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    Exploring the mechanism and treatment of lung-kidney impairment in novel coronavirus pneumonia by using the “lung- sanjiao moyuan-kidney” model theory *
    Dong Fei, Liu Hongliang, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 357-362.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.001
    Abstract397)      PDF(pc) (911KB)(129)       Save
    The novel coronavirus pneumonia is mainly characterized by involvement of pulmonary interstitial lesions. Among patients with increased expression of virus in the kidney, lung-kidney impairment tends to manifest from the early stage after onset. For patients with older age and underlying diseases, their lung and kidney seem to be both involved at later stages, which may then develop into multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS). The “lung- sanjiao (triple energizer) moyuan (membrane source)-kidney” theory in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) considers that lung mesenchyme and kidney mesangial membranes are the material basis for triple energizer membrane source to play its role, which is highly consistent with the pathogenesis theory of “[epidemic] pathogens lurking in the membrane source” proposed by Wu Youke in book titled On Epidemic Diseases (Wen Yi Lun). This paper articulates the model theory of “lung-triple energizer moyuan-kidney”, to reason how and why the treatment methods of “treating the upper, [middle] and lower jiao respectively ( fen xiao shang xia)” by Ye Tianshi in the book titled On Warm & Heat Diseases (Wen Re Lun) are widely used and also effective in clinical practice. This model theory may serve as reference for the further application of the TCM classic theories in the treatment of emerging and emergent infectious diseases.
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    Experience of understanding pestilence from the perspective of five-circuit six-qi theory: Reading notes of two supplemented chapters in Suwen
    Wang Yongyan, Fan Yipin, Zhang Huamin, Bai Weiguo, Wang Yanping
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 445-448.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.001
    Abstract375)      PDF(pc) (1248KB)(372)       Save
    The theoretical statements on epidemic diseases in the two originally-lost later-supplemented chapters in Suwen (Plain Questions) suggest that the five-circuit six-qi theory is still of significant reference to the prevention and treatment of pestilence in modern times. Taking three major historical pandemics as example, i.e. encephalitis B in 1974, influenza in 2009 and COVID-19 in Wuhan in 2019, this paper advocates that the TCM community should take the history as a mirror while shouldering the responsibility of preventing and treating epidemic diseases. The circuit-qi theory of the traditional ancient Chinese civilization needs to be integrated with modern ecology, sociology and other diverse disciplines and perspectives to seek the underlying cause of the spreading of pestilence. This paper also summarizes the essential pattern elements and the priority of treatment. Integrated Chinese and Western medical approach is emphasized in the battle against pestilence. The original thinking of holistic manifestation, numbers and changes needs to be highlighted. Under the guidance of ancient Chinese studies, observing the xiang (manifestation) of the disease to discern the underlying dao (way) of treatment should be used to guide the clinical practice.
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    Exploration of characteristics of TCM formulae for novel coronavirus pneumonia based on association rules *
    Ding Xia, Li Yuan, Li Ping, Su Zeqi, Wu Fengzhi, Chu Fuhao, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 449-456.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.002
    Abstract375)      PDF(pc) (1571KB)(128)       Save
    Objective To analyze the prescription characteristics of consensus formulae for the prevention and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Methods We collected the following formulae released from the start of NCP outbreak to February 6, 2020: foumulae in the “Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (Trial)” (3 rd to 5 th ed.) issued jointly by the National Health Commission and the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of PRC; the latest clinically-proven effective prescription Qingfei Paidu Tang (Lung-clearing and Toxin-expelling Decoction) (February 6, 2020 ed.); formulae in the “Prevention and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Beijing” (1 st and 2 nd ed.) issued by the Beijing Municipal Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine; prescriptions approved and released by varied health commissions, traditional Chinese medicine administrations and hospitals at provincial and municipal levels; and prescriptions made public by various medical schools and several prestigious doctors for the prevention and treatment of NCP. The R software (V 3.6.1) was used to analyze the frequency of occurrence of herbs and association rules in formulae for preventive and therapeutic purposes respectively. Results 107 preventive formulae involving 121 herbs were identified. 11 herbs with frequency of occurrence over 20% were Gancao (Licorice Root, Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae), Huangqi (Astragalus Root, Radix Astragali), Jinyinhua (Honeysuckle Flower, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae), Jiegeng (Platycodon Root, Radix Platycodonis), Lianqiao (Weeping Forsythia Capsule, Fructus Forsythiae), Cangzhu (Atractylodes Rhizome, Rhizoma Atractylodis), Fangfeng (Siler, Radix Saposhnikoviae), Baizhu (White Atractylodes Rhizome, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), Lugen (Reed Rhizome, Rhizoma Phragmitis), Guanghuoxiang (Cablin Patchouli, Herba Pogostemonis), and Sangye (Mulberry Leaf, Folium Mori). The core combinations of herbs included Huangqi, Gancao, Jinyinhua, Lianqiao, and Fangfeng according to association rules. There were 115 therapeutic prescriptions involving 203 herbs, of which the following 7 herbs were the most frequently used with frequency of occurrence over 20%: Gancao, Huangqin (Scutellaria Root, Radix Scutellariae), Shigao (Gypsum, Gypsum Fibrosum), Kuxingren (Bitter Apricot Kernel, Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Mahuang (Ephedra, Herba Ephedrae), Lianqiao, and Jinyinhua. The core combinations of herbs included Mahuang, Kuxingren, Shigao, and Gancao according to association rules. Conclusion For the prevention of NCP, the main method used seems to be boosting qi to consolidate the exterior, supplemented by clearing heat, resolving toxins and drying dampness. The commonly used formulae were Yupingfeng San (Jade Wind-Barrier Powder) and Yinqiao San (Lonicera and Forsythia Powder). For therapeutic purpose, clearing heat, resolving toxins, and drying dampness were the major methods adopted. The most frequently used prescription was Maxing Shigan Tang (Ephedra, Apricot Kernel, Gypsum and Licorice Decoction) plus Huangqin and Lianqiao. Treatment should vary according to the progression and stage of the disease with modifications based on complications.
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    Traditional Chinese medical strategy in the management of the corona virus disease 2019 during recovery period *
    Yang Xianzhao, Du Hongbo, He Weili, Zhang Jingfeng, Liu Ning, Cui Jie, Chen Zhengguang, Du Yong, Ye Yong’an
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 363-367.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.002
    Abstract342)      PDF(pc) (749KB)(80)       Save
    It has been more than two months since the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the overall epidemic situation is now under effective control with the number of cured discharged cases surpassing existing confirmed ones. Although the general condition of discharged patients has been improved to a certain extent, quite a number of them still have clinical symptoms and organ injury. Therefore, follow-up rehabilitation treatment for these patients is of great importance. Our team went to Wuhan, the center of epidemic regions, to assist clinical treatment using traditional Chinese medicine. From our experience, we found the course of the disease is relatively long, and that the problem of pulmonary fibrosis is more prominent during the recovery period. Most COVID-19 patients at the recovery stage tend to present with a complicated state of multiple patterns, characterized by dominant qi deficiency, increasing severity of blood stasis together with remaining excess of pathogens. Based on field observations, we hold that the qi deficiency and blood stasis is the core pathogenesis. Therefore, management of COVID-19 patients during the recovery period should target at pulmonary fibrosis as the key pathology by using qi-tonifying blood-activating treatment as the basic principle, combined with methods of clearing away the remaining pathogenic factors. Flexible medicinal modification could help patients recover better.
