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    A new interpretation of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” in Huangdi Neijing *
    Zhang Tianxing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 17-20.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.004
    Abstract952)      PDF(pc) (1146KB)(479)       Save
    The statement of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” came from the chapter entitled Yinyang Yingxiang Dalun (Major Discussion on the Theory of Yin and Yang and the Corresponding Relationships Among All the Things in Nature) in Suwen (Plain Questions). Based on the annotations of ancient doctors, this paper put forward the viewpoint of interpreting yin and yang from the aspect of interior and exterior. “Extreme yang turning into yin” means that when the exogenous pathogens are too strong or the exterior is repeatedly influenced by six pathogenic factors, the disease will transmit from the exterior to the interior, injuring qi movement of five zang-organs. “Extreme yin turning into yang” means that when the internal injury is too severe, which leads to deficiency or disorder of internal qi, the exterior will also be involved, resulting in the recurrence of exogenous diseases. The statement that “happiness and anger injure the qi, while heat and cold injure the appearance” describes the law of how endogenous and exogeous pathogens cause diseases, while “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” describes the valatility of diseases. The essence of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” is to explain the relationship between exogenous and endogenous disorders. This idea is the theoretical basis for clinical understanding of the causes, analysis of pathogenesis, and pattern differentiation, and it merits forther exploring and developing.
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    Analysis of the compatibility of ephedra and gypsum in classical prescription using geometry *
    Hu Zixin, Yu Fuhuan, Yu He
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (4): 275-279.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.002
    Abstract766)      PDF(pc) (1088KB)(150)       Save
    Zhang Zhongjing’s formulae have been complimented for its rigorous ingredient combination and structure. Ephedra and gypsum, used by Zhongjing as one main paired herbs, have been widely used by later generations. In this study, six classic formulae and another two extended prescriptions containing both ephedra and gypsum have been selected. Graphics were used to interpret the compatibility by visualizing the nature, flavor, meridian tropism, action, and the principles of the composition of prescriptions, etc. The fundamental structure is mainly composed of pungent-warm ephedra to regulate qi and pungent-cool gypsum to clear heat. Different compatibility proportion of ephedra and gypsum match with bitter-warm almond, developing a triangle fundamental structure to present clearing, dispersing and descending to balance the circulation of the lung qi, thus to restore the functions of the respiratory and regulating the respiratoy metaboism. Proportion of ephedra and gypsumcan be determined by weighing the balance of clearing heat and regulating qi movement. In addition, points, lines and surfaces would be used to modify the structures of the prescriptions according to the complicated pathogenesis to make flexible use of the prescriptions.
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    Clinical observation of 40 cases of Agkistrodon acutus bite treated with Lianhua Jiedu Tang *
    Chen Jun, Dong Degang, Yan Zhangren, Wang Wanchun, Yi Jun, Mao Wenli, Li Yanfang, Wang Jiangang, Zhang Naixin, Liu Liang, Wang Xi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (12): 1053-1057.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.013
    Abstract676)      PDF(pc) (657KB)(45)       Save
    Objective To observe the clinical effect of Lianhua Jiedu Tang (Bearded Scutellaria Toxin-removing Decoction, LHJDT) on Agkistrodon acutus bite. Methods 80 patients bitten by Agkistrodon acutus were randomly divided into control group and treatment group with 40 patients in each group. While the control group was given conventional Western medical treatment, patients in the treatment group took LHJDT orally in addition to the conventional treatment. During one-week treatment, the average recovery time, the time swelling, pain and ecchymosis took to subside, and the total scores of local symptoms and systemic signs of the two groups before and after treatment were measured and recorded; furthermore, the total effective rates of the two groups were compared. Results The total effective rates were 87.17% and 65.78% in the treatment and control groups respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups of patients in the average recovery time, the time swelling, pain and ecchymosis took to subside, and the total scores of local symptoms and systemic signs on Day 3 and Day 7 during the treatment course. The curative effect of the treatment group was better than that of the control group ( P<0.05). Conclusion LHJDT can inhibit the activity of snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus with definite therapeutic effect, and further clinical application is needed.
