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    Clinical observation of 40 cases of Agkistrodon acutus bite treated with Lianhua Jiedu Tang *
    Chen Jun, Dong Degang, Yan Zhangren, Wang Wanchun, Yi Jun, Mao Wenli, Li Yanfang, Wang Jiangang, Zhang Naixin, Liu Liang, Wang Xi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (12): 1053-1057.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.013
    Abstract674)      PDF(pc) (657KB)(45)       Save
    Objective To observe the clinical effect of Lianhua Jiedu Tang (Bearded Scutellaria Toxin-removing Decoction, LHJDT) on Agkistrodon acutus bite. Methods 80 patients bitten by Agkistrodon acutus were randomly divided into control group and treatment group with 40 patients in each group. While the control group was given conventional Western medical treatment, patients in the treatment group took LHJDT orally in addition to the conventional treatment. During one-week treatment, the average recovery time, the time swelling, pain and ecchymosis took to subside, and the total scores of local symptoms and systemic signs of the two groups before and after treatment were measured and recorded; furthermore, the total effective rates of the two groups were compared. Results The total effective rates were 87.17% and 65.78% in the treatment and control groups respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups of patients in the average recovery time, the time swelling, pain and ecchymosis took to subside, and the total scores of local symptoms and systemic signs on Day 3 and Day 7 during the treatment course. The curative effect of the treatment group was better than that of the control group ( P<0.05). Conclusion LHJDT can inhibit the activity of snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus with definite therapeutic effect, and further clinical application is needed.
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    On naming COVID-19 in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Liu Tiegang, Bai Chen, Liu Shaoyang, Long Chaojun, Hu Li, Zhao Yansong, Yu He, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 797-803.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.001
    Abstract543)      PDF(pc) (1274KB)(290)       Save
    Through review of national and regional Diagnosis and Treatment Plan of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related literature, this article analyzed the characteristics of COVID-19, and probed into its TCM nomenclature, combining the naming rules for pestilence in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The terms used for COVID-19 in TCM currently include pestilence, cold pestilence, cold-damp pestilence, cold-damp lung pestilence, damp pestilence, dampness-toxin pestilence, warm pestilence, damp-heat pestilence, lung pestilence, wind pestilence, winter pestilence, wind-warm and damp pestilence, wood pestilence, etc. COVID-19 can be generally referred to as “pestilence”in TCM; according to the nature of the symptoms and the characteristics of the pathogenesis, it can be named as “dampness-toxin pestilence” since symptoms of damp nature have maintained throughout the disease course with the pathogenesis of stasis and toxin obstruction; the name of “lung pestilence” according to disease location fails to reflect the lesion site of the disease; the name of “winter pestilence”, “wind pestilence” and “wind-warm and dampness pestilence” according to the time of onset, though in accordance with the definition of warm diseases, does not conform to the characteristics and pathological rules of the disease; according to the five elements motion and six climatic changes, it can be named as “wood pestilence”. At present, it is not suitable to name the disease only according to clinical characteristics, but with increased understanding of this disease, the nomenclature may be further improved.
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    Discussion of “macules out of yangming and papules out of taiyin” from the perspective of qi transformation *
    Wu Zhongde, Zhu Xing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (3): 209-214.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.03.003
    Abstract371)      PDF(pc) (852KB)(95)       Save
    “Macules out of yangming and papules out of taiyin” is a summary of the view that “macules are caused by heat toxin in yangming and papules are caused by wind heat in taiyin” proposed by Lu Zixian, a physician in the Qing Dynasty. However, the understanding of yangming and taiyin in later generations was mostly limited to the idea that “the lung governs the skin and body hair, and the stomach governs the muscles”, but neglected the meaning of yangming and taiyin in terms of the six meridians. This paper analyzes the occurrence and treatment of macules and papules from the perspective of qi transformation. Based on analysis and discussion of related previous medical cases, it is believed that both the invasion of yangming and taiyin by pathogens and the deficiency of the two meridians can lead to qi transformation disorder, forming macules and papules. Meanwhile, due to the exterior-interior relationship between yangming and taiyin, macules and papules can be transformed into each other to a certain extent. Therefore, it is necessary to differentiate whether the disease is of cold or heat, deficiency or excess pattern on the whole in clinical practice, so as to seek a better treatment plan for macules and papules.
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    On “deficient pathogen” in Huangdi’s Internal Classic *
    He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (1): 9-13.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.002
    Abstract318)      PDF(pc) (879KB)(120)       Save
    The pathogen,also known as “deficient pathogen”,falls into the core category of etiology in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), where there are specific statements of its properties,occurrence,and the timing of disease onset.The pathogen refers to non-seasonal pathogenic qi of natural climate.The concept of deficient pathogen originates from the doctrine of five evolutive phases and six climatic factors.The deficient pathogen,also termed as the alternating qi,refers to the climate deriving from other seasons triggered by qi deficiency due to failure of transportation in the middle jiao. An in-depth analysis of the pathogen and the deficient pathogen is of great significance for interpreting the etiological theory of Huangdi Neijing and giving full play to its role in prevention and treatment of diseases.
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    Discussion on the TCM concept of pathogenic“wind” *
    He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (11): 885-891.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.001
    Abstract314)      PDF(pc) (1239KB)(163)       Save
    In the TCM etiology theory,wind serves as the first of the six pathogenic factors.Based on the original sentences related to “wind” in Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic),later generations have endowed the “wind”,a climatic phenomenon with many attributes and characteristics.However,the concept of “wind” in Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic) is actually a mixture of multi-layer concepts,which not only could be interpreted in both broad and narrow senses,but also could be classified into being related to either qi transformation or climate.Frequently,“wind” is a general concept for external pathogenic factors,like “wind is the source and leading cause for all diseases”,and “wind is a yang pathogenic factor,thus damaging the upper part of the body first”.While in “if wind dominates,it’s manifested as shaking or tremoring of the body,or constant changing of the condition”,“wind” is a pathological concept indicating qi transformation in Yunqi Theory.In later generations,apart from the connotation of “wind” as one of the six pathogenic factors,the other layers of the concept have been mixed to enlarge the concept of pathogenic wind.It has led to the mystification of the concept,confusion of theory and disconnection from clinical practice.
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    Treatment of stomach yang deficiency pattern in yang-deficiency constitution with classical formulas based on Ye Tianshi’s medical records *
    Ma Han, Wang Qi, Guo Wenqian, Wan Jinyi, Yao Haiqiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (1): 78-82.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.013
    Abstract260)      PDF(pc) (692KB)(207)       Save
    Yang-deficiency constitution is one of the nine basic types of constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),with yang-deficiency of the spleen and stomach disorders as the main pattern that is frequently observed in clinical practices.The ancient practitioners usually used middle yang to refer to the spleen and stomach yang,or simply used spleen yang only while omitting the stomach yang.However,the physiological and pathological characteristics,and treatment methods of the spleen and stomach are different.Ye Tianshi advocated differentiated treatment for spleen and stomach and paid particular attention to body constitution.This paper analyzed the pathogenesis,pattern,therapeutic methods and classical formulas of stomach yang deficiency used by Ye Tianshi for yang-deficiency constitution;and expounded on different levels of therapeutic methods with specific medical cases combined,such as activating and tonifying stomach qi using Da Banxia Tang (Major Pinellia Decoction) and activating and warming stomach yang using Fuzi Jingmi Tang (Aconite and Rice Fruit Decoction),etc.The rules of pattern differentiation and treatment for stomach yang deficiency was summarized with differentiation of constitution,disease,and pattern combined,which might provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of the spleen and stomach diseases.