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    Treatment of acne from perspective of qi deficiency constitution *
    Yang Yang, Ma Yuexiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 436-440.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.015
    Abstract317)      PDF(pc) (787KB)(79)       Save
    In recent years, with the acceleration of life pace and the improvement of living standards, the incidence of acne has increased year by year, with an increasingly more complicated pathogenesis. From the perspective of body constitution, modern medical practitioners have combined the differentiation of constitution, disease and pattern to explore a new approach in its diagnosis and treatment. Studies revealed that in patients with acne, the proportion of qi deficiency constitution had gradually increased. Thus, in this study, in order to improve the efficacy of treatment of patients with qi deficiency constitution, pattern differentiation for patients with acne was explored, as well as the theories on qi deficiency constitution. On basis of that, the survey results of qi deficiency constitution, and the experience of diagnosing and treating acne from the perspective of qi deficiency constitution were summarized. Thus, it was concluded that there were important clinical basis and therapeutic advantages to treat acne from the perspective of qi deficiency constitution.
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    Commentary on the study designs of clinical trials using traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of COVID-19: problems and suggestions *
    Wang Yuguang, Cheng Jinlian, Yan Shiyan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 368-372.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.003
    Abstract299)      PDF(pc) (769KB)(62)       Save
    There has been no specific treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Quite a number of ongoing clinical trials are conducted to search for efficacious medicine against COVID-19. Meanwhile there are concerns about study design rigor,non-specific target and adequate oversight of these trials.This paper analyzed the problems observed in current COVID-19 clinical trials investigating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapies and then offered suggestions for possible solutions. Design of COVID-19 clinical trials should be based on the nature of COVID-19 as an emergent and acute epidemic disease.Investigators should discern the TCM understanding of COVID-19 in terms of its pathogenic factors and mechanism, combining the stage characteristics of the course of acute infectious diseases, while following TCM general understanding of pestilential diseases. Multiple clinical study designs could be employed for different objective set at different stage of epidemic disease, including epidemiological study of TCM patterns, observational study, randomized controlled trials and case studies, etc. TCM should be properly positioned in playing its effective role in intervention with severe and critical cases and not limited to mild or common types only. Meanwhile, surveillance with unified deployment needs to be in place to ensure strong ethical grounds and rigorous scientific research attitude.
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    Review of pattern and treatment of “cold cough” *
    Miao Qing, Fan Yiling, Ma Chong, Cao Qing, Wang Ning
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 482-486.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.007
    Abstract295)      PDF(pc) (1187KB)(113)       Save
    As a commonly encountered clinical symptom, cough may easily develop into chronic cough if treated in an inappropriate way. Pathogenic cold is one of the important causes of cough as is well summarized in the quote “the invasion of cold into the body and drinking cold water impair the lung” from Nanjing (The Classic of Difficult Issues). Descriptions of the pattern and treatment of “cold cough” have been scattered in classics of traditional Chinese medicine and records of clinical practice, but a systematic review is lacking. Therefore, we put forward the following ideas and framework of treating cold cough from the perspective of triple energizer and zang-fu organs. (1)When cold pathogen attacks the lung, Zhisou San (Cough-Stopping Powder), Jinfeicao San (Inula Powder), Mahuang Tang (Ephedra Decoction) and relevant modified formulas should be used according to the severity of the cold pathogen. As for cough caused by cold with fluid retention, Xiaoqinglong Tang (Minor Green Dragon Decoction) and Linggui Zhugan Tang (Poria, Cinnamon Twig, Atractylodes Macrocephala and Licorice Decoction) are preferred. (2)If cold pathogen invades the spleen or stomach in the middle energizer, treatment should be tailored to the spleen, stomach and gallbladder respectively. For cough as a result of attack on the spleen from cold, Lizhong Tang (Center-Regulating Decoction) and similar formulas are suitable. For cough resulting from attack on the stomach by cold, Xiaobanxia Jia Fuling Tang (Minor Pinellia Decoction Plus Poria), Banxia Xiexin Tang (Pinellia Heart-Draining Decoction) and relevant modified formulas should be adopted. For cough with gallbladder heat and spleen cold, we could choose Chaihu Guizhi Ganjiang Tang (Bupleurum, Cinnamon Twig and Dried Ginger Decoction). (3)As for cough due to cold attack on the kidney in the lower energizer, it is key to warm the kidney and dissipate cold with effective formulas such as Erxian Tang (Two Immortals Decoction), Zhenwu Tang (True Warrior Decoction) and Jinshui Liujun Jian (Gold Water Six Gentlemen Decoction). In conclusion, when treating cold cough, we should choose formulas and medicinals based on careful pattern differentiation according to the severity and location of the disease and the affected zang-fu organs.
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    Textual research on the dosage of Kai Xin San in Qian Jin Yao Fang *
    Zhang Lin, Zeng Feng
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 641-644.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.005
    Abstract295)      PDF(pc) (1126KB)(194)       Save
    With Kai Xin San (Joy Powder) in Directory of Famous Formula in Ancient Times as the study object, this paper explored the difference of the dosage in two different versions of Qian Jin Yao Fang (Important Formulas Worth a Thousand Gold Pieces): Song version and Xindiao version. In the textual research, we have taken the characteristics of the above two editions into consideration, and have compared the relevant record of other formulas in Song version. Also, we have referred to the relevant record in the contemporary book Yi Xin Fang as proof. It’s concluded that the original dosage of Kai Xin San (Joy Powder) should be “Four Fen (one Liang) of Yuanzhi (thin-leaf milkwort root, Radix Polygalae) and Renshen (ginseng, Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) respectively, two Liang of Fuling (poria, Poria), and one Liang of Changpu (grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii)”. According to the research result on the medicine tool “Fang Qi Bi” in Research on the Original Dosage in Classical Formula, the dosage is converted to modern measuring unit: Yuanzhi (thin-leaf milkwort root, Radix Polygalae) 13.8 g, Renshen (ginseng, Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) 13.8 g, Fuling (poria, Poria) 27.6 g; and Changpu (grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii) 13.8 g, and the daily administration should be Yuanzhi (thin-leaf milkwort root, Radix Polygalae) 3 g, Renshen (ginseng, Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) 3 g, Fuling (poria, Poria) 6 g, and Changpu (grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii) 3 g.
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    Value of research on text variance in different versions of Qian Jin Yao Fang *
    Fan Lu, Zeng Feng
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 377-380.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.005
    Abstract290)      PDF(pc) (670KB)(141)       Save
    This thesis explores the text variances in three different versions of Qian Jin Yao Fang (Important Formulas Worth a Thousand Gold Pieces) in terms of the following four aspects: medical principle, therapeutic method, prescription and medicinals. Based on that, the disciplinary differences are analyzed, and concluded that historical medical literature has the characteristic of being complex, and the contents have a certain degree of uncertainty. The text variances in academic thoughts among the three versions of Qian Jin Yao Fang have provided solid evidence for tracing the development history, distinguishing between right and wrong, and sorting the ambiguous issues that have existed for a long time. Therefore, the text variances in different versions of Qian Jin Yao Fang could serve as the pointcut for research of the book in a deeper level, which will not only provide advice for clinical practice, but also provide reference for further research on the academic and thinking development history of TCM.