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    Prediction of toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang based on network pharmacology and with molecular docking *
    Zhang Dan, Dong Yizhu, Lyu Jintao, Zhang Xiaomeng, Lin Zhijian, Zhang Bing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 1006-1015.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.007
    Abstract628)      PDF(pc) (3667KB)(244)       Save
    Objective To explore the potential toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang(Tripterygium Hypoglaucum Toot, Radix Tripterygium Hypoglaucum) with Methods of network pharmacology and molecular docking. Methods Literature on Kunming shanhaitang was first comprehensively searched to identify and collect its active ingredients and adverse drug reactions (ADRs), respectively. Targets of the active ingredients were then predicted with TCMSP, Swiss, and STITCH databases. Moreover, targets of ADRs were gathered through CTD database. Next, the common genes shared by the above two types of targets were submitted to STRING to obtain protein-protein interaction. In addition, GO biological function process and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted on DAVID platform. Finally, molecular docking was carried out between characteristic ingredients of the herb and its key toxicity targets with systemsDock Web Site. Results A total of 21 ingredient candidates of Kunming shanhaitang involving 47 toxicity targets were identified by establishing toxic protein-protein interaction(PPI) network. PPI network enrichment analysis of the toxicity targets showed that such targets were probably closely associated with the p53 signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and some other pathways. According to the Results of molecular docking, the majority of the active ingredients in the medicinal herb enjoyed good binding activities with the toxicity targets. Conclusion This research verified preliminarily the toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang, providing new ideas and Methods for further research on the toxicity mechanism of ADRs of Chinese medicinal herbs with toxicity.
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    Pathogenesis of “water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood” in Parkinson’s disease with depression *
    Chen Hongjing, Li Xiaoli, Liu Haipeng, Lin Liangyin, Diao Huaqiong, Ding Haiyue, Wei Dan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (2): 98-102.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.002
    Abstract584)      PDF(pc) (1224KB)(290)       Save
    “Water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood” refers to that kidney yang deficiency and cold coagulation in the kidney may lead to failune of the kidney to warm the liver and liver qi stagnation. This pathogenesis originated from the Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), and has been developed and applied to diseases of various systems by later physicians. Based on literature research, it is observed that this pathogenesis could possibly be applied in interpreting the mechanism of Parkinson’s disease with depression (PDD) from TCM perspective. For PDD, yang deficiency and cold coagulation of the kidney is the root of the attack, and liver qi stagnation appears in the initial stage. According to various clinical studies, the therapeutic method of warming the kidney yang to relieve liver qi stagnation is effective in treating PDD. Based on such findings, we have developed a formula (composed of Zhifuzi (prepared aconite root, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata), Bajitian (morinda root,Radix Morindae Officinalis), Chaihu (bupleurum, Radix Bupleuri)) with corresponding effects, which proves to be 70%effective. Pharmacological studies also show that certain traditional Chinese medicinals with the effect of warming the kidney or relieving the liver qi stagnation can show some effect in the treatment of PDD. These research results support the exploration of the pathogenesis of PDD from the perspective of “water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood”. This article has explored such a pathogenesis in PDD based on literature reviews of classical TCM literature, relevant theories and modern studies, in order to provide new ideas and references for the pathogenesis research and clinical treatment of PDD.