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    Relationship between the essence of male reproduction and conception based on “kidney governing reproduction” *
    Shi Zhongyu, Chen Xiaoying, He Changhao, Zhang Xiaomeng, Wang An, Wang Lei, Hu Sumin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (2): 108-113.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.02.003
    Abstract258)      PDF(pc) (821KB)(81)       Save
    After thoroughly studying the TCM literature related to the theory of “kidney governing reproduction”, in this paper, the difference between male reproductive essence and kidney essence are analyzed; and based on that, the relationship between male reproductive essence and conception are discussed. The basis of “kidney governing reproduction” is the theory of “kidney storing essence” in visceral manifestation theory, which mainly refers to the kidney’s nature of housing both the innate and acquired essence and essence of zang-fu organs. While the theory of “kidney governing reproduction” is mainly reflected in two aspects. One is the close relationship between the kidney and male reproductive organs; the other is that the kidney can regulate reproductive function of the body by adjusting the essence and qi in the kidney. The differences between the male reproductive essence and kidney essence lie in both their functions and location of storage. Kidney essence, which is stored in the kidney, works to not only nourish and maintain the physiological function of the kidney, but also serves as the material basis for the transformation and generation of male reproductive essence. On the other hand, the male reproductive essence, which of reproductive function and stored in the essence chamber, is to be excreted from the body to join with the female reproductive essence for conception. In a word, the conception and forming of fetus is based on the combination of the male reproductive essence and the female reproductive essence. Therefore, the health of male reproductive essence is a necessary factor for the formation of a fetus, and its abnormality will lead to the deficiency of fetal endowment.
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    On therapeutic characteristics of Shibing Lun and application of Lei’s moyuan-diffusing method
    Huang Ting, Ma Huimiao, Guo Yantong, Cheng Zhiqiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 804-808.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.002
    Abstract257)      PDF(pc) (1228KB)(131)       Save
    Shibing Lun (Treatise on Seasonal Diseases) is a monograph on seasonal diseases written by Lei Feng, a famous epidemiologist in the Qing Dynasty. The book recorded experiences of predecessors’ formulas combining with Lei’s own clinical experiences. This paper summarized the academic ideas and characteristics of the monograph, which are stressing therapeutic methods rather than formulas and adapting therapeutic methods according to changing pathogenesis. Furthermore, this paper also analyzed Lei’s moyuan-diffusing method which is based on Wu Youke’s principle of Dayuan Yin (Moyuan-Diffusing Decoction), and made a comparison between the two methods from three aspects, including background of preparation, the symptoms of different patterns, and the composition of prescriptions. It is found that this method is in alignment with the treatment methods used for Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which also proves that adjusting therapeutic methods according to pathogenesis is the key of the theory. Lei learned from the knowledge of the past without being bound by it, and used his own judgement in the treatment. His academic thought not only has far-reaching influences on shaping clinical thinking of doctors today, but can be used for reference in containing the prevalence of COVID-19. Moreover, many published articles have confirmed that moyuan theory is indeed enlightening in the treatment of COVID-19, which deserves further exploration.
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    Solutions and advantages of TCM constitution to problems in comprehensive healthcare *
    Wang Qi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (3): 197-202.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.03.001
    Abstract238)      PDF(pc) (948KB)(128)       Save
    With the development of economy, society, and China's national health strategy, people pay more and more attention to health problems. This paper provides new elaboration of the definition of comprehensive healthcare, points out some problems and macro countermeasures of comprehensive healthcare, and focuses on the role and advantages of TCM constitution theory in comprehensive healthcare. The paper discusses the relationship between TCM constitution and preventive medicine from the following three perspectives. First, constitution type identification is the starting point of preventive medicine. Second, the correlation between constitution and disease provides the basis for preventive medicine. Third, adjustment of constitution is the means of preventive medicine. Based on such relationship, TCM constitution is widely used in the prevention and control of chronic diseases and public health services. The proposal of the health plan based on the nine types of TCM body constitution provides a way for TCM constitution theory to address problems of comprehensive healthcare.
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    Clinical effect of Xingpi Jieyu Formula on mild to moderate depression of liver depression and spleen deficiency pattern *
    Li Yang, Guo Rongjuan, Zhao Zhonghui, Yu Yao, Guo Jianyou, Yuan Qingjie
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (1): 83-91.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.012
    Abstract221)      PDF(pc) (914KB)(91)       Save
    To study the effects of Xingpi Jieyu Formula on mild to moderate depression of liver depression and spleen deficiency pattern. Methods 61 patients with depression of liver depression and spleen deficiency pattern who volunteered to participate in the study from July 2018 to January 2019 were randomly divided into control group (30 cases) and experimental group (31 cases) according to the time sequence.The control group was treated with placebo ( Xingpi Jieyu granule simulant) and the experimental group was treated with Xingpi Jieyu formula granules.Both groups took 1 dose daily and took separately in the morning and afternoon After 6 weeks of treatment,HAMD-24,HAMA,SDS,SAS,TCM syndrome factor scale scores of depression were compared between the two groups,and the changes of ATP,ADP,amp contents in peripheral blood of the two groups before and after treatment,as well as the occurrence of adverse reactions were compared. Results In terms of clinical efficacy:compared with before treatment,the total scores of HAMD-24,five factor scores of “anxiety/somatization,cognitive impairment,day and night change,block and sense of despair”,SDS score,qi deficiency and qi stagnation pattern scores were reduced in the control group ( P<0.05);the total scores of HAMD-24,six factor scores,gastrointestinal and general symptoms,HAMA total scores,somatic and psychological scores,SDS score,SAS score,and pattern scores of qi deficiency,qi stagnation and phlegm dampness were significantly lower than those before treatment in the experimental group ( P<0.05).The total effective rate of HAMD score was 93.55% (70.97% markedly effective).In terms of mechanism of action:compared with before treatment,peripheral serum AMP increased in the control group ( P<0.05);ATP increased in the experimental group after treatment ( P<0.05);in terms of safety profile,1 patient in control group had nausea,and 2 patients in the experimental group had nausea diarrhea.All symptoms disappeared on its own shortly (2-3 days).No cases of liver and kidney injury. Conclusion Compared with placebo, Xingpi Jieyu Formula could significantly improve depression and somatic symptoms of depressive patients,and can increase peripheral blood ATP level.
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    Analysis of mechanism of inflammation-cancer transformation from damp-heat theory *
    Tian Lin, Lin Cuili, Sun Yueming, Ke Xiao, Huang Minghan, Yang Chunbo
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (3): 215-220.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.03.004
    Abstract216)      PDF(pc) (752KB)(71)       Save
    Damp-heat is a common pathogenic factor clinically, which is characterized by stickiness and greasiness. Inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators constitute the local inflammatory microenvironment. The formation, invasion and metastasis of tumors are based on the persistent existence of inflammatory microenvironment. The characteristic stickiness of damp-heat suggests that it may be an important factor for the persistent and refractory inflammatory microenvironment. At the same time, the transformation into toxin from dampness-heat pathogenic qi is similar to the inflammation-cancer transformation, and there is a close relationship between them. The main pathogenic substances of tumor, such as phlegm and stasis, are essentially from the source of damp-heat, which participates in the whole process of the inflammation-cancer deterioration as an initiating factor. Therefore, on the basis of analyzing the etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory microenvironment, this paper discusses in-depth the pathological mechanism of the inflammation-cancer transformation from the perspective of the damp-heat theory, providing important theoretical basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.