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    Effect of Haizao Yuhu Decoction and its recipe removing antagonistic medicinal combination on the thyroid hormone level and tissue morphology in rats with goiter *
    Lyu Yanmin, Xiu Linlin, Liu Haiyan, Zhang Jingxuan, Li Na, Zhang Chen, Xu Wan, Chen Feng, Wang Xin, Ge Chaoran, Chen Shaohong, Zhong Gansheng
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 393-401.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.008
    Abstract289)      PDF(pc) (1496KB)(59)       Save
    Objective To comparative the thyroid hormone level and histopathological changes of the thyroid tissue in PTU-induced goiter rats treated with Haizao Yuhu Decoction and its recipe minus antagonistic medicinal combination, and to explore whether eliminating antagonistic medicinal combination in Haizao Yuhu Decoction can affect the therapeutic effect. Methods The rats were randomly divided into the blank group, model group, positive drug group (euthyrox), Haizao Yuhu Decoction group, Haizao Yuhu Decoction minus Glycyrrhizae group, Haizao Yuhu Decoction minus Sargassum group, and Haizao Yuhu Decoction minus Sargassum and Glycyrrhizae group. The rat model of goiter was induced with propylthiouracil. Each group was fed with the corresponding drug or decoction. The concentration of serum related indicators was detected, including the thyroid coefficient, thyroid hormone level and its synthesis, transport and regulation. Under light microscope, pathological changes of thyroid tissue in rats were observed, and nucleic number and follicular area in sections were counted. Results Like the positive drug, Haizao Yuhu Decoction was consistent with the positive drug of euthyrox in maintaining thyroid functions and recovering the pathological damage of thyroid tissue in PTU-induced goiter rats. Comparing the thyroid hormone related indicators,the degree of recovery was listed: Haizao Yuhu Decoction group> Haizao Yuhu Decoction minus Glycyrrhizae group> Haizao Yuhu Decoction minus Sargassum group> Haizao Yuhu Decoction minus Sargassum and Glycyrrhizae group. Comparing the histopathological changes of the thyroid tissues, the alleviating degree was listed: Haizao Yuhu Decoction group> Haizao Yuhu Decoction minus Sargassum and Glycyrrhizae group> Haizao Yuhu Decoction minus Sargassum group> Haizao Yuhu Decoction minus Glycyrrhizae group. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of Haizao Yuhu Decoction in regulating thyroid hormone level and improving histopathological changes in goiter rats seems to be better than its recipe minus antagonistic medicinal combination, and the Haizao Yuhu Decoction minus Sargassum and Glycyrrhizae tends to have the least effect.
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    Effect of medicated serum of NaotaifangⅡ on microglia polarization induced by LPS *
    Zhang Xiuli, Lei Chang, Liu Yang, Ge Jinwen, Meng Pan, Zhang Junyu, Ren Yongzhen, Zi Dong, Zhu Wei
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 408-413.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.010
    Abstract286)      PDF(pc) (977KB)(36)       Save
    Objective To investigate the influence of medicated serum of Naotaifang Ⅱ on the morphology, M1/M2 polarization markers and inflammatory factors of HAPI cells induced by LPS. Methods The inflammation model of HAPI cell was induced by LPS. The cultured cells were divided into: blank group, model group, Naotaifang Ⅱ group, and minocycline group. Morphology and quantity of microglia were observed by High Content Imaging System. mRNA expression of M1-type markers (MCH II, iNOS, MCP-1, CD11b) and M2-type markers (Arg1, Mrc1, Ym1), pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory factors (IL-4, IL-10, TNF-β) was detected by qRT-PCR. Results Compared with the blank group, in the model group, microglia cell body became larger while showing multipolarization or amoeba type with coarser and shorter synapse; the mRNA level of M1 markers and pro-inflammatory increased significantly (P< 0.01); moreover, the expression of M2 marker Mrc1 and anti-inflammatory factors IL-4 and TNF-β decreased dramatically ( P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in NaotaifangⅡgroup, the cell swelling recovered, the synapses became longer, and the microglia increased. Besides, in NaotaifangⅡgroup, the mRNA expression of M1 markers MHCⅡ, iNOS and CD11b and the pro-inflammatory factors were significantly decreased ( P<0.01), and the mRNA expression of M2 markers and anti-inflammatory factors were significantly increased ( P<0.01). Compared with the minocycline group, the Naotaifang Ⅱ group showed no significant advantage in reducing the expression of M1 markers ( P>0.05), while better effect on lowering the expression of pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α ( P<0.01) except IL-β. Besides, NaotaifangⅡcould better increase mRNA expression of M2 markers Mrc1, Ym1 and anti-inflammatory factors IL-4, TGF-β compared with the minocycline group. Conclusion Naotaifang seems to inhibit M1 polarization, promote M2 polarization by regulating cell morphology, M1/M2 markers and inflammatory factors. It could possibly enhance M2 markers and anti-inflammatory factors better than minocycline.
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    Analysis of the concept of “Zhengqi” in Huangdi Neijing *
    Shi Lingsheng, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 469-474.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.005
    Abstract286)      PDF(pc) (1254KB)(251)       Save
    In modern Chinese medicine, “ Zhengqi”, often juxtaposed with “ Xieqi”,is an important concept in the theory of pathogenesis based on exuberance and debilitation of Xieqi (pathogenic factors) and Zhengqi (healthy qi).However,in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), “Zhengqi” originally meant “Zhengfeng” (right wind), essentially referring to wind in the right direction in the right season. Therefore, it was also an external pathogenic factor in modern sense because of its potential capacity to cause diseases. It was in the Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern dynasties (220 AD-589 AD) when “ Zhengqi” began to acquire its physiological sense. Later, it gradually became clear that the term referred to healthy qi.Its connotation of “ Zhengfeng” was formally replaced with “healthy qi” in the sentence “when there is sufficient Zhengqi inside the body, Xie (pathogen) cannot invade the body” in the chapter “Discussion on Acupuncture Methods”, the original contents of which were lost in history and the present contents were added by scholars in the Song Dynasty to Suwen (Plain Conversation). Since then, it was thoroughly established that “ Zhengqi” denoted antipathogenic physiological factors,providing significant theoretical basis for the modern concept of “ Zhengqi”.
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    Further discussion on the observation,pathogenesis,prevention and treatment of premonitory symptoms of strokeWang
    Wang Yongyan, Zou Yihuai, Xie Yingzhen
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 423-426.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.012
    Abstract284)      PDF(pc) (632KB)(64)       Save
    In order to reduce the morbidity and recurrence rate of stroke, the statement of "to record the clinical manifestations of patient before the occurrence of disease” in the second volume of Wang Qingren's Yi Lin Gai Cuo (Correction of Errors in Medical Works) was reviewed. Based on that, more attention should be paid to the observation of symptoms of stroke aura. By observing Xiang (external signs), the disease can be detected and pattern differentiated. The pathogenesis mainly involves depleted yuan qi, resulting in stagnation of deficient qi, which would be induced to internal wind. The mainly medicinals include Puhuang (cattail pollen, Pollen Typhae), Tianma (tall gastrodis tuber, Rhizoma Gastrodiae) and Foshou (finger citron fruit, Fructus Citri Sarcodactylis), etc. Besides, a prescription for secondary prevention of stroke is put forward.
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    Pathogenic laterality of left- and right-sided colon cancer based on “Left Blood and Right Qi” Theory *
    Lin Xiaoli, Tan Weihan, Zhu Fengyi, Liang Dan, Yan Ran, You Fengming
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 432-435.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.014
    Abstract283)      PDF(pc) (686KB)(57)       Save
    There exist significant differences in epidemiology, molecular biology, histology, genetics and pathological features between left-sided and right-sided colon carcinoma, so the treatment and prognosis differ too. In Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), a theory of “Left-Blood and Right-Qi” states that the left side of the body pertains to blood, and its disorders are mostly related to blood deficiency or blood stasis; while the right side pertains to qi, and its disorders are mostly related to qi deficiency or qi stagnation. Based on that theory, in this paper the pathogenic difference between left-sided and right-sided colon cancer is explored, and suggestion of formula selection is put forward accordingly, Thus providing theoretical evidence for more accurate pattern differentiation of colon cancer.
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    Exploration of relationship between the “simultaneous lung and large intestine pattern” and mucosal immunity based on the “interior-exterior relationship between the lung and large intestine” *
    Zheng Rong, Xu Ruoying, Ke Minhui, Tang Shuihua, Huang Minghan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 487-491.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.008
    Abstract281)      PDF(pc) (1184KB)(79)       Save
    Based on the theory of the “interior-exterior relationship between the lung and large intestine” in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and drawing on the research progress in mucosal immunology of modern medicine, the present paper summarizes the pathophysiological relationship between simultaneous lung and large intestine pattern and the function of lung and intestine as well as mucosal immunity. As lung qi disperses and descends, it makes defensive qi flow around the body surface. As large intestine transports and transforms waste substances from the body, the five zang-organs are in peace and stability. While the normal physiological function of the lung and large intestine is the foundation for body defenses against external pathogenic factors, their abnormal functioning will lead to the lung and large intestine pattern. According to modern medicine, such disease is closely related to mucosal immunity. It is believed that immunoglobulins and cytokines in the mucosal immune system might play a role in affecting both the lung and large intestine at the same time, and the selective homing mechanism could explain the transmission of the disease between the two. The present research hopes to shed some light on the clinical treatment of the lung and large intestine pattern by exploring the relationship between the disease and mucosal immunity from the perspective of the TCM theory of the “interior-exterior relationship between the lung and large intestine”.