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    Ye Tianshi’s treatment methods of warming spleen yang and regulating stomach yang: resolving a doubt *
    Yao Haiqiang, Wang Qi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (11): 890-893.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.11.002
    Abstract580)      PDF(pc) (1144KB)(315)       Save
    In visceral manifestation theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), spleen and stomach are coupled viscera and usually, they are also mentioned together. However, their physiological and pathological characteristics, and therapeutic Methods and suitable formulas and herbs for spleen and stomach are all different. The differences in pathogenesis, pattern manifestations, therapeutic Methods, formulas and medicinals between spleen and stomach are analyzed and summarized based on Ye Tianshi’s clinical records. The therapeutic Methods for different levels of spleen yang deficiency and stomach yang deficiency are elucidated in detail with specific medical cases, for examples, Li Dongyuan’s therapeutic method of replenishing qi and upraising yang, and therapeutic Methods of Linggui Zhugan Tang, Lizhong Tang and Fuzi Lizhong Tang for warming spleen yang, and therapeutic Methods of Dabanxia Tang, Wuzhuyu Tang and Fuzi Jingmi Tang for regulating stomach yang. In some circumstance, spleen yang deficiency and stomach yang deficiency may appear simultaneously, and they should be treated together or in proper order according to pattern manifestations. It is hoped to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of spleen-stomach diseases.
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    Effects of moxibustion on sleep quality of coronary heart disease patients with clopidogrel resistance *
    Zhang Xinyue, Huang Xunying, Ha Lue, Hui Xin, Wang Hao, Zhao Baixiao
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 84-88.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.015
    Abstract566)      PDF(pc) (1232KB)(114)       Save
    Objective To observe symptoms and changes in sleep quality before and after moxibustion on Xinshu (BL15), Neiguan (PC6), Danzhong (RN17), Zhongwan (RN12), Zusanli (ST36) in clopidogrel-resistant patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The project planned to enroll 100 patients in total. In this trial study, 30 CHD patients with clopidogrel resistance and insomnia have been enrolled. All patients filled in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale by themselves and recorded accompanying symptoms of coronary heart disease that caused physical discomfort during the past one month. For each treatment session, the operation sequence of“back to belly, top to bottom” was followed. Moxibustion was perforned first on the bilateral Xinshu (BL75) points, then on the Neiguan (PC6) points and Danzhong (RN17) points, and then on Zhongwan (RN12) points, finally on bilateral Zusanli (ST36) acupoints. PSQI scores before and after the treatment were collected. Complications of coronary heart disease were also evaluated. Results PSQI scores significantly improved ( P<0.05) both at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the treatment. CHD related symptoms were also alleviated. Conclusion Moxibustion can significantly improve insomnia and relieve the symptoms of coronary heart disease. It could benefit the prognosis and recovery of CHD patients.
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    On naming COVID-19 in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Liu Tiegang, Bai Chen, Liu Shaoyang, Long Chaojun, Hu Li, Zhao Yansong, Yu He, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 797-803.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.001
    Abstract546)      PDF(pc) (1274KB)(290)       Save
    Through review of national and regional Diagnosis and Treatment Plan of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related literature, this article analyzed the characteristics of COVID-19, and probed into its TCM nomenclature, combining the naming rules for pestilence in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The terms used for COVID-19 in TCM currently include pestilence, cold pestilence, cold-damp pestilence, cold-damp lung pestilence, damp pestilence, dampness-toxin pestilence, warm pestilence, damp-heat pestilence, lung pestilence, wind pestilence, winter pestilence, wind-warm and damp pestilence, wood pestilence, etc. COVID-19 can be generally referred to as “pestilence”in TCM; according to the nature of the symptoms and the characteristics of the pathogenesis, it can be named as “dampness-toxin pestilence” since symptoms of damp nature have maintained throughout the disease course with the pathogenesis of stasis and toxin obstruction; the name of “lung pestilence” according to disease location fails to reflect the lesion site of the disease; the name of “winter pestilence”, “wind pestilence” and “wind-warm and dampness pestilence” according to the time of onset, though in accordance with the definition of warm diseases, does not conform to the characteristics and pathological rules of the disease; according to the five elements motion and six climatic changes, it can be named as “wood pestilence”. At present, it is not suitable to name the disease only according to clinical characteristics, but with increased understanding of this disease, the nomenclature may be further improved.