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    Effects of Compound Zhebei Extract (CZBE) on the expression of apoptotic protein and xenograft tumors of human colon cancer oxaliplatin-resistant cells (HCT-116/L-OHP) in nude mice: an experimental study *
    Lyu Peng, Dong Qing, Liu Yu, Li Ruibai, Fan Qiuyue, Chen Xinyi, Hou Li
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 834-840.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.007
    Abstract216)      PDF(pc) (2225KB)(97)       Save
    Objective To observe the inhibitory effect of Compound Zhebei Extract(CZBE) on HCT-116/L-OHP transplanted tumors in nude mice and the expression of apoptotic proteins related to transplanted tumors. Methods HCT-116/L-OHP cells were inoculated into the axilla of BALB/c nude mice to establish L-OHP-resistant transplantation model of colon cancer. After the successful establishment of the model, the transplanted mice were divided into five groups: control group, L-OHP group (3 mg/kg), high-dose CZBE (10 g/kg) combined with L-OHP group, mid-dose CZBE (5 g/kg) combined with L-OHP group, and low-dose CZBE (2.5 g/kg) combined with L-OHP group. Method of administration: CZBE, intragastric administration, once a day; L-OHP, 3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection, once every other day for 2 consecutive weeks. At the end of the experiment, the mice were sacrificed and weighed, and then the tumors were removed completely and weighed to calculate the tumor inhibition rate. The tumors were sliced and photographed. Then the effects of CZBE on apoptotic protein expression of HCT-116/L-OHP transplanted tumors were analyzed by using ImageProPlus 7.0 and SPSS21 software. Results CZBE combined with L-OHP could effectively inhibit the growth of HCT-116/L-OHP transplanted tumors in nude mice. The inhibition rate of high-dose CZBE combined with L-OHP group was 45.031%, which was significantly different from that of L-OHP group ( P<0.05). The inhibition rate of mid-dose CZBE combined with L-OHP group was 37.669%. The inhibition rate of low-dose CZBE combined with L-OHP group was 32.147%. The inhibition rate of L-OHP group was 27.239% in the positive control group, and the survival time of transplanted nude mice was prolonged. Compared with L-OHP group, IOD/Area of Bcl-2 cells in low-dose CZBE combined with L-OHP group decreased( P<0.05), while IOD/Area of Bcl-2 cells in mid-dose and high-dose CZBE combined with L-OHP group decreased significantly ( P<0.01). IOD/Area values of Bax in mid-dose CZBE combined with L-OHP group increased ( P<0.05), while IOD/Area values of Bax in high-dose CZBE combined with L-OHP group increased significantly ( P<0.01). Conclusion CZBE combined with L-OHP can improve the tumor inhibition rate of L-OHP-resistant human colon cancer cell lines and prolong the survival time of Oxaliplatin-resistant nude mice. The mechanism may be to reverse multidrug resistance and promote apoptosis of tumor cells by regulating Bax/Bcl-2 apoptotic pathway.
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    Analysis of “spleen disliking dampness and disgusting dryness” *
    Yuan Yali, Li Xuan, Liu Yong, Niu Xin, Ju Wenxue, Yao Wei
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (2): 114-118.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.02.004
    Abstract215)      PDF(pc) (731KB)(144)       Save
    “Spleen liking dryness and disliking dampness” is a common understanding among TCM doctors in all dynasties. Despite that, based on an analysis of the physiological functions and pathological characteristics of spleen in TCM, Professor Bai Changchuan, a nationally famous TCM doctor, puts forward the distinct view of “spleen disliking dampness and disgusting dryness”. In this paper, based on a detailed review of the concepts of “spleen yin”, “spleen dampness”, “spleen disliking dampness” and “spleen disliking dryness” and their dialectical relationships, the connotation of “spleen disliking dampness and disgusting dryness” is elaborated. Specifically, it is pointed out that spleen yin can be damaged due to excessive usage of dry medicinals to eliminate dampness, or bitter dry or bitter cold medicinals, or excessive consumption of spicy food, or excessive thinking, together with root-branch middle qi theory. It is suggested that the treatment of spleen disorders should be aimed at smoothing and moistening. This theory will provide reference for improving the visceral manifestation theory of spleen in TCM and guiding clinical practice.
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    Study of contraindications in traditional Chinese medicine: pearls for safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicinals *
    Liao Xing, Hu Ruixue, Chen Wei, Hu Jing, Zhao Hui, Xu Haiyu, Wang Yongyan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 814-824.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.004
    Abstract214)      PDF(pc) (1363KB)(100)       Save
    The study of contraindications in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) aims to improve the efficacy and reduce risks in the diagnosis and treatment in clinical practice. Therefore, contraindication is the essential part to study in traditional Chinese medicine. A firm grasp of contraindications in TCM can help prevent known and unknown risks in clinical practice. TCM practitioners should learn about contraindications, which can promote rational use of Chinese medicines, regulate the behavior of clinicians, improve the effects of medical treatment, and reduce adverse events or adverse reactions. The idea of this paper comes from the book Contraindications in Traditional Chinese medicinals, from which commentary is made to summarize pearls for the safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicinals. The purpose of this paper is to put forward the notion that TCM contraindications should be taken into consideration throughout the clinical practice of TCM. There are contraindication rules and regulations to follow in the general principle of diagnosis and treatment. We should not ignore them when we are engaged in clinical practice and scientific research of traditional Chinese medicine. Based on the contraindication theory of TCM, two practical and urgent problems need to be solved at present, which are to improve the existing leaflets of traditional Chinese patent medicine and to establish the contraindication database of traditional chinese medicinals in the hospital prescription information system.
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    On the connection in thoughts of health maintenance between Zhuangzi and Huangdi Neijing *
    Xi Chongcheng, Xie Ying, Tian Dong, Liu Zhenzhu, Zhang Ning, Liu Jintao, Huang Junwei, Wang Weiguang, Chen Zijie, Zhai Shuangqing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (11): 892-896.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.002
    Abstract206)      PDF(pc) (1142KB)(146)       Save
    As the health maintenance thoughts in Zhuangzi and Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic) are interlinked,this article compares such thoughts in these two books and summarizes their similarities and characteristics,so as to further reveal the view of life in Zhuangzi and the health maintenance thoughts in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic),thus guiding the further development of TCM health maintenance.It’s found that in terms of the method of health maintenance,both books advocate nourishing the body through combination of dynamic and static status,and nurturing the shen (mind) with a tranquilized and non-active status,with focus on the latter.In terms of the principle of health preservation,both books support conforming to the natural law of life and death,the law of nature and the moderate way,which is regarded as the highest standard of health maintenance.In terms of the relation between the internal and external of the human body,both books maintain that the internal and external of the human body are equally important and should be nurtured and protected together.
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    Ancient names and theoretical connotation of “menstruation” *
    Wang Zilu, Wang Yanfei, Shi Wei, Li Guangwen, Wang Dongmei, Liu Jinxing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (3): 226-231.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.03.006
    Abstract205)      PDF(pc) (830KB)(75)       Save
    There were many terms with different meanings to refer to menstruation in ancient books on Chinese medicine. To sort out the changes in the names of menstruation and their connotations is very important for correct understanding of the theoretical connotations of menstruation in medical literature. This article reviews a wide range of literature ranging form the four major TCM classics to important literature related to TCM gynecology in the Ming and Qing dynasties, collects and summarizes the names and interpretations of menstruation, and identifies four different theoretical connotations of the names of menstruation in different literature. Some names describe the phenomenon of uterine bleeding, some emphasize the periodic physiological phenomena of uterine bleeding, some refer solely to the blood discharged during menstruation and others mean the fine substances that run in the body to nourish the body.
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    Interpretation of “pills” in the line “the doctor purged it with pills” *
    Song Qiumeng, Liu Ning, Jia Chunhua
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 809-813.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.003
    Abstract199)      PDF(pc) (1223KB)(205)       Save
    Regarding the meaning of the line “the doctor purged it with pills” in Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases), there have been various speculations since ancient time, but no detailed interpretation could be traced. Based on the original text and its context, this article attempted to analyze the nature, action, and composition of “pills” combined with previous annotations. It is deduced that those “pills” might be a class of purgatives that contain violent and even toxic drugs with pungent properties, and their indication is possibly constipation caused by unresolved exterior pathogenic factors entering the exterior of the body. Based on such deduction, two classical medical books of Wai Tai Mi Yao (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) and Qian Jin Yao Fang (Important Formulas Worth a Thousand Gold Pieces) are searched to find corresponding prescriptions, namely, Shenshi Kuaichi Pill, Gujin Luyan Xuming Pill and Kuaichi Pill.