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    Study on citations of Chinese medical literatures related to Shang Han Lun and Jingui Yaolue in Euibangyoochui
    Huang Yinghua, Liang Yongxuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 381-385.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.006
    Abstract280)      PDF(pc) (756KB)(41)       Save
    Euibangyoochui (Yi Fang Lei Ju) is a large-scale medical book compiled by the government of Chosun Dynasty in 1445 AD. It quotes 152 kinds of Chinese medical classics and one kind of Koryo’s medical work. Based on the categories of literature related to Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage) and Jingui Yaolue (Synopsis of Golden Chamber) listed in General Catalog for Chinese Medical Classical in China and Grand Dictionary of Chinese Medical Classics, this paper attempts to explore the citations of medical literatures related to these two books in Euibangyoochui. First, the general information about the book, such as author and its written time, are determined; then it is comprehensively analyzed combined with other materials. Finally, the relevant quotations in Euibangyoochui are compared to those in Xin Bian Jin Gui Fang Lun, which is the existing earliest version of the base copy of Zhang Zhongjing by Deng Zhen in Yuan Dynasty. Thus the citations of 16 kinds of medical literatures related to Shang Han Lun and one book related to Jingui Yaolue are analyzed and evaluated.
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    Protective effect and mechanism of Wuzi Yanzong Pill in rat sertoli cells under heat stress *
    Liu Sijia, Chen Yucai, Hu Suqin, Li Chunrui, Guo Jian
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 386-392.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.007
    Abstract278)      PDF(pc) (6581KB)(64)       Save
    Objective To explore the pharmacological mechanism of Wuzi Yanzong Pill in the treatment of male spermatogenic dysfunction by network pharmacology in rat sertoli cells. Methods Targets of anti-spermatogenic dysfunction in Wuzi Yanzong Pill were screened and the biological function and signal pathway were analyzed by online database. The heat stress model was constructed with rat sertoli cells to detect changes in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the expression of Hsp70. Results The results of network pharmacology showed that Wuzi Yanzong Pill mainly improved male spermatogenesis dysfunction by regulating ROS level and extracellular stimulus response etc. The ROS fluorescence probe results showed that, compared with the blank group, the ROS production was significantly increased in the model group, and significantly decreased in the Wuzi Yanzong Pill group. Western blot results showed that the expression of Hsp70 in Wuzi Yanzong Pill group was higher than that in the blank group and lower than that in the model group. Conclusion Wuzi Yanzong Pill seems to protect rat sertoli cells under heat stress by reducing ROS production and Hsp70 expression.
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    Analysis of distribution characteristics of TCM body constitution types in Chinese population based on data of 108 015 cases *
    Bai Minghua, Wang Ji, Zheng Yanfei, Li Yingshuai, Hou Shujuan, Li Lingru, Zhang Yan, Wang Qi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 498-507.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.010
    Abstract275)      PDF(pc) (1235KB)(153)       Save
    Objective To collect data of TCM body constitution of Chinese population aged 15 and above, and to analyze and describe the distribution characteristics of their TCM body constitution types. Methods Data of 108 015 cases were collected using Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (for Adults) and Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (for the Elderly) via the internet and terminal equipment, and distribution characteristics of body constitution types were analyzed from such perspectives as the whole sample population, gender, age and region. In addition, the representativeness and distribution of data were analyzed with χ 2 test. Results There was statistically significant difference in sex ratio but not in age structure between the sample population and the whole population of China in 2015. In the sample population on the whole, the proportion of people with gentleness (balanced) constitution type was 28.98%, and those with 8 imbalanced constitution types accounted for 71.02%, the top three types being yang-deficiency type (16.41%), qi-deficiency type (13.18%) and wetness-heat (damp-heat) type (10.23%). In the 15-64 age group, those with gentleness constitution type made up 28.80%, and those with 8 imbalanced constitution types 71.20%, the top three types being yang-deficiency type (16.75%), qi-deficiency type (13.57%) and wetness-heat type (11.30%). In the group aged above 64, people with gentleness constitution type added up to 30.25%, and those with 8 imbalanced types 69.75%, the top three types being yin-deficiency type (14.04%), yang-deficiency type (13.97%), and phlegm-wetness (phlegm-damp) type (10.70%), followed by qi-deficiency type (10.39%). There were significant differences in body constitution type distribution between different gender, age and region groups. Conclusion The age structure of the sample population is consistent with that of the whole population of China in 2015, meaning the former is representative of the latter from this perspective. The proportion of people with gentleness constitution type in each age group was smaller than 1/3 of the whole group and smaller than that 10 years ago, while the proportion of those with imbalanced constitution types increased. The top 3 imbalanced types in the whole sample population were yang-deficiency type, qi-deficiency type and wetness-heat type, the sequence of which was different from that 10 years ago. Constitution distribution patterns were different for different gender, age and region groups.
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    Conception of life science from the perspective of Chinese medicine
    Xu Anlong, Shi Yuanyuan, Lu Tao, Jiang Miao, Li Feng, Liu Jianping, Li Hongmei
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 623-629.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.002
    Abstract273)      PDF(pc) (1214KB)(153)       Save
    The rise of modern life science has triggered a revolution in thinking and understanding of the essence of life academically. With the rapid development of modern science and technology, the modern biomedicine, represented by precision medicine and system biology, is constantly getting close to the holistic view of life cognition and the thought of the unity of man and nature in Chinese medicine. Although they belong to different academic thinking systems, with the assimilation and high quality of the global human demand for life care, the integration of Chinese medicine and Western medicine is the inevitable trend of future development. In order to promote this integration to be more orderly and quickly formed, this article attempts to propose a new disciplinary concept: Life Science From the Perspective of Chinese Medicine. This concept covers four major elements, namely, matter, energy, information and space-time. In order to promote the development of new medicine based on life science from the perspective of Chinese medicine, the combination point of life view of Chinese medicine and modern science is explored. The initial specific research directions are: the systematic material basis of Chinese medicine life concept, the energy, information, temporal and spatial changes under laws of Chinese medicine life concept, the intelligent training of Chinese medicine big data, and the development of medical engineering equipment for Chinese medicine life concept so that Chinese medicine can serve human health more effectively in the modern environment, realize the integration of Chinese and Western medicine under the framework of integration, and provide the basic support of life science for the establishment of new medicine.
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    On naming COVID-19 in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Liu Tiegang, Bai Chen, Liu Shaoyang, Long Chaojun, Hu Li, Zhao Yansong, Yu He, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 797-803.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.001
    Abstract273)      PDF(pc) (1274KB)(208)       Save
    Through review of national and regional Diagnosis and Treatment Plan of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related literature, this article analyzed the characteristics of COVID-19, and probed into its TCM nomenclature, combining the naming rules for pestilence in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The terms used for COVID-19 in TCM currently include pestilence, cold pestilence, cold-damp pestilence, cold-damp lung pestilence, damp pestilence, dampness-toxin pestilence, warm pestilence, damp-heat pestilence, lung pestilence, wind pestilence, winter pestilence, wind-warm and damp pestilence, wood pestilence, etc. COVID-19 can be generally referred to as “pestilence”in TCM; according to the nature of the symptoms and the characteristics of the pathogenesis, it can be named as “dampness-toxin pestilence” since symptoms of damp nature have maintained throughout the disease course with the pathogenesis of stasis and toxin obstruction; the name of “lung pestilence” according to disease location fails to reflect the lesion site of the disease; the name of “winter pestilence”, “wind pestilence” and “wind-warm and dampness pestilence” according to the time of onset, though in accordance with the definition of warm diseases, does not conform to the characteristics and pathological rules of the disease; according to the five elements motion and six climatic changes, it can be named as “wood pestilence”. At present, it is not suitable to name the disease only according to clinical characteristics, but with increased understanding of this disease, the nomenclature may be further improved.