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    Attribution of skeletal muscle to the five zang organs in TCM *
    Guo Chunxia, Zhang Qiming, Wang Yiguo, Zhang Jianxiong, XuYang, Zheng Tengfei, Feng Hui, Yuan Xiaohui, Li Xuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (2): 93-97.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.001
    Abstract529)      PDF(pc) (1288KB)(300)       Save
    The function of “the spleen governing muscles” refers to the function of spleen to produce essence of grain and water to nourish muscles and other affiliated parts all over the whole body. However, the functions of skeletal muscles are not solely governed by the spleen.In this article,the distribution and functions of skeletal muscles in the whole body are observed according to anatomy,then these functions are compared with those of the five zang organs in TCM. The functions of skeletal muscles are supported by the physiological functions of the five organs, i.e. transportation, transformation and fixing and lifting tendency of the spleen (manifested as muscle), the respiratory function of the lung, water metabolism and reproductive function of the kidney, free flow of qi and emotions governed by the liver, and housing shen (mental activity) of the heart. To be more specific,the skeletal muscles involved in digestion corresponds with the spleen’s function of transportation and transformation.The skeletal muscles that produce muscular strength and muscular tension to maintain body movement and posture are in accordance with the spleen’s function of governing muscles in five body constituents. The fascial functions that produce tension to fix the organs and support the skin belong to the fixing and lifting function of the spleen. The skeletal muscles involved in breathing correspondto the lung’s function of governing respiration.The skeletal muscles related to urination and delivery are in accordance to the kidney’s function of governing water metabolism and reproduction.The skeletal muscles involved in the expression of emotions are related to the liver which controls free flow of qi and emotions. The skeletal muscles involved in the manifestation of spiritual activities correspond to the heart’s function of housing shen (mental activity).
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    Effect and mechanism of Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule on diabetic angiogenesis through regulatingVEGF signaling pathway *
    Ni Yingqun, Fang Zhaohui, Shi Hui
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (2): 141-147.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.008
    Abstract529)      PDF(pc) (1293KB)(110)       Save
    Objective To study the effect and mechanism of Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule (DZC) on angiogenesis based on VEGF-mediated signaling pathway in diabetic rats. Methods 10 SD rats were selected as the blank group, 50 GK rats were used to establish the model of lower limb ischemia in diabetes, and were randomly divided into the model group, the Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule high-dose group (H-DZC group), the Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule medium-dose group (M-DZC group), the Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule low-dose group (L-DZC group), and the pioglitazone hydrochloride group. In each group, the GK rats were gavaged correspondingly for 30 days.Then the density of new vessels in blood and vascular tissue of lower limbs was detected under the microscope; the contents of VEGF, Ang1, Ang2, Tie2, NO and NOS inserum were detected by ELISA; Ang1, Ang2 and Tie2 in gastrocnemius muscle were detected by Western Blot. Results The VEGF/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway was inhibited in diabetic rats with lower limb ischemia. After the treatment, serum levels of VEGF, eNOS and NO in the H-DZC, M-DZC and L-DZC groups and pioglitazone group were all significantly increased ( P<0.01 or P<0.05). Similar results were also observed in the gastrocnemius muscle. The expression of p-Akt and P-eNOS in H-DZC group and pioglitazone hydrochloride group were most significantly increased( P<0.01).Among the three DZC groups, the expression of p-Akt and P-eNOS was most significantly increased in the high-dose group ( P<0.05).In addition,compared with the model group, Ang-2 levels in serum and tissues in all treatment groups were significantly reduced ( P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the decrease was more significant in H-DZC group ( P<0.01). After the treatment, the expression of Ang-1 and Tie-2 in serum and gastrocnemius muscle tissues of rats in all treatment groups were increased ( P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the increase was more significant in H-DZC group ( P<0.01). Conclusion DZC seems to activate the inhibited VEGF/Akt/eNOS and Ang/Tie2 signaling pathways in diabetic vascular lesions and promote the dissociation of vascular basement membrane, so as to prepare for and promote the initiation of angiogenesis of vessels in lower limbs.