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    Constitution characteristics and Chinese herbal prescription of patients susceptible to new coronavirus pneumonia based on data mining *
    Chen Ziqin, Chen Jia, Chen Bei, Zhang Yanlin, Wang Kunxiu, Luo Zhihui, Gu Xiaolei, Yan Peng, Chen Song
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (3): 238-244.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.03.008
    Abstract195)      PDF(pc) (1835KB)(41)       Save
    Objective To explore the predominant constitution of patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) and the optimal Chinese medicine diagnosis and treatment plan. Methods Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and treated in the Second Hospital of Jingzhou were included in the study. Descriptive analysis was made of the constitution survey of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and statistical analysis was made of effective Chinese medicine prescriptions to mine their core herbs. Results The analysis of the constitutional characteristics of patients susceptible to COVID-19 showed that the proportion of those with wetness-heat constitution was the highest. The statistical analysis of effective prescriptions used during the treatment period of COVID-19 showed that all the effective prescriptions involved a total of 152 herbs, among which the most frequently used was Houpo (Magnolia Bark, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis). It appeared in 51 prescriptions and the most frequently prescribed dose was 15 grams. In terms of the four properties and five flavors of the herbs, the most commonly used are herbs cold in nature (45.55%) and bitter in flavor (41.55%). In terms of meridian tropism, the most frequently entered meridian was the lung meridian (26.28%). In terms of indications, the herbs most commonly used were those to dissolve phlegm and relieve cough and panting (19.39%). Association rules analysis uncovered 5 core herbs and cluster analysis 3 herb combinations. Conclusion The constitution susceptible to the novel coronary pneumonia was the wetness-heat constitution. During the treatment period, both herbs cold and those warm in property were used to regulate both the lung and the spleen. The treatment principles included mainly these to dispel dampness and remove turbidity, and to free and regulate qi movement. The core herbs were derived from the classic formula Dayuan Yin (Membrane-source Decoction) modified to eliminatie internal disease causes, external causes and causes that are neither internal nor external.
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    Practical aesthetics of psychosomatic medicine in cultivating both the body and mind
    Wang Yongyan, Wang Hao, Wang Zixu
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (2): 104-107.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.02.002
    Abstract194)      PDF(pc) (642KB)(69)       Save
    As the original advantages of TCM, “the harmony between the body and mind” and “cultivating both body and mind” embody the holistic view of the principles of Chinese traditional culture. Psychosomatic medicine embodies its practical aesthetics with the idea of cultivating both body and mind and the medical practice, which advocates the beliefs of respecting benevolence and morality, upholding harmony and emphasizing education in traditional Chinese culture. This paper expounds the practical aesthetics of psychosomatic medicine advocating the cultivation of both the body and mind. Firstly, the accumulation of qi forms the body; following the body, shen (mind) generates. The relationship between the body and mind is maintained by “benevolence”, which is the general rule to do a deed. The medical practice of psychosomatic medicine, advocating “the harmony between the body and mind” and “cultivating both body and mind”, embodies the relevance between the body and mind. Secondly, Nourishing shen (mind) requires “keeping a tranquilized mind”, which should be sought in “respect” and cultivating both body and mind. Thirdly, gezhi (studying the nature of phenomena), as one of the carriers of the principles of traditional Chinese culture, guides the understanding of all procedures in TCM diagnosis and treatment by emphasizing “the harmony between the body and mind” and “cultivating both body and mind”. The TCM medical practice, under the guidance of gezhi, reflects the natural beauty of human beings, and the beauty of human nature with physical and mental health, which advocates human relations, respects benevolence and morality, advocates harmony and emphasizes education.
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    Understanding the “eight extraordinary meridians system” in the Case Records as a Guide to Clinical Practice based on the theory of “six compartments of yin and yang” *
    Chen Xu, Jia Bo
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 825-829.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.005
    Abstract193)      PDF(pc) (1168KB)(198)       Save
    The pattern identification of the eight extraordinary meridians reflected in the book titled Lin Zheng Zhi Nan Yi An (Case Records as a Guide to Clinical Practice) includes the theories of “six compartments of yin and yang”, “triple jiao” and “branch, root and center of six qi” in Huangdi Neijing, align with Ye Tianshi’s theory of “defense-qi-construction and blood” and “triple jiao”. The common route of Taichong meridians is from the bottom to the top, or from the root of Shaoyin through Yangming to the top of Guangming, crossing three jiao and three compartments, supplied with defense, qi, nutrient and blood by all the meridians. The essential qi is thus vaporized upwards to the brain. The defensive qi of all zang-organs in the triple jiao diverges into two pathways: one outside the vessels, or defensive qi goes out of triple jiao and flows into six fu organs; the other infusing into the vessels and converge at the extra meridians. The extra meridians are similar to lakes and rivers. They echo with the solitary organ of triple jiao. Interiorly, extra meridians unite the defense, qi, nutrient and blood, govern the three yin and three yang meridians to harmonize yin and yang, harmonize the essential qi and unite six qi; whereas exteriorly, triple jiao governs the defense, qi, fluids and humor, so as to balance heat and cold as well as yin and yang. When extra meridians and triple jiao are harmonious interiorly and exteriorly, yin-yang balance is achieved. By establishing the extra meridian system of Ye Tianshi, it can be used as reference to help us understand the physiology and pathology of traditional Chinese medicine, as well as predict, prevent, diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
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    Analysis of the properties of ancient aromatic Chinese herbs and the application of the theory of “aromatics acting on the spleen” in Huangdi Neijing *
    Huang Hsunying, Liu Zhenzhu, Wang Weiguang, Zhai Shuangqing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (6): 485-490.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.06.001
    Abstract190)      PDF(pc) (749KB)(234)       Save
    The theory that aromatic medicinals act upon the spleen was first put forward in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). It was believed that aroma primarily acted upon the spleen, so aromatic herbs also had a special regulatory effect on the spleen. In this paper, through classifying commonly used aromatic herbs recorded in ancient books on Chinese materia medica, and making statistical analysis of their nature, taste, meridian tropism and efficacy, we further explored the medicinal characteristics of aromatic herbs and their special effects on the spleen. Statistical results show that most aromatic herbs are warm in nature, and pungent and bitter in taste, and they enter primarily the spleen meridian, and secondarily the liver meridian. In terms of efficacy in modern Chinese materia medica, such herbs serve mostly to rectify qi, invigorate blood, dissolve stasis and dissipate wind-cold. It can be seen that aromatic medicinals do primarily act upon the spleen, and their effects are not limited to resolving dampness and inducing resuscitation. In addition, their pungent taste have dispersing and moving effects, their bitter taste can dry dampness, and their warm nature can raise yang. As pungent medicinals open and bitter medicinals direct things downward, aromatics are especially conducive to restoring spleen and stomach’s physiological function of raising the clear and directing the turbid downward, and then maintaining the qi circulation in the five zang and six fu organs. Therefore, the authors argue that the spleen must have played an important role in aromatic herbs’ clinical application to remove dampness and awaken the spleen and even to open the orifices and resuscitate, which also provides pharmacological evidence for the theory that aromatic medicinals act upon the spleen in Huangdi Neijing.
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    Mechanism of paeoniflorin on LPS-induced human chondrocyte inflammation and degeneration based on NF-kB signaling pathway *
    Chen Pu, Ruan Anmin, Zhou Jun, Zhang Xiaozhe, Ma Yufeng, Wang Qingfu
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (11): 903-909.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.004
    Abstract187)      PDF(pc) (1206KB)(88)       Save
    Objective To observe the effects and explore the mechanism of paeoniflorin (PF) on the inflammation and degeneration of LPS-induced human chondrocytes. Methods Discarded cartilage tissues from primary knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty at The Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine from April 2019 to October 2019 were collected and digested into chondrocytes using pancreatin and collagenase.The effect of different concentrations of PF on the viability of chondrocytes was detected using the CCK-8 assay,and appropriate concentrations were selected for subsequent experiments.Chondrocytes were randomly divided into five groups,namely the blank group,the model group,and the low,medium,and high concentration PF intervention groups.Except for the blank group,chondrocytes in the other four groups were induced by LPS to simulate an arthritis environment.In the low,medium,and high concentration PF intervention groups,10,20,and 50 μMol/L PF were given respectively.The expressions of IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α,MMP13 and ADAMTS5 in each group were detected by qPCR assay;and the expression levels of NF-kB p65,IKB and IkK were detected by Western-blot. Results The results of CCK-8 assay showed that 10,20,and 50 μMol/L PF could significantly increase the level of proliferation and viability of human chondrocyte;while excessively high concentration (200 μM) PF could inhibit chondrocyte viability.Further qPCR results showed that PF could significantly inhibit the expression levels of inflammatory factors IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α and cartilage degradation factors MMP13 and ADAMTS5 in human chondrocytes after LPS intervention,compared with the model group ( P<0.05);WB results showed that PF could significantly inhibit NF-kB p65 and IkK expresion and promotes IkB expression ( P<0.05). Conclusion Paeoniflorin seems to inhibit LPS-induced human chondrocyte inflammation and delay cartilage degeneration by inhibiting the activation of NF-kB signaling pathway.