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    Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia with traditional Chinese medicine based on clinical observation of 111 cases *
    Huang Donghui, Feng Cuiling, Cai Junxiang, Wang Kaiyuan, Xie Dongping, Feng Feng, Song Lin, Wen Minyong, Wang Tonghan, Zhang Zhongde
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 457-462.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.003
    Abstract270)      PDF(pc) (1520KB)(108)       Save
    Objective To report the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) and explore the TCM understanding of this disease including its etiology, pathogenesis and treatment approaches. Methods 111 patients diagnosed with NCP from January 29 to February 11, 2020 were enrolled at Hubei Provincial Hospital of Integrated Chinese & Western Medicine in the city of Wuhan and treated by Guangdong TCM medical team with Chinese medicine decoction or granule on the basis of conventional supportive therapy. TCM treatment was individualized based on patient categories of mild, moderate, severe and critical conditions under the guidance of pattern differentiation principle. Global improvement and symptom relief were evaluated after treatment. Results Among the 111 patients, 37 patients were recovered and discharged. 62 patients were improving. Disease conditions of 3 cases remained unchanged. One patient deteriorated and was transferred to ICU, and 8 cases died (among which, 4 cases died within 12 hours since the Guangdong medical team took them over on January 29). Symptoms of patients with mild and moderate conditions were 100% gone. For severe and critical cases, their symptoms like fever, cough, diarrhea, constipation, nausea and vomiting were significantly relieved. Conclusion NCP falls into the category of epidemic diseases in TCM. Epidemic dampness toxin seemed to be the main etiological factor. Pathogenic dampness encumbering the spleen and epidemic toxin blocking the lung are the core pathogenesis while pathogenic dampness is persistent throughout the disease and may easily transform into heat, dryness and occasionally cold during disease progression. TCM therapies based on pattern differentiation should be offered alongside standard care of modern medicine throughout the course of disease as favorable clinical outcomes are now observed with this integrative approach.
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    Treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating the methylation level of TLR4 gene with Xiaoyao San *
    Xu Huichao, Gao Yan, Chen Hao, Hao Jianheng, Liu Jinfang, Liu Yang, Miao Yuchuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 402-407.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.009
    Abstract269)      PDF(pc) (1762KB)(47)       Save
    Objective To explore the new mechanism of changes in TLR4 gene methylation levels in the treatment of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rats with Xiaoyao San (Xiaoyao Powder). Methods 30 male SD rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group and Xiaoyao San group ( n=10). Rats in the blank group were given normal diet for 28 weeks. followed by injection of normal saline for 4 weeks. In the model group and Xiaoyao San group, liver stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern model was established by feeding the rats with a high-fat and high-sugar diet with stimulations of chronic stress and irregular diets for 28 weeks In the last 4 weeks, the model group and Xiaoyao San group were injected with normal saline and Xiaoyao San solution respectively. At the end of 28 weeks, urine was collected from the three groups, and the liver and hippocampus tissues were taken to make pathological sections. The corresponding indicators were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and hydrogen sulfite sequencing PCR (BSP), etc. Results Compared with the model group, the symptoms of liver stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern were significantly alleviated with a decreased pattern score in the Xiaoyao San group. The numbers of fat vacuoles and infiltration degree of inflammatory cells in liver cells were significantly reduced. The TLR4 mRNA content in liver tissues was decreased, while the methylation level of TLR4 gene was increased ( P<0.05). Conclusion Xiaoyao San may up-regulate the TLR4 gene methylation level and down-regulate the TLR4 mRNA expression in rats with liver stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, thus improving the degree of liver steatosis and alleviating inflammation and other symptoms. This seems to be the new mechanism for the treatment of such condition with Xiaoyao San.
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    Analysis of membrane-source and clinical indications of Dayuan Yin *
    Ma Jiaju, Wang Yuguang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 463-468.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.004
    Abstract263)      PDF(pc) (1193KB)(139)       Save
    Membrane-source (pleurodiaphragmatic interspace) is an important location for the onset of epidemic disease in the body, and Dayuan Yin (Membrane-source Decoction, DYY) a typical formula indicated for the disease. However, the clinical application of the formula is limited by its acrid-warm and drying nature. Based on original texts from Wenyi Lun (Treatise on Warm-Heat Pestilence) published in the Ming Dynasty, as well as understanding by physicians in later generations, this article discusses the essence of membrane-source and proposes that DYY is indicated for critical condition caused by pattern of dampness trapping hidden deep-lying heat in the middle energizer. As epidemic disease is highly infectious with sudden onset and high mortality rate, first priority in its treatment should be dispelling pathogens hidden inside the human body. Owing to its acrid-warm and drying property, DYY can soothe and drain the membrane-source and transform the dampness-heat pattern into pure heat pattern, which corresponds to the idea of defeating the pathogen by transmitting and changing it proposed by Wu Youke, a famous Chinese epidemiologist and the author of Wenyi Lun. Such practice is still in line with the therapeutic principle of dispersing and purging pathogens through different channels separately in the treatment of dampness-heat pattern. Meanwhile, it is also proposed that the treatment of warm epidemic disease should always center on the pathogens. Besides, the indications of DDY are summarized. Finally, the theoretical significance of membrane-source and DDY is discussed in the current fight against the novel coronavirus pneumonia, also known as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
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    Analysis of the origin of the belief that “the heart governs the mind” from the perspective of phylogeny *
    Qi Yuanling, Zhang Qingxiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 475-481.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.006
    Abstract263)      PDF(pc) (1266KB)(89)       Save
    “The heart governs the mind”originates from the chapter of Discussion on Six-Plus-Six System and the Manifestations of the Viscera in the Plain Conversation:“The Heart is an organ, the function of which is like that of a monarch, which is responsible for the mind( shén míng, 神明, referring to the higher nervous activities that are governed by the heart including spirit, consciousness, and thinking.”Hence, that the heart governs the mind is a summary of the physiological function of the heart. When exploring the phylogenetic explanation of the origin of the statement, we discovered that the connotation of the mind evolved from the mind (law) of the nature to the mind of the human. Drawing upon the essence of the mind (law) of the nature and the feudal bureaucracy on the basis of“being authorized by the heaven (nature)”,and incorporating ancient Chinese philosophy, Chinese physicians in the ancient times formed the concept that the heart houses the mind, meaning the mind of the heart governs and manifests life, and is also home to spirit, consciousness and emotion. Based on relevant anatomic findings, the formation of the belief that the heart governs the mind also integrated knowledge of the nature and humanity. It resulted from the application of the holistic concept of traditional Chinese medicine in the formation of the zang-fu theory. To explore the phylogenesis of the idea that “the heart governs the mind” is of great significance for the inheritance of traditional Chinese medicine theory, clinical diagnosis and treatment, and clarification of conceptual confusion in the later generations.