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    Preliminary evaluation of clinical efficacy of Zaizao Shengxue Capsule in treating myelodysplastic syndrome *
    Ding Hao, Zeng Qing, Di Haixia, Luo Meihong, Shen Xiaohui, He Chunling, Tian Shaodan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (3): 252-258.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.03.012
    Abstract514)      PDF(pc) (866KB)(54)       Save
    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of Zaizao Shengxue (Blood-engendering Renewal) Capsule (ZZSXC) in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome. Methods A total of 139 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of Chinese and Western medicine for myelodysplastic syndrome were enrolled according to the principles of randomized multicenter controlled trials. The 103 patients in the treatment group were given 5 ZZSXCs each time, thrice daily. The 36 patients in the control group were given 8 Fufang Zaofan (Compound Zaofan) Pills (FFZFP) each time, thrice daily. The two groups were treated for 3 months. Then their hematological improvements in HI-E, HI-P and HI-N and peripheral blood parameters (HGB, RBC, MCV, PLT, WBC and NEUT) as well as subgroup analysis, TCM pattern and physical sign scores, bleeding, infection, clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated. Results In both the treatment group and the control group, the overall percentages of improvement in such hematological parameters as HI-E, HI-P and HI-N were 51.6% and 38.5%, 44.8% and 40.0%, and 51.0% and 68.2% respectively without statistically significant difference between the two groups ( P>0.05). The differences in RBC and HGB of all the patients and the subgroup of low-risk patients in the treatment group before and after treatment were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The differences in WBC of the subgroup of high-risk patients in the treatment group before and after treatment were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The differences in NEUT of all the patients and the subgroup of low-risk patients in the control group before and after treatment were statistically significant ( P<0.05). MCV was decreased of the subgroup of low-risk patients in the treatment group after treatment compared with that before treatment with statistical significance ( P<0.05). The percentages of patients that enjoyed marked curative effects and curative effects in terms of TCM patterns in the treatment group and the control group were 29.9% and 30.3%, and 62.1% and 57.6%, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups ( P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in curative effects for individual symptoms and signs between the two groups ( P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in hemostasis, incidence of infection and safety parameters between the two groups ( P>0.05). Conclusion Both ZZSXC and FFZFP can improve morbid hematopoiesis and hematological parameters in patients with MDS, and remarkably improve their TCM patterns and individual symptoms and signs with good clinical drug safety.
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    Facial diagnosis in the que section in Huangdi Neijing *
    Jiang Shiqian, Li Hua, Liu Wanghua, Li Yuxiang, Chen Yanyan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (4): 280-283.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.003
    Abstract491)      PDF(pc) (692KB)(75)       Save
    According to the original text of the Huangdi's Internal Classic ( Huangdi Neijing)and the related statements of the later generations, this paper discusses the main contents of facial diagnosis in the que section from four aspects: evaluating the physique, identifying wind or blockage, viscera, and five colors. Firstly, wide and bulging glabella usually means strong physique. Secondly, wind means exogenous pathogenic factors attacking on the skin, hair and lung, while blockage refers to the blockage of meridians, qi and blood. Thirdly, the attribution for viscera can be lung, heart or liver. Lastly, five colors in the que Section can be divided into two modes: Yin-Yang and five elements. Commonly-seen five color diseases are also listed to provide new ideas for the theoretical research of Neijing and divisional facial diagnosis, and provide reference for the clinical application of the theory of Neijing and divisional facial diagnosis.
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    Discussion on the application of later heaven eight diagrams (houtian bagua) in Huangdi Neijing *
    Wang Hong, Zheng Ruoyun, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 8-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.002
    Abstract489)      PDF(pc) (1684KB)(311)       Save
    Model thinking is an important way of original thinking in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Examples like three yin and three yang, Yellow River Map, Lo Shu Square, as well as the Stems-and-Branches, are all original thinking models that have played an important part in constructing the theoretical system of Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). It is very important to analyze the influence of different original thinking modals on medical theories in order to understand them. Later heaven eight diagrams (houtian bagua) is an important thinking model in both traditional culture and TCM. It contains the double connotations of time and space, which has important influences on the regional division of nine palaces and eight winds in Huangdi Neijing, and the positioning of human viscera, especially in the proposal of the “earth pivot and four images” and the theory of human body corresponding to the nine geographical divisions. It is also an important demonstration of the “unity of man and nature”.