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    Discussion on pathogenesis of “wind-induced” atherosclerosis *
    Han Wenbo, Sun Aijun, Li Hongmei, Wang Xian
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (11): 965-968.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.012
    Abstract187)      PDF(pc) (1071KB)(83)       Save
    Qi deficiency and blood stasis is one of the key pathogeneses of atherosclerosis in the stable period.In the acute episode,atherosclerosis is often characterized by abrupt onset,rapid progress and multiple changes in clinical manifestations.It is similar to the wind pattern in TCM,which is difficult to be fully interpreted from the perspective of qi deficiency and blood stasis.Therefore,in this article the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis of “qi deficiency and blood stasis as the basis,and being further induced by wind” is put forward,which would possibly be the key pathogenesis affecting the progression and outcome of atherosclerosis.
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    Discussion on “deqi” and “qizhi” in moxibustion *
    Peng Ruoxuan, Mao Hongrong, Wu Sai
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (12): 1042-1045.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.011
    Abstract185)      PDF(pc) (625KB)(72)       Save
    The concepts “deqi” (literally, obtaining qi) and “qizhi” (literally, arrival of qi) are not unique to acupuncture, but also relevant in moxibustion. They refer to two characteristic manifestations in the process of moxibustion therapy. “Deqi” is mainly characterized by reddening of local skin accompanied with aching distention and hot pain caused by moxibustion, but these sensations might indicate the arrival of healthy qi or pathogenic qi, and thus may not necessarily suggest the arrival of qi that cures. On the other hand, “qizhi” often involves effective relief of superficial symptoms and improvement of pulse manifestation on the basis of “deqi” clinically. For different patterns, and with different moxibustion methods, acupoints, and supplementation/drainage manipulations, the characteristics and relationships between “deqi” and “qizhi” may vary. Understanding such subtle differences helps practitioners select the appropriate acupoints and methods according to different patterns during clinical moxibustion, and also assess the efficacy of moxibustion.
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    Clinical significance of the statement “the use of all needling methods must be based on shen” as guidance for acupuncture practice *
    Chang Yu, Ma Tieming
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 876-880.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.013
    Abstract185)      PDF(pc) (1227KB)(131)       Save
    The line “all needling methods must be based on shen (spirit or vitality) originates from the chapter entitled Ben Shen in Lingshu (Miraculous Pivot). This statement indicates that basis of shen plays vital role in acupuncture therapy. Treating the shen of the patients is the perquisite key to the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment and this thought should be maintained in the acupuncture clinical practice. By reviewing, analyzing and interpreting all relevant literature by ancient practitioners, this paper offers a summary of the meaning of this statement. During acupuncture therapy, acupuncturists should maintain their own shen and treat patients in an intensive focused state. Meanwhile, patients should also calm down and nurse their internal shen to properly respond to acupuncture intervention and achieve desired effectiveness. These two aspects need to be coordinated to arrive at the goal of treating both physique and mind. From the perspective of rationale, methods and techniques of treating shen, this paper elaborates on how to apply acupuncture on the basis of treating shen by giving details on how to evaluate, regulate, maintain and calm shen, Serving reference to the improvement of acupuncture effectiveness.
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    Huangdi Neijing's theory on Shu and the treatment of Shu Pattern *
    Huang Junwei, Liu Jintao, Shi Yanhao, Wang Weihang, Wang Weiguang, Chen Zijie, Zhai Shuangqing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (5): 392-398.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.05.002
    Abstract181)      PDF(pc) (902KB)(85)       Save
    The term of Shu (commonly known as summerheat) has multi-faceted connotationsin Huangdi Neijing(Huangdi's Internal Classic).Firstly, from the perspective of yin and yang, Shu is a both opposite and unified concept of cold; that is, Shu and cold are the criteria for the differentiation of yin and yang.Besides, warm, Shu, cool and cold correspond to the spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively.What's more, wind, Shu, dampness, dryness and cold correspond to the liver, heart, spleen, lung and kidney respectively in terms of the five organs, and wood, fire, earth, metal and water in terms of the five elements. In addition, in the three-yin three-yang theory, Shu corresponds to less yin, pertains to shaoyin, and is characterized by steaming. Based on these properties of Shu, correspondingly, disorders of Shu are mainly manifested as sadness.As a cause of disease, Shu is mainly “hidden beneath the skin and outside the stomach and intestines”, causing “profuse sweating with opening of the interstitial spaces”; or “metal (lung) disorder” according to the six-qi theory. The diversified discussion of the concept of Shu in Huangdi Neijing has caused conceptual confusion in later generations, mainly among the concepts of Shu, heat, fire and dampness. Shu and heat are two terms referring to the same concept, which are used alternately in Huangdi Neijing. Fire, as one of the five elements, corresponds to Shu. While Shu and dampness are two separate qi which can be seen together in historical periods and regional environment. In terms of treatment of Shu pattern in Huangdi Neijing, it's mainly through regulating the up-bearing and down-bearing of yin and yang, or by following the generating, restraining, counter-restraining, and transforming rules among the five elements. Such a therapeutic thinking pattern is inherited by Li Dongyuan in Qingshu Yiqi Decoction (Summerheat-resolving and Qi-boosting Decoction). In clinical application of the formula to treat most Shu patterns, modifications can be made in accordance to the patient's basic condition. Besides, the Qingshu Yiqi Decoction (Summerheat-resolving and Qi-boosting Decoction) established by Wang Mengying is based on the Baihu Jia Renshen Decoction (White Tiger Decoction Plus Ginseng) in Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage) for the treatment of fluid damage and qi consumption due to Shu.
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    TCM analysis of tongue characteristics in 3,211 patients with metabolic syndrome based on multicenter database *
    Zhu Xiaoyun, Tang Yang, Zhu Lili, Feng Lei, Liu Ximing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 849-858.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.009
    Abstract179)      PDF(pc) (1215KB)(84)       Save
    Objective To analyze the characteristics of tongue in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and provide evidence and support for the correlation between TCM pattern differentiation based on tongue characteristic and basis of human biology. Methods Data of MS patients’ tongue images and their physical and chemical examination results were extracted from MS clinical epidemiological investigation database. SPSS17.0 software was used for descriptive statistical analysis and stepwise logistic regression of the data. Results 3,211 MS patients were included in the study with a male-to-female ratio of 1.06∶1. The number of patients with abnormal levels of blood lipids, blood pressure (BP) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) was the largest (1,050), accounting for 32.70%. The number of those with abnormal levels of blood lipids and BP and normal levels of FPG came next (1,010), accounting for 31.45%, followed by the number of cases with abnormal levels of FPG and BP and normal levels of blood lipids (719), accounting for 22.39%. The average age of the patients was 53.86±10.33 with the majority aged from 40 to 69. The age distribution of men is younger than that of women. The most frequently observed abnormal tongue shapes were enlarged tongue (32.4%), cracked tongue (14.2%) and teeth-marked tongue (11.0%). In terms of tongue color, red tongue (38.2%) was the most frequently encountered, followed by pale tongue (17.0%) and light purple tongue (15.1%). Varicose sublingual vein cyanosis (14.4%) was also seen at a high frequency. The colors of tongue coatings were mainly yellow and white, accounting for 53.9% and 46.0% respectively. Most of the tongue coatings were thin (37.6%), greasy (36.8%) or thick (25.4%). Logistic regression showed that increase in blood pressure was significantly related to enlarged tongue, red and crimson tongue, stasis macules and spots on the tongue, varicose sublingual vein cyanosis and thin tongue coating, etc. Abnormal levels of blood lipids were significantly correlated with light purple tongue, varicose sublingual vein cyanosis, greasy tongue coating, thick tongue coating and glossy tongue coating. Increase in fasting blood glucose was positively related to pale tongue. However, there was a negative correlation between blood glucose and varicose sublingual vein cyanosis, moist tongue coating and glossy tongue coating. Meanwhile, there was a close relationship between changes in tongue image and patients’ physical and chemical examination results. Deep tongue color, stasis macules and spots on the tongue and varicose sublingual vein cyanosis were related to significant increase in blood viscosity. Conclusion Tongue images of MS patients of different types demonstrate different characteristics. Most of them present excess pattern with blood stasis featuring deep tongue color, stasis macules and spots on the tongue and varicose sublingual vein cyanosis. There is consistency and correlation between tongue image and pathogenic factors, physical and chemical examination results and hemorheological parameters of patients with MS, which reflects the influence of multiple factors on MS. The present findings can provide Objective basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment of MS.