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    Expert guidance on TCM psychosomatic adjustment of epidemic stressExpert Group of Psychosomatic Medicine Branch, China Association of Chinese Medicine
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 373-376.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.004
    Abstract258)      PDF(pc) (669KB)(27)       Save
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    Effects of Huoxue Xiaoyi Fang on ultrastructure of ovarian granulosa cells in rats with endometriosis *
    Shi Guang, Liu Yong, Sun Weiwei, Dong Xiaoying, Han Qian, Bao Meiru, Zhao Ruihua
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 492-497.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.009
    Abstract254)      PDF(pc) (2766KB)(68)       Save
    Objective To investigate the effects of Huoxue Xiaoyi Fang (Blood-moving and Endometriosis-removing Formula, HXXYF) on the ultrastructure of ovarian granulosa cells in rats with endometriosis. Methods Rats were randomly divided into blank group, sham-operated group, model group, and HXXYF group. The latter two groups were formed in the following way. First, rat models with endometriosis were established by allogeneic endometrial transplantation from donors to recipients and recipients were then randomly divided into model group and HXXYF group. After model establishment, while blank group, sham-operated group, and model groupwere given distilled water, HXXYF group was given HXXYF by gavage for 15 consecutive days. Then ovarian tissues of rats in different groups were taken for HE staining to observe follicular development, FSHR polyclonal antibody immunohistochemical staining to locate ovarian granulosa cells, and transmission electron microscopy to observe ultrastructure of ovarian granulosa cells. Results In model group, the numbers of primordial follicles, primary follicles, secondary follicles, and mature follicles were decreased, the numbers of corpus luteum were increased significantly, and granulosa cells were poorly arranged. In addition, ultrastructure of ovarian granulosa cells was severely damaged, and even demonstrated irreversible organelle damage, such as nucleus chromatin margination, mitochondrial vacuolation, and endoplasmic reticulum degranulation.In blank group, sham-operated group and HXXYF group, follicles were all developed at different levels, ovarian granulosa cells were arranged in a regular way, and organelle structure was complete. Conclusion Endometriosis causes serious damage to organelles of ovarian granulosa cells in rats like mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum, and affects follicular development. HXXYF can improve follicular development by reducing ultrastructural damage to granulosa cells in rats with endometriosis.
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    Distribution characteristics of TCM patterns in stable coronary heart disease with dyslipidemia *
    Fang Ge, Ren Qi, Wang Bin, Zhou Xiaowen, Li Xiantao
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 427-431.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.013
    Abstract252)      PDF(pc) (826KB)(39)       Save
    Objective To explore the distribution characteristics of TCM patterns of stable coronary heart disease with abnormal lipid metabolism. Methods Through clinical epidemiological investigation, the distribution characteristics of TCM patterns of stable coronary heart disease with dyslipidemia were analyzed with the multivariate statistical method. Results The principal component analysis of patterns in patients with stable coronary heart disease and abnormal lipid metabolism was carried out. The principal component with eigenvalue greater than 1 was selected, and its cumulative contribution rate was 61.81%. In the factor analysis, 10 common factors were extracted and clustered into four characteristic groups under cluster analysis. Conclusion By frequency analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, the distribution of TCM patterns of stable coronary heart disease with abnormal lipid metabolism can be classified into four types. Most of them are a mixture of deficiency and excess, with deficiency of yin or both qi and yin, and excess including blood stasis and phlegm-dampness, mainly involving the heart, spleen and kidney. This study could provide relevant references for improving TCM pattern differentiation, treatment and clinical efficacy.
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    Early warning on safety risks of Danshen preparation in the treatment of breast cancer *
    Wang Xiao, Lin Zhijian, Zhang Bing, Wang Yu, Mao Qiuyue, Jiang Zhuoxi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 414-422.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.011
    Abstract250)      PDF(pc) (3823KB)(38)       Save
    Objective To explore the safety risk of Danshen (danshen root, Radix et Rhizoma Salviae Miltiorrhizae) preparation in the treatment of breast cancer. Methods Bioinformatics technology was used to screen and analyze the gene chip GSE85871 in the GEO database. The intervention effect of main chemical components of the Danshen preparation on the differentially expressed genes of human breast cancer cells MCF7 was analyzed with the GO function and the KEGG pathway, combined with the literature mining method to sort out the adverse reactions/events of Danshen preparation. Results When Danshen preparation interferes with the MCF7 cells, it could regulate genes such as nerve ligand signal pathway, thyroid pathway, immune regulation, and the expression of CHRM2. The abnormality of this pathway would cause abnormal neurological receptor function, hypothalamic dysfunction (thyroid), and respiratory function (asthma). Conclusion With the approaches of bioinformatics and literature mining, thisarticle explores the early warning of the potential safety risk of Danshen preparation in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. In the treatment of breast cancer with Danshen preparation, more attention should be paid to monitor the patient’s neurological, thyroid and respiratory functions. Thus, this article attempts to provide ideas for further study of the safety issue of TCM preparation.
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    Prevention and treatment strategy of COVID-19 from the perspective of TCM membrane system *
    Yang Guannan, Jiang Xin, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 630-635.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.003
    Abstract241)      PDF(pc) (1192KB)(224)       Save
    For COVID-19, there is currently limited effective therapeutic approach or antiviral drugs at present. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), COVID-19 belongs to the category of “damp plague”, and it can be diagnosed and treated with distinctive pattern differentiation methods. However, its pathogenesis and transmission still needs further exploration. The TCM membrane system theory is a systematical summary of the understanding of “membrane” based on TCM ancient literature and modern medicine. The membrane system is distributed over all body cavities, connects the three jiao and covers all of the membrane-layered structures composed of connective tissue and epithelial tissue in the whole body. This system is regarded as the physiological pathway of qi, water and fire, as well as the pathological pathway of the pathogenic factors. It is believed that the damp-warm-heat pathogenic factors invade the membrane from the external mucosal membrane system of all orifices in the human body, and distribute inside of the body along the inner and outer membrane systems. The abnormality of membrane system is the core factor of the occurrence and transmission of the disease. On the base of such pathogenesis, it is proposed that the principle of prevention and treatment of COVID-19 should be defending the toxic pathogenic factors and dredging the membrane system so as to promote the elimination and excretion of pathogenic factors.
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    Preliminary study on diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome in terms of pattern elements based on latent variable analysis *
    Xing Yu, Lu Qiudan, Shen Lingyu, Liu Haitao, Tong Qing, Huang Haitao, Yang Yan, Zheng Lingqi, Li Hongbo, Xiao Shuangshuang, Xiao Hui, Sun Junjian, Liu Yanxia
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 516-521.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.012
    Abstract236)      PDF(pc) (1200KB)(50)       Save
    Objective To explore the criteria for identifying pattern elements of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to provide evidence for setting TCM clinical pattern differentiation criteria for PCOS. Methods Clinical data of 518 PCOS patients were collected. Latent variable analysis was made to establish TCM diagnostic criterion model of PCOS based on pattern element, after which, diagnoses made using the model were compared with clinical diagnoses made by TCM physicians. Results Both goodness of fit index (GFI) and GFI adjusted for degrees of freedom (AGFI) were close to 1, suggesting that the model was well-fitting. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was 0.063 7, which is≤0.08, indicating that the model was acceptable. The results of consistency test were as follows. TCM diagnosis of the pattern element of disease location or affected zang-fu organ (i.e. kidney, liver, and spleen) could be made when just one symptom in the model manifests itself (i.e. lumbosacral pain, frequent urination at night, and tinnitus for kidney; depression, impatience and irascibility, and frequent or excessive sighing for liver; and poor appetite and digestion, abdominal distention after eating, and diarrhea for spleen, respectively). The rates of consistency between the model diagnosis of disease location and pattern differentiation made by TCM physicians were 71.6%, 88%, and 77% for kidney, liver and spleen, respectively. TCM diagnosis of the pattern element of disease nature (i.e. qi deficiency, qi stagnation, and phlegm-damp) could be made when just two symptoms in one category in the model manifest themselves (i.e. mental fatigue, lack of strength, and spontaneous sweating for qi deficiency; chest tightness, chest and rib-side distending pain, and distending pain of the breasts for qi stagnation; and somnolence, heaviness sensation in the head or dizziness as if the head is wrapped up, and expectoration of phlegm for phlegm-damp, respectively). The rates of consistency between the model diagnosis of disease nature and pattern differentiation made by TCM physicians were 86.3%, 83.2%, and 80.5% for qi deficiency, qi stagnation, and phlegm-damp, respectively. Conclusion The preliminary diagnostic criteria for PCOS based on pattern elements have been set. After meeting basic diagnostic criteria for PCOS, disease locations such as kidney, liver, and spleen can be diagnosed based on just one symptom in the model, and disease nature like qi deficiency, qi stagnation, and phlegm-damp can be diagnosed based on just two symptoms in one category in the model.