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    The origin of discipline is the source of innovation: a thought after reading the chapter of Discussion on the Changes of Qi-Convergence in Plain Questions
    Wang Yongyan, Zhang Huamin, Ji Xinyu
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 5-7.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.001
    Abstract488)      PDF(pc) (1283KB)(306)       Save
    The chapter entitiled Discussion on the Changes of Qi-Convergence in Plain Questions is about the excess and insufficiency of five-motion qi and changes of de (function), hua (transformation), zheng (administration), ling (order), to elaborate the relation between nature, disorder and phenomena. This paper analyzes the chapter from the following three aspects: Firstly, the pathogenesis of patterns due to excessive or insufficient yearly qi helps to comprehend the general mechanism of five qi excess or insufficiency, the relations of engendering, restraining, over-restraining and counter-restraining among them. Therefore manifestation observation should be the premise of pattern diagnosis and disease treatment. Secondly, the elucidated rule of Daoism follows the law of nature and thus manifestations are for us to consider; No reckless action is to be taken without any careful account. Thirdly, innovation is the priority to inheritance of past knowledge and development of new theories. Based on the author’s research and clinical experiences against infectious diseases and H1N1 influenza in the earlier years, this paper emphasizes that independent thinking originates from the cultural awareness and that exploring the origins of the discipline is the source of innovation.
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    Historical compilation and inheritance of Sun Simiao’s Version of Shang Han Lun *
    Fu Peng, Wang Yulin, Zhou Liqun
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (4): 284-288.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.004
    Abstract487)      PDF(pc) (1528KB)(68)       Save
    Sun Simiao’s Version of Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases(Shang Han Lun, SHL) in the Tang dynasty is an important text different from the Song dynasty version. It is often referred to as Tang Dynasty SHL version.This paper expounds the academic background of Sun Simiao's SHL Version and studies its major versions available in later generations. Then it explores the textual changes throughout the history and analyzes the relations between different versions and corresponding academic thoughts. These changes, especially the occurrence and development of the Sun Simiao’s SHL separatum, represent two opposing schools of act in compiling and inheriting ancient classics in the Ming and Qing dynasties: respecting the classics by maintaining faithful to the ancient text versus revising and renewing textual errors.The compilation and inheritance history has contributed to the abundant academic exchange and literature.
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    Study of the relationship between membrane system and defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Jiang Xin, Gu Xiaohong, Liu Tiegang, Yu He, Yang Guannan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 973-976.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.001
    Abstract480)      PDF(pc) (1172KB)(283)       Save
    Defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification,initiated by Ye Tianshi, an expert of warm disease at the end of the Ming Dynasty,was a cornerstone of the theory of warm disease. Based on years of clinical experience, it is found that the membrane system and collateral system, which are extensively distributed in the human body, are the defense-qi-nutrient-bloodcarrier and channel, replenishing and nourishing the whole body and ensuring the defense-qi-nutrient-blood physiological functions. At the same time, the membrane system is also the place where warm pathogens attack, transmit and change.In addition, the struggle between healthy qi and pathogenic factors in the membrane system determines the location, depth, urgency and pathological changes of disease.Therefore, this article explores the relationship between the membrane system and defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification in terms of their connotation, physiology, pathology and treatment to provide theoretical reference for clinical practice and scientific research.