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    Destruction and reconstruction of immune balance in “inflammation to cancer” of chronic gastritis from the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine *
    Li Yuan, Zhao Ying, Chen Meng, Lin Jie, Li Tao, Zhang Jianglan, Chu Fuhao, Zou Haojing, Su Zeqi, Ding Xia
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (1): 92-96.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.014
    Abstract177)      PDF(pc) (767KB)(180)       Save
    The growth and decline of yin and yang,and the conflict between healthy qi and pathogenic factor are important theoretical foundations for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to in terpret disease occurrence and development,which is of significance for guiding the understanding of “inflammation to cancer” of chronic gastritis and its prevention and treatment.From the perspective of Western medicine,the imbalance of the immune system is the root cause of tumors,and immunotherapy is hailed as the most promising means for curing cancer.The theories of yin and yang,and healthy qi and pathogenic factor of TCM have much in common with the understanding of immunity in western medicine.Especially in recent years,the idea that tumor immunotherapy should return from “immune enhancement” to “immune normalization” is similar to the core idea of “harmonizing yin and yang,reinforcing healthy qi to dispel pathogenic qi” in TCM.Based on the combination of theories from both traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine,this paper aims to promote the theoretical integration and development of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine in prevention and treatment of “inflammation to cancer” of chronic gastritis.
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    TCM understanding of acute radiation injury from “spleen losing its duty as the guard” *
    Wang Lei, Hu Sumin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (1): 14-18.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.003
    Abstract176)      PDF(pc) (727KB)(38)       Save
    The etiology,pathogenesis,diagnosis and treatment of acute radiation injury (ARI) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are still being explored.The theoretical system has not been established yet,which greatly limits the application and development of TCM in radiation protection.In the previous studies,we analyzed the Chinese medicine etiology of ARI and named it ionization toxin.Based on the pathogenic characteristics of ionizing toxin,and the theoretical connotation of “spleen acting as the guard”,we conclude that the core pathogenesis of ARI is “spleen losing its duty as the guard”.At the early stage of ARI,the pathogenesis is ionization toxin injures the spleen.When it progresses,spleen loses its duty as the guard,thus leading to various diseases.At the later stages the recovering spleen starts to expel the pathological products.Understanding the pathogenesis of acute radiation injury in TCM sets the theoretical stage for prevention and treatment.
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    Equally prioritized and integrated approach to Chinese and Western medicine faciliates the blossoming development of traditional Chinese medicine
    Wang Yongyan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (1): 5-8.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.001
    Abstract175)      PDF(pc) (840KB)(103)       Save
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    Challenges and solutions in the establishment of rat models of gastritis deteriorating into gastric carcinoma *
    Ding Xia, Su Zeqi, Shen Hong, Zhang Ping
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (12): 973-979.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.001
    Abstract175)      PDF(pc) (1483KB)(73)       Save
    Since “deterioration of chronic gastritis into gastric cancer” is the main cause of gastric cancer, active prevention and treatment of such deterioration is of great significance for reducing the incidence of gastric cancer. However, many bottlenecks in model establishment have restricted the development of basic research and application in this field, e.g. the selection of model factors, model preparation methods, model evaluation at different pathological stages, the way of combining WM disease and TCM pattern in model establishment, and model pattern determination. Based on the research findings of the present team in the last 5 years as well as global research progress, problems in the establishment of the animal models of gastritis deteriorating into gastric carcinoma with consideration of both WM disease and TCM pattern were analyzed one by one and possible solutions were proposed. We simulated the clinical features of the multifactorial disease and provided two rat models with MNNG as the main factor. Compared with the existing models, they are proved more in line with clinical characteristics of the disease and yield higher success rates for model establishment and better stability by multiple experiments. They may become powerful tools for animal research in this field.
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    Prevention and treatment of chloasma from the perspective of “preventive treatment of disease” in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Yang Xueyuan, Cai Wanling, Yan Xiaoning
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 870-875.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.012
    Abstract173)      PDF(pc) (1174KB)(128)       Save
    Chloasma has always been a difficult-to-treat disease in the medical and cosmetic community due to its refractory and disfiguring nature. Various treatment methods used in the treatment of chloasma have turned out to be ineffective, which highlights the importance of prevention and management. The etiology and pathogenesis of chloasma should be taken into account throughout the entire treatment process under the principle of “preventive treatment of disease” in traditional Chinese medicine. Early intervention in the occurrence, development, and prognosis of chloasma is beneficial to support the healthy qi, reduce the incidence and improve the curative rate. Specifically speaking, before the onset of disease, adjustment should be made to keep regular hours of daily life, strengthen the physique, avoiding overstrain, and removing triggers etc. Five-phase musical intervention on the basis of constitutional identification can also be offered to prevent the disease from occurring. After the onset of disease, comprehensive therapies should be adopted to prevent the disease from progression; during recovery period, proactive management to consolidate the treatment effects to cure the disease and avoid relapses.
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    Transcriptomics-based research on mechanism of Qishen Granule's regulatory effects on spleen ALOX15/STAT3 pathway to inhibit monocyte release and prevent heart failure *
    Sun Xiaoqian, Ma Lin, Li Yanqin, Lu Xiangyu, Li Xuan, He Hao, Li Chun, Wang Yong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (12): 995-1002.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.005
    Abstract171)      PDF(pc) (3090KB)(49)       Save
    Objective To explore the expressions of the spleen monocyte mobilization-related proteins and pathways in heart failure based on transcriptomic data, and the mechanism of the regulatory effects of Qishen (Astragalus Root and Ginseng) Granule on such pathways. Methods Left anterior descending coronary artery ligation was used to establish the rat models of heart failure after myocardial infarction. The rats were randomly divided into the model group, the Qishen Granule (QSG) group, and the heart failure + spleen excision (splenectomy) group, and the sham operation group (SHAM). Rats in the QSG group were given Qishen Granule (235.2 mg/kg) by gavage for 21 days while the remaining groups were given the same volume of saline. Echocardiographic analysis was made on the rats in different groups to evaluate their cardiac function. RNA-seq technology at transcriptomic level and GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were used to explore the expressions of genes in the spleen. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect the distribution of splenic monocytes and the key proteins ALOX15, STAT3 and CCR2. Results Compared with the sham operation group, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and short axis fractional shortening (LVFS) were significantly decreased ( P<0.01), and the left ventricular diastolic internal diameters (LVID;d) and left ventricular systolic internal diameters (LVID;s) of the model group were significantly increased ( P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the LVEF value of the splenectomy group was significantly increased ( P<0.01), and the LVEF value of the QSG group was also significantly increased ( P<0.05). Transcriptomic results identified 34 differential genes that QSG could regulate. The enrichment analysis of GO and KEGG pathways showed that the above genes were mainly enriched in such biological processes as immune regulation of spleen, leukocyte migration, and antigen processing and presentation. The expressions of CD163 and CD68 of the model group were significantly lower than those of the sham operation group ( P<0.01); the expressions of CD163 and CD68 in the QSG group were significantly higher than those of the model group ( P<0.05). Compared with the sham operation group, the expressions of STAT3 and CCR2 proteins increased and those of ALOX15 proteins decreased in the model group, and the expressions of STAT3 and CCR2 proteins decreased while those of ALOX15 proteins increased in the QSG group ( P<0.01). Conclusion QSG can improve heart function and prevent and treat heart failure by regulating ALOX15/STAT3 pathway-mediated mobilization and release of splenic monocytes.