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    Pandemic risk factor analysis of COVID-19 and inspirations from its prevention and control
    Wang Yongyan, Wang Zhong, Bai Weiguo, Zhi Yingjie, Wang Yanping
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 621-622.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.001
    Abstract235)      PDF(pc) (1316KB)(750)       Save
    In order to promote effective prevention and control of the pestilence by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), it’s of great significance to explore the main ways of the pestilence epidemic. The most weighted epidemic factor is the environmental degradation. Thus, the application of the Yunqi Theory emphasizing “harmony between man and nature” into the prevention and treatment of the pestilence in clinic would be the best way to gain the common consent of the effect and the decrease of the mortality, which might be a good opportunity to show TCM contribution to the health of the human. Based on the standardization of the operation procedures, it’s further suggested that extraction of key elements in patterns of the disease should be viewed as a breakthrough, combined with various technologies from the network, block data and big data of biological blockchain, thus ushering in the third stage of Chinese epidemiology.
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    Clinical study on TCM pattern differentiation and treatment of brain function change in patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging *
    Yu Lu, Yu Zhihua, Tang Weijun, Huang Pinxian, Dong Ying, Wang Jian, Lin Shuimiao
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 508-515.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.011
    Abstract233)      PDF(pc) (1981KB)(95)       Save
    Objective To explore the effects of TCM pattern differentiation and treatment on brain function of patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods According to the internationally recognized NINCDS-ADRDA Alzheimer’s Criteria, fifty patients with severe AD were enrolled in the study and were randomly divided into Chinese medicine group (CMG) ( n=25) and Western medicine group (WMG) ( n=25). Patients in the CMG were given TCM treatment based on pattern differentiation: patients with heart-qi deficiency received Tiaoxin Fang (Heart-regulating Formula), patients with kidney-essence insufficiency Bushen Fang (Kidney-supplementing Formula) and patients with patterns complicated by phlegm and blood stasis were additionally given Mengshi Guntan Wan (Chlorite Phlegm-Removing Pill) and Xuefu Zhuyu Jiaonang (Blood Mansion Stasis-Expelling Capsule) respectively. Patients in the WMG were treated with donepezil 5 mg once daily. The course of treatment lasted 48 weeks for both groups. Therapeutic effects were observed and compared using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Changes in brain function of the AD patients before and after treatment were also examined and compared with resting-state fMRI. Results After 48 weeks of treatment, 45.00% and 38.89% patients scored higher in MMSE and 30.00% and 22.22% scored higher in CDR in the CMG and the WMG respectively. The results of fMRI demonstrated better connectivity between posterior cingulate gyrus and other brain regions in both groups of patients. In CMG, the improved regions involved primarily the left frontal and parietal lobes, left temporal lobe and occipital lobe, while in WMG, the improved regions included primarily the right hippocampus, the left frontal lobe and the temporal lobes. Conclusion The heart-regulating and kidney-supplementing TCM treatment based on pattern differentiation is effective in improving cognitive function and reducing disease severity of patients with severe AD and enhancing their brain function by increasing connectivity between posterior cingulate gyrus and specific regions in the brain.
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    Similarities and differences in thinking on tonifying the kidney between Zhu Zhenheng and Zhang Jiebin *
    Xi Chongcheng, Tian Dong, Liu Jintao, Zhang Ning, Liu Zhenzhu, Wang Weiguang, Chen Zijie, Zhai Shuangqing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 636-640.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.004
    Abstract226)      PDF(pc) (1184KB)(133)       Save
    As one of the four great scholars in Jin and Yuan Dynasties, theory of Zhu Zhenheng(Zhu Danxi) has great influence on later generations. Zhang Jiebin studied Zhu Danxi’s theory in his early years. While criticizing and inheriting Zhu Zhenheng’s thought of nourishing yin, he became one of the representatives of the warm-nourishing school. Zhu Zhenheng and Zhang Jiebin both attach importance to supplementing kidney essence so as to tonify the kidney; in the selection of medicinals, medicinals from plants and animals are combined; besides, they both take pills as the main drug form. However, their thoughts differ in the following aspects. In warming and nourishing kidney yang, Zhu Zhenheng prefers to use moderate medicinals to generate qi without causing fire, while Zhang Jiebin prefers to use medicinals extremely pungent and heat in nature for quick effect. In nourishing kidney yin, Zhu Zhenheng advocates that yin-nourishing medicinals should be combined with bitter cold ones, then ministerial fire can be cleared; while Zhang Jiebin prefers to combine yin-nourishing, qi-supplementing and yang-warming medicinals to seek yin within yang. In Conclusion, Zhu Zhenheng’s and Zhang Jiebin’s thoughts on tonifying the kidney play a guiding role in the clinical treatment of various diseases with kidney deficiency pattern.
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    Discussion on the TCM concept of pathogenic“wind” *
    He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (11): 885-891.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.001
    Abstract218)      PDF(pc) (1239KB)(120)       Save
    In the TCM etiology theory,wind serves as the first of the six pathogenic factors.Based on the original sentences related to “wind” in Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic),later generations have endowed the “wind”,a climatic phenomenon with many attributes and characteristics.However,the concept of “wind” in Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic) is actually a mixture of multi-layer concepts,which not only could be interpreted in both broad and narrow senses,but also could be classified into being related to either qi transformation or climate.Frequently,“wind” is a general concept for external pathogenic factors,like “wind is the source and leading cause for all diseases”,and “wind is a yang pathogenic factor,thus damaging the upper part of the body first”.While in “if wind dominates,it’s manifested as shaking or tremoring of the body,or constant changing of the condition”,“wind” is a pathological concept indicating qi transformation in Yunqi Theory.In later generations,apart from the connotation of “wind” as one of the six pathogenic factors,the other layers of the concept have been mixed to enlarge the concept of pathogenic wind.It has led to the mystification of the concept,confusion of theory and disconnection from clinical practice.
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    Mechanism of Majie Decoction against allergic rhinitis based on network pharmacology and preliminary verification *
    Wu Jinyang, Zhang Boran, Zhang Yuteng, Zhang Hongchun
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 675-679.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.010
    Abstract216)      PDF(pc) (2179KB)(159)       Save
    Objective To study the mechanism of Majie Decoction (Ephedra and White Mustard Seed Decoction) against allergic rhinitis based on network pharmacology and preliminarily verify it through in vivo experiments in mice. Methods Effective constituents of Majie Decoction (Ephedra and White Mustard Seed Decoction) were selected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP database) based on threshold of oral availability (OB) and drug-likeness (DL). Then corresponding targets of the selected constituents were obtained to form an effective constituents-targets network Targets relevant to allergic rhinitis were achieved based on Digsee database. The intersection dataset of these datasets was analyzed. Then the protein-protein reaction and its effect on the KEGG/Reactome pathway were analyzed based on String database. IL-4 signal pathway were verified by mouse model. Results 53 unduplicated effective constituents, including neobaicalein, panicolin, and 34 important targets against allergic rhinitis, including ESR1, AR, PPARG, PTGS2, DPP4, were obtained. The protein interaction network and enrichment analyses showed that targets of Majie Decoction (Ephedra and White Mustard Seed Decoction) are enriched in various inflammatory factor-related pathways. Animal experiments showed that Majie Decoction (Ephedra and White Mustard Seed Decoction) significantly reduced the levels of serum IgE, histamine and IL-4 in mice with allergic rhinitis. Conclusion The main mechanism of Majie Decoction (Ephedra and White Mustard Seed Decoction) may be relevant to regulation of multiple inflammatory factor-related pathways, especially IL-4 and IL-13.