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    Exploring the mechanism and treatment of lung-kidney impairment in novel coronavirus pneumonia by using the “lung- sanjiao moyuan-kidney” model theory *
    Dong Fei, Liu Hongliang, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 357-362.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.001
    Abstract474)      PDF(pc) (911KB)(156)       Save
    The novel coronavirus pneumonia is mainly characterized by involvement of pulmonary interstitial lesions. Among patients with increased expression of virus in the kidney, lung-kidney impairment tends to manifest from the early stage after onset. For patients with older age and underlying diseases, their lung and kidney seem to be both involved at later stages, which may then develop into multiple organ failure syndrome (MOFS). The “lung- sanjiao (triple energizer) moyuan (membrane source)-kidney” theory in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) considers that lung mesenchyme and kidney mesangial membranes are the material basis for triple energizer membrane source to play its role, which is highly consistent with the pathogenesis theory of “[epidemic] pathogens lurking in the membrane source” proposed by Wu Youke in book titled On Epidemic Diseases (Wen Yi Lun). This paper articulates the model theory of “lung-triple energizer moyuan-kidney”, to reason how and why the treatment methods of “treating the upper, [middle] and lower jiao respectively ( fen xiao shang xia)” by Ye Tianshi in the book titled On Warm & Heat Diseases (Wen Re Lun) are widely used and also effective in clinical practice. This model theory may serve as reference for the further application of the TCM classic theories in the treatment of emerging and emergent infectious diseases.
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    On the formation of the genuine qi root theory in Huangdi Neijing
    Shi Lingsheng, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (4): 269-274.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.001
    Abstract464)      PDF(pc) (970KB)(194)       Save
    Genuine qi ( Zhen qi) is the core concept of qi root theory in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). It has unique philosophical connotations in the root theory and historical origins in ancient China. The original denotation of “ zhen” refers to the process that pearls gradually accumulate and form in the oysters. This Chinese character had been used to refer to “the uncarved and innocent nature”. Daode Jing and Zhuangzi, the representative books of Taoism in the Warring States Period, were the first ones to use the word “ Zhen” when discussing the root philosophical thoughts, which was considered as the origin of the philosophical origin of genuine qi. And under the influence of ideological trend of “Tao and Qi as one” at the late stage of the Warring States Period, the philosophical connotation of “ Zhen” and qi theory was integrated theoretically. The earliest extant compound word “ Zhen qi” was first found in Huangdi Neijing, which inherited the Taoist Root thoughts about “ Zhen”, and supplemented the concrete embodiment of genuine qi in all aspects of life activities, and thus established an ontological view of genuine qi theory.
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    Positive aging should be an important field of TCM academic research *
    Wang Yongyan, Wang Yanping, Zhang Huamin, Ji Xinyu, Zhang Zhanjun
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (11): 885-889.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.11.001
    Abstract459)      PDF(pc) (1225KB)(147)       Save
    In the social process of aging getting worse, a positive view of aging should be established under the guide of concept of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It will enable the elderly to face elderly life, keep their physical and mental health and integrate into social as an important resource, which is an important part of maintaining brain health. Based on 3 aspects, “process observation of TCM cognitive emphasis on brain and brain aging”, “brain health examination and warning prevention and treatment of mild cognitive impairment” and “observation and treatment of mild and moderate cognitive impairment according to evidence-based medicine and narrative medicine (controlling diseases based on patterns) in elder population”, it is believed that positive aging should be taken as one of important fields of TCM academic research. The studies on positive aging are hoped to be recommended into China brain science research program
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    Theoretical analyses on “tongue is the orifice of heart” *
    Li Yu, Zhang Xueliang, Zhang Min, Wang Qingguo
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 32-34.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.007
    Abstract456)      PDF(pc) (1136KB)(356)       Save
    The statement “tongue is the orifice of heart”, also known as “heart opens into the tongue”, comes from the Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). The physiological function and pathological changes of the heart are closely related to the tongue. As the orifice of the heart, tongue is connected with the heart on meridians and channels. Tongue expresses the heart by helping articulate, while the heart dominates mind by opening into the tongue. By observing the tongue, doctor can underst and the functional state of the heart’s governing blood vessels and mind. Clinically, the theory of “tongue being the orifice of the heart” can guide the diagnosis and treatment of such diseases as orifice occlusion.