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    Effect of Shenlin Baizhu San on protein and mRNA expression of TLR2, MyD88, COX-2 in ulcerative colitis rats with spleen deficiency and dampness stagnation pattern *
    Li Zihui, Cai Ronglin, Sun Juan, Wen Yinjun, Wang Rui
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (1): 45-53.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.008
    Abstract169)      PDF(pc) (2635KB)(76)       Save
    Objective To observe the effect of Shenling Baizhu San (Ginseng-Poria-Atractylodes Powder,SLBZS) on the expression of Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2),myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colonic tissue of rats with ulcerative colitis (UC) of spleen deficiency and dampness stagnation pattern,and to explore the mechanism of SLBZS in relieving UC. Methods The model of UC with spleen deficiency and dampness stagnation pattern was reproduced by TNBS/ethanol enema combined with environment at and dietarg intervention.Rats were randomly divided into five groups:normal group,model group,SLBZS group,SLBZS+ TLR2 agonist (Pam3csk4) group,and SLBZS+ TLR2 antagonist (T2.5) group (n=12 in each group for continuous intervention of 14 days).The levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β in the serum were detected by ELISA,the expression of TLR2,MyD88 and COX-2 protein in colon tissue was measured with immunohistochemical method and Western Blot Assay,and the expression of TLR2 mRNA,MyD88 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA in colon tissue of rats in each group was measured by using real time PCR. Results The levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β in the serum of UC rats with spleen deficiency and dampness stagnation pattern were increased ( P<0.05),and the expressions of TLR2,MyD88,COX-2 and TLR2 mRNA,MyD88 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA in the colon tissue were increased ( P<0.01).After the treatment of SLBZS,the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β in the serum of UC rats were decreased,and the expression of TLR2,MyD88,COX-2 protein and mRNA were decreased,compared with the model group ( P<0.01).Compared with SLBZS group,there was no difference in the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β in the serum,and the expression of TLR2,MyD88,COX-2 protein and mRNA in colon tissue,in SLBZS+TLR2 antagonist group ( P>0.05).Compared with SLBZS group,the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and IL-1β in the serum,and the expression of TLR2,MyD88,COX-2 protein and mRNA in colon tissue of SLBZS+TLR2 agonist group were higher ( P<0.01). Conclusion SLBZS may significantly decrease the expression of TLR2,MyD88,COX-2 protein and mRNA in colon tissue of UC rats with spleen deficiency and dampness stagnation pattern,and reduce the release of inflammatory factors.It is one of the important mechanisms of SLBZS in the treatment of UC by negatively regulating TLR2/MyD88 signal pathway to reduce intestinal inflammation.
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    “Heaven, earth and human” experiential philosophy in yin and yang theory of traditional Chinese medicine *
    Liu Ning, Jia Chunhua
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (1): 19-25.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.004
    Abstract165)      PDF(pc) (921KB)(170)       Save
    As the second-generation watershed of cognitive science,experiential philosophy emphasizes the embodied mind,unconscious cognition and metaphorical thinking.The embodied cognition of yin-yang theory in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is about astronomy,geography and people,which are mentioned in Su Wen (Plain Questions) called “heaven,earth and human” cognitive metaphor pattern for the development of medicine.According to this pattern,based on the deconstruction of yin-yang theory,the metaphors of sun and moon,four seasons,water and fire,mountains,men and women,guardians,doors and containers were the most basic metaphors of the connotation of yin-yang theory.It shows that the formation of yin-yang theory is the product of metaphorical cognition of “heaven,earth and human”.Based on this pattern,the same content of yin-yang theory could be derived from different embodied experiences.The contradiction of some contents in yin-yang theory may be caused by different types of metaphor.Taken as a root,yin and yang may be derived from the transmission of the original metaphor.
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    Using network pharmacology to study the molecular mechanism and validate the key pathway of Kidney-qi pill against Type 2 diabetes mellitus *
    Yang Jinwei, Yu Rong, Wu Yongjun, Liu Xiu, Deng Yihui
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (1): 60-68.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.010
    Abstract162)      PDF(pc) (2137KB)(67)       Save
    Objective To explore the active components,core targets and mechanism of Kidney-qi Pill in treating for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM),based on network pharmacology and preliminarily verify it through in vitro experiment. Methods The TCM database@Taiwan,Chemistry Database and TCMSP database were used to filter the chemical composition and target of Kidney-qi pill.The corresponding gene name of each target was obtained in UniProt database.Then,the target genes of Kidney-qi pill and T2DM were plotted,depending on the relationship between chemical composition and target.The String software was used to construct Kidney-qi pill ingredients-targets network.The DAVID database was used to analyze the pathway enrichment of the interaction gene,and core signaling pathways were performed by using KEGG pathway analysis tool.Insulinoma cell line INS-1 cells in rats were used to establish damage model by using high concentration of glucose.SD rats were administered intragastrically with 8.64 g/kg Kidney-qi pill to prepare medicated plasma,which was then extracted for INS-1 cells experiment.The growth inhibition was tested by using CCK-8 essay.Key signal pathways were validated by using Western blot assay. Results 58 chemical composition of Kidney-qi pill were analyzed.A total of 198 human target genes related to T2DM were obtained.The network analysis indicated that Kidney-qi pill can treat T2DM by regulating AKT1,JUN,TNF and PTGS2 targets,involving phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/ protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway,tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling pathway,Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and hypoxia inducible factor-1(HIF-1) signaling pathway. Kidney-qi pill medicated plasma significantly promoted the proliferation of INS-1 cells,and apparently increased the expression of PI3K,AKT and p-AKT (P<0.01).There was no significant difference in Kidney-qi pill medicated plasma group and 740 Y-P group ( P>0.05). Conclusion Conclusion Kidney-qi pill contains herbs of the same or different active ingredients,and this prescription can effectively treat T2DM.Based on the network pharmacology, Kidney-qi pill can promote cell signal transduction,regulate mitochondrial function and energy metabolism.The experiments have confirmed that Kidney-qi pill can affect the expression of PI3K/ AKT pathway related proteins.This research can provide theoretical basis for further experiments and clinical application.