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    Effects of electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) on AMPK-mitochondria pathway in cardiac cells of rats with spleen deficiency *
    Dong Jiazi, Xue Ya’nan, Wei Yuntao, Zhang Yu, Xu Huanyu, Zhang Lide
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 522-528.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.013
    Abstract214)      PDF(pc) (2417KB)(52)       Save
    Objective To observe the interventional effects of electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) on myocardial mitochondrial energy metabolism and mitophagy of rats with spleen deficiency. Methods Forty-eight SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, ST36 group and non-acupoint group with twelve rats in each group. Rat models with spleen deficiency were established by means of trifactor method lasting 14 days. The rats in ST36 group were treated with electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) for 10 days, and the rats in non-acupoint group received electroacupuncture at non-acupoint on bilateral iliac crest for 10 days. The contents of myocardial ATP, ADP and AMP of the rats were determined with HPLC. The expressions of myocardial AMPK, p-AMPK and microtubule-associated protein 1 LC3-I and LC3-II of the rats were detected by Western blotting. Ultrastructure of myocardial mitochondria and mitochondrial autophagosome of rats was observed using transmission electron microscope. Results Compared with normal control group, myocardial AMP/ATP and LC3-II/LC3-I ratios of rats in model group, ST36 group and non-acupoint group all significantly increased ( P﹤0.01), myocardial p-AMPK/AMPK ratios of rats in model group increased ( P﹤0.05) and myocardial p-AMPK/AMPK ratios of rats in ST36 group significantly increased ( P﹤0.01). Compared with model group, myocardial LC3-II/LC3-I ratios of rats in ST36 group significantly increased ( P﹤0.01). While rats in model group suffered obvious mitochondrial damage, those in ST36 group experienced some improvement with the emergence of a large number of mitochondrial autophagosomes. Conclusion Electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) may be effective in treating rats with spleen deficiency pattern by activating their myocardial AMPK and regulating their myocardial mitochondrial energy metabolism and mitophagy.
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    On “deficient pathogen” in Huangdi’s Internal Classic *
    He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (1): 9-13.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.002
    Abstract188)      PDF(pc) (879KB)(77)       Save
    The pathogen,also known as “deficient pathogen”,falls into the core category of etiology in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), where there are specific statements of its properties,occurrence,and the timing of disease onset.The pathogen refers to non-seasonal pathogenic qi of natural climate.The concept of deficient pathogen originates from the doctrine of five evolutive phases and six climatic factors.The deficient pathogen,also termed as the alternating qi,refers to the climate deriving from other seasons triggered by qi deficiency due to failure of transportation in the middle jiao. An in-depth analysis of the pathogen and the deficient pathogen is of great significance for interpreting the etiological theory of Huangdi Neijing and giving full play to its role in prevention and treatment of diseases.
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    TCM constitution types of gestational diabetes mellitus and their correlation to complications during pregnancy and childbirth *
    Wang Jingshang, Wu Ying, Liu Xiaowei, Li Yuan, Guo Cuimei, Wu Ying, Yin Xiaodan, Li Xianrui, He Junqin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 696-701.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.013
    Abstract187)      PDF(pc) (1149KB)(62)       Save
    Objective To observe the TCM constitution types of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and their correlation to complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Methods 144 cases who took routine pregnancy check-up in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, were enrolled, including GDM group and control group (no pregnancy complications) ( n=72). The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP) were measured on enrollment. The TCM constitution identification was done on enrollment and before delivery. The occurrence of complications during pregnancy and childbirth were recorded. Results The levels of FBG, HBA1c and GSP in the GDM group were significantly higher than those in the control group ( P<0.01). The proportion of biased constitutions in the GDM group was significantly higher than that in the control group ( P<0.01). On enrollment, the most common TCM constitution types in the GDM group were Yin Deficiency Constitution and Phlegm-Dampness constitution, accounting for 27.78% and 20.83% respectively. Before delivery, the proportion of Yin Deficiency Constitution and Phlegm-Dampness Constitution in the GDM group were 26.4% and 18.1% respectively. The incidence of complications during pregnancy and delivery in the GDM group was significantly higher than that in control group ( P<0.05). Yin Deficiency, Qi Deficiency, Dampness-Heat and Phlegm-Dampness were the four constitution types with the highest incidence of complications during pregnancy and childbirth in the GDM group, which were significantly higher than those in the control group. In the GDM group, the complications rates ofthe Yin Deficiency Constitution were all higher than that of Balanced Constitution( P<0.05). Conclusion Patients with GDM seem to be more likely to have biased constitution types, especially Yin Deficiency and Phlegm-Dampness Constitutions. Meanwhile the incidence of complications during pregnancy and perinatal period in GDM patients with Yin dificiency Constitution seems to be higher than those with a Balanced Constitution. The study provides clinical reference for early prevention and treatment.
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    Protective effect and mechanism of chebulagic acid on H9C2 cells injury induced by aconitine *
    Han Shu, Liu Shuai, Zhang Qiao, Zhi Meiru, Liu Kaiyang, Tang Ya’nan, Han Xitao, Liu Ziqin, Li Fei, Du Hong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 645-652.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.006
    Abstract178)      PDF(pc) (4056KB)(58)       Save
    Objective To investigate the toxicity of aconitine to H9C2 cells by HCA, and to further explore the effect of chebulagic acid, the active component of He Zi (medicine terminalia fruit, Fructus Chebulae), on the cardiotoxicity induced by aconitine, and to explore its mechanism in reducing the toxicity of He Zi (medicine terminalia fruit, Fructus Chebulae). Methods Different concentrations of aconitine, chebulagic acid and aconitine + chebulagic acid were used to act on H9C2 cells respectively. Hoechst 33258 and other fluorescent probes were used to dye the cells. HCA technology was used to detect and analyze the effects of drugs of different concentrations on the number of H9C2 cells, the area of nucleus, the DNA content of nucleus, the fluorescence intensity of Ca 2+ and the influence on function of mitochondria. Results 10,20 μmol/L aconitine caused Ca 2 + overload in cardiomyocytes; 20 μmol/L aconitine caused mitochondrial dysfunction of cardiomyocytes in varying degrees after acting on cardiomyocytes for 24 hours; 5,10,20 μmol/L chebulagic acid had no obvious toxicity when acting on H9C2 cells alone; 10,20 μmol/L of chebulagic acid combined with 20 μmol/L aconitine restored the mitochondrial function and significantly reduced the fluorescence intensity of Ca 2+, compared with using aconitine alone. Compared with the control group, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions Aconitine causes calcium overload and mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes, which may be the main cause of cardiotoxicity induced by aconitine. Chebulagic acid in He Zi (medicine terminalia fruit, Fructus Chebulae) seems to inhibit the Ca 2 + overload induced by aconitine, improve the mitochondrial function, and detoxify aconitine.
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    New insights into TCM pattern differentiation and treatment of sound abnormality after thyroid surgery *
    Li Lijing, Peng Jing, Cao Lishuang, Xia Zhongyuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 702-705.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.014
    Abstract175)      PDF(pc) (1176KB)(140)       Save
    Abnormal sound is a common complication after thyroid surgery. At present, there is no consensus on the TCM pattern differentiation or treatment methods. In this paper, it is proposed that such a disorder is caused by recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, different from “throat dysphonia” in traditional understanding. The main etiology and pathogenesis in TCM are interpreted as channel damage in the neck resulting in stasis blocking the throat and malnourishment of the vocal tract. According to the characteristics of its clinical manifestations, it can be divided into patterns of wind-heat-phlegm accumulation, qi-yin deficiency, qi stagnation, and stasis blocking the throat. On the basis of pattern differentiation, prescriptions and medicinals should be selected according to the characteristics of the specific condition, aiming at dissolving stagnation and stasis, activating blood and unblocking channels. The specialized medicinals to promote sound generation can be divided into diffusing and lung-astringing ones, and used according to the duration of the illness.
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