used spleen yang only while omitting the stomach yang.However,the physiological and pathological characteristics,and treatment methods of the spleen and stomach are different.Ye Tianshi advocated differentiated treatment for spleen and stomach and paid particular attention to body constitution.This paper analyzed the pathogenesis,pattern,therapeutic methods and classical formulas of stomach yang deficiency used by Ye Tianshi for yang-deficiency constitution;and expounded on different levels of therapeutic methods with specific medical cases combined,such as activating and tonifying stomach qi using Da Banxia Tang (Major Pinellia Decoction) and activating and warming stomach yang using Fuzi Jingmi Tang (Aconite and Rice Fruit Decoction),etc.The rules of pattern differentiation and treatment for stomach yang deficiency was summarized with differentiation of constitution,disease,and pattern combined,which might provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of the spleen and stomach diseases.
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Clinical Studies
Clinical effect of Xingpi Jieyu Formula on mild to moderate depression of liver depression and spleen deficiency pattern*
Li Yang, Guo Rongjuan, Zhao Zhonghui, Yu Yao, Guo Jianyou, Yuan Qingjie
2021, 44 (1):  83-91.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.012
Abstract ( 14 )   PDF (914KB) ( 3 )  
To study the effects of Xingpi Jieyu Formula on mild to moderate depression of liver depression and spleen deficiency pattern.Methods 61 patients with depression of liver depression and spleen deficiency pattern who volunteered to participate in the study from July 2018 to January 2019 were randomly divided into control group (30 cases) and experimental group (31 cases) according to the time sequence.The control group was treated with placebo (Xingpi Jieyu granule simulant) and the experimental group was treated with Xingpi Jieyu formula granules.Both groups took 1 dose daily and took separately in the morning and afternoon After 6 weeks of treatment,HAMD-24,HAMA,SDS,SAS,TCM syndrome factor scale scores of depression were compared between the two groups,and the changes of ATP,ADP,amp contents in peripheral blood of the two groups before and after treatment,as well as the occurrence of adverse reactions were compared.Results In terms of clinical efficacy:compared with before treatment,the total scores of HAMD-24,five factor scores of “anxiety/somatization,cognitive impairment,day and night change,block and sense of despair”,SDS score,qi deficiency and qi stagnation pattern scores were reduced in the control group (P<0.05);the total scores of HAMD-24,six factor scores,gastrointestinal and general symptoms,HAMA total scores,somatic and psychological scores,SDS score,SAS score,and pattern scores of qi deficiency,qi stagnation and phlegm dampness were significantly lower than those before treatment in the experimental group (P<0.05).The total effective rate of HAMD score was 93.55% (70.97% markedly effective).In terms of mechanism of action:compared with before treatment,peripheral serum AMP increased in the control group (P<0.05);ATP increased in the experimental group after treatment (P<0.05);in terms of safety profile,1 patient in control group had nausea,and 2 patients in the experimental group had nausea diarrhea.All symptoms disappeared on its own shortly (2-3 days).No cases of liver and kidney injury.Conclusion Compared with placebo,Xingpi Jieyu Formula could significantly improve depression and somatic symptoms of depressive patients,and can increase peripheral blood ATP level.
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Destruction and reconstruction of immune balance in “inflammation to cancer” of chronic gastritis from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine*
Li Yuan, Zhao Ying, Chen Meng, Lin Jie, Li Tao, Zhang Jianglan, Chu Fuhao, Zou Haojing, Su Zeqi, Ding Xia
2021, 44 (1):  92-96.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.014
Abstract ( 18 )   PDF (767KB) ( 135 )  
The growth and decline of yin and yang,and the conflict between healthy qi and pathogenic factor are important theoretical foundations for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to in terpret disease occurrence and development,which is of significance for guiding the understanding of “inflammation to cancer” of chronic gastritis and its prevention and treatment.From the perspective of Western medicine,the imbalance of the immune system is the root cause of tumors,and immunotherapy is hailed as the most promising means for curing cancer.The theories of yin and yang,and healthy qi and pathogenic factor of TCM have much in common with the understanding of immunity in western medicine.Especially in recent years,the idea that tumor immunotherapy should return from “immune enhancement” to “immune normalization” is similar to the core idea of “harmonizing yin and yang,reinforcing healthy qi to dispel pathogenic qi” in TCM.Based on the combination of theories from both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine,this paper aims to promote the theoretical integration and development of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in prevention and treatment of “inflammation to cancer” of chronic gastritis.
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