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    Molecular weight distribution of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its relation with anti-inflammatory activity *
    Zhang Xin, Liu Yang, Cheng Yaru, Wang Jiaxin, Gong Yiting, Li Yanping, Yang Dongping, Li Tong, Dong Ling
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (11): 959-964.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.011
    Abstract161)      PDF(pc) (1772KB)(117)       Save
    Objective To establish the molecular weight distribution characteristic map of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs),determine the molecular weight distribution of LBPs,and further explore the relation between the anti-inflammatory activity of LBPs and different molecular weight polysaccharides,by lipopolysaecharide induced RAW264.7 cell inflammation model,thus screening the molecular weight distribution of LBPs related to anti-inflammatory activity. Methods The molecular weight distribution of LBPs was determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography and evaporative light scattering detector (HPGPC-ELSD).No test kit was used to determine the inhibitory effect of LBPs on the release of inflammatory factor in RAW264.7 cell inflammation molde.Grey correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between the characteristic peak area and anti-inflammatory activity of the sample. Results The similarity between the characteristic atlas and the control atlas was more than 0.891 in 16 batches of LBPs.Nine characteristic peaks of molecular weight were isolated.Seven fragments of molecular weight of LBPs were measured,and the molecular weight distribution was between 2-106 kDa.The results of gray correlation analysis showed that the peak 3 (molecular weight:34.6 kDa) had a strong correlation with anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion The method established in this study seems to be stable and reliable,and it could be used to characterize the molecular weight distribution information of LBPs in a relatively accurate way.Peak 3 (molecular weight:34.6 kda) in the characteristic map potentially to be closely related to the anti-inflammatory activity
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    Analysis of TCM prescriptions for chronic heart failure in recent 20 years *
    Shi Jun, Wang Xing, Zhao Huihui, Wang Wei
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 841-848.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.008
    Abstract159)      PDF(pc) (1187KB)(84)       Save
    Objective To explore the characteristics of TCM prescriptions for chronic heart failure (CHF) in the recent 20 years. Methods After screening, 206 formulae were collected, involving 210 medicinal herbs. After data standardization of all included prescriptions, a database of formulae for chronic heart failure was established using Microsoft Excel software. SPSS 17.0 and clementine 12.0 software were used on Windows 7 platform for descriptive analysis and association analysis (Apriori algorithm). Results Statistics showed that qi deficiency was the most commonly seen pattern element of CHF, appearing 158 times in the database of prescriptions, followed by blood stasis (142 times), water and fluid retention (86), yin deficiency (75), phlegm turbidity (68) and yang deficiency (63). The CHF affected zang-fu organs were mainly heart, kidney and lung. The top 10 medicinal herbs frequently prescribed for CHF were Huangqi (Astragalus Root, Radix Astragali) (170), Danshen (Danshen Root, Radix et Rhizoma Salviae Miltiorrhizae) (140), Fuling (Poria, Poria) (128), Fuzi (Monkshood, Radix Aconiti) (108), Baizhu (White Atractylodes Rhizome, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae) (104), Tinglizi (Pepperweed Seed, Semen Descurainiae seu Lepidii) (86), Guizhi (Cinnamon Twig, Ramulus Cinnamomi) (84), Gancao (Licorice Root, Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae) (78), Renshen (Ginseng, Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) (76) and Zexie (Water Plantain Rhizome, Rhizoma Alismatis) (66). Association analysis identified the medicinal herbs and their combinations that were highly correlated with qi deficiency, blood stasis, water and fluid retention, yin deficiency and phlegm turbidity. Further analysis of pairs of highly correlated medicinal herbs demonstrated that CHF treatment incorporated methods of boosting qi, invigorating blood, promoting urination, dissolving phlegm and warming yang, which complemented each other and treated the root and branch simultaneously. Conclusion During the onset, progression and prognosis of CHF, its TCM pattern is in constant change. Its pathogenesis is the root in deficiency with the branch in excess, i.e. the root is heart yang qi (and sometimes yin) deficiency while the branch is blood stasis, water dampness and phlegm rheum. In addition, through analysis, we found a high correlation between pattern elements and medicinal herbs used in treatment. Commonly used herbal combinations were mainly conducive to boosting qi, invigorating blood, promoting urination, nourishing yin, dissolving phlegm and warming yang. Clinically, the physician should, on the basis of thorough understanding of the relation between pathogenic factors and healthy qi, treat the branch in acute cases, and treat the root or the root and the branch simultaneously in mild cases.
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    Effects of Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi on the intestinal flora, inflammatory factors and short-chain fatty acids in db/db mice *
    Mu Guohua, Zhao Zongjiang, Zhou Jingya, Zhao Jinxi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (2): 134-142.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.02.008
    Abstract158)      PDF(pc) (2760KB)(65)       Save
    Objective To study the hypoglycemic effect of Huanglian (coptis, Rhizoma Coptidis) and Rougui (cinnamon bark, Cortex Cinnamomi) on db/db mice, and to explore the mechanism of its effect on the intestinal flora, inflammatory factors and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in db/db mice. Methods Six db/m mice were included in the blank group, and 30 db/db mice were randomly divided into the model group, metformin group, coptis group, cinnamon bark group and coptis and cinnamon bark group ( n=6). In the four treatment groups, metformin (0.23g/kg), coptis (18.2g/kg), cinnamon bark (1.82g/kg) and coptis and cinnamon bark were gavaged with the corresponding drugs respectively, and the control group was gavaged with the same amount of normal saline solution. The body weight of each group of mice was measured at week 0 and 8, and the blood glucose was measured at week 0, 4, and 8. The feces of each group of mice were taken at the 8th week for analysis of phylum flora species and species diversity analysis with Illunina MiSeq benchtop sequencer. The content of acetic acid, propionic acid, and n-butyric acid in feces were detected by gas chromatography. The expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in the liver of mice was detected by Western blot. Results The weight gain trend of the mice slowed down and the hyperglycemia state improved in the coptis and cinnamon group, compared with the model group ( P<0.01). The abundance of Firmicutes was increased, while that of the Bacteroidetes was decreased in the control group and three treatment groups with Chinese medicinals, compared with the blank group. The abundance of Firmicutes was decreased in the three treatment groups with Chinese medicinals, while the abundance of the Bacteroidetes was increased in the coptis group and cinnamon bark group, compared with the control group and metformin group. Regarding species diversity, there was significant difference between the blank group and control group, similarity between the control group and metformin group, similarity among the coptis group, cinnamon bark group, and blank group, while differences between the coptis and cinnamon bark group and any other group. The abundance curve showed that the abundance and uniformity of the intestinal flora of the three treatment groups were lower than those of the other groups. The content of TNFα in the liver of mice in the control group was significantly higher than that in the blank group ( P<0.05), but it was significantly lower in the coptis and cinnamon bark group than that of the control group ( P<0.05). The content of IL-6 in the liver of mice in the control group was significantly increased compared with the blank group ( P<0.05), but it was significantly lower in all the three treatment groups with Chinese medicinals compared with that of the control group ( P<0.05, P<0.01). The contents of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in SCFAs were significantly increased in the coptis and cinnamon bark group, compared with the control group ( P<0.05). The coptis and cinnamon bark group showed a higher mean score compared with the other three treatment groups. Conclusion Huanglian (coptis, Rhizoma Coptidis) and Rougui (cinnamon bark, Cortex Cinnamomi) may help in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes by regulating the intestinal flora, improving the inflammatory response, and increasing the content of SCFAs.
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    Differentiation and modern application of “Shigao” and its confusing varieties *
    Yang Shujia, Huang Zuozhen
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (11): 897-902.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.003
    Abstract157)      PDF(pc) (1158KB)(76)       Save
    In ancient TCM classics,“ Shigao” has been used to refer to various medicinals,and two kinds of “ Shigao” are often mentioned:the soft and hard. Shigao (gypsum, Gypsum Fibrosum) and its confusing varieties are often confused as a result of similarity in alias,character and effect,as well as long-term confused use in previous dynasties.In this paper,the causes for the confusion among Shigao (gypsum, Gypsum Fibrosum) and its confusing varieties,including Lishi,Changshi,Fangjieshi,Ningshuishi and Hanshuishi,are analyzed through review of ancient literature;based on that,their relationships are teased out.Besides,the modern application of Hanshuishi and Shigao (gypsum, Gypsum Fibrosum) are explored with Fengyin Decoction as an example,so as to provide reference for interpretation of ancient books and clinical usage of Shigao (gypsum, Gypsum Fibrosum).Based on the analysis,it’s found that Lishi and Hanshuishi belong to the “soft” type,while Changshi and Fangjieshi belong to the hard type.Ningshuishi and Shigao (gypsum,Gypsum Fibrosum) share the same alias “ Hanshuishi”,but they refer to different medicinals.When Zhang Zhongjing’s Fengyin Decoction is used in modern times,the ingredient “ Shigao” should be Shigao (gypsum, Gypsum Fibrosum),while “ Hanshuishi” can be replaced by Fangjieshi for better therapeutic effect.
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