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    Exploration of characteristics of TCM formulae for novel coronavirus pneumonia based on association rules *
    Ding Xia, Li Yuan, Li Ping, Su Zeqi, Wu Fengzhi, Chu Fuhao, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 449-456.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.002
    Abstract456)      PDF(pc) (1571KB)(164)       Save
    Objective To analyze the prescription characteristics of consensus formulae for the prevention and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Methods We collected the following formulae released from the start of NCP outbreak to February 6, 2020: foumulae in the “Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (Trial)” (3 rd to 5 th ed.) issued jointly by the National Health Commission and the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of PRC; the latest clinically-proven effective prescription Qingfei Paidu Tang (Lung-clearing and Toxin-expelling Decoction) (February 6, 2020 ed.); formulae in the “Prevention and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Beijing” (1 st and 2 nd ed.) issued by the Beijing Municipal Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine; prescriptions approved and released by varied health commissions, traditional Chinese medicine administrations and hospitals at provincial and municipal levels; and prescriptions made public by various medical schools and several prestigious doctors for the prevention and treatment of NCP. The R software (V 3.6.1) was used to analyze the frequency of occurrence of herbs and association rules in formulae for preventive and therapeutic purposes respectively. Results 107 preventive formulae involving 121 herbs were identified. 11 herbs with frequency of occurrence over 20% were Gancao (Licorice Root, Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae), Huangqi (Astragalus Root, Radix Astragali), Jinyinhua (Honeysuckle Flower, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae), Jiegeng (Platycodon Root, Radix Platycodonis), Lianqiao (Weeping Forsythia Capsule, Fructus Forsythiae), Cangzhu (Atractylodes Rhizome, Rhizoma Atractylodis), Fangfeng (Siler, Radix Saposhnikoviae), Baizhu (White Atractylodes Rhizome, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), Lugen (Reed Rhizome, Rhizoma Phragmitis), Guanghuoxiang (Cablin Patchouli, Herba Pogostemonis), and Sangye (Mulberry Leaf, Folium Mori). The core combinations of herbs included Huangqi, Gancao, Jinyinhua, Lianqiao, and Fangfeng according to association rules. There were 115 therapeutic prescriptions involving 203 herbs, of which the following 7 herbs were the most frequently used with frequency of occurrence over 20%: Gancao, Huangqin (Scutellaria Root, Radix Scutellariae), Shigao (Gypsum, Gypsum Fibrosum), Kuxingren (Bitter Apricot Kernel, Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Mahuang (Ephedra, Herba Ephedrae), Lianqiao, and Jinyinhua. The core combinations of herbs included Mahuang, Kuxingren, Shigao, and Gancao according to association rules. Conclusion For the prevention of NCP, the main method used seems to be boosting qi to consolidate the exterior, supplemented by clearing heat, resolving toxins and drying dampness. The commonly used formulae were Yupingfeng San (Jade Wind-Barrier Powder) and Yinqiao San (Lonicera and Forsythia Powder). For therapeutic purpose, clearing heat, resolving toxins, and drying dampness were the major methods adopted. The most frequently used prescription was Maxing Shigan Tang (Ephedra, Apricot Kernel, Gypsum and Licorice Decoction) plus Huangqin and Lianqiao. Treatment should vary according to the progression and stage of the disease with modifications based on complications.
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    Establishment of TCM intelligent pattern identification model of gastroesophageal reflux disease based on machine learning *
    Cao Yun, Lu Yi, Chen Jianxin, He Ying, Liu Kaiwen, Fu Xin, Huang Jiaqin, Ding xia, Fang Lihui, Li Zhihong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (10): 869-874.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.012
    Abstract448)      PDF(pc) (1533KB)(200)       Save
    ObjectiveTo establish a TCM intelligent pattern differentiation model of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) based on Machine Learning. Methods According to TCM pattern differentiation standards, a total of 98 samples were collected from the clinical cases of GERD Gnsitent with the diagneses of stagnated heat in liver and stomach pattern, and spleen-hypofunction and reverse qi pattern. 49 samples were collected for each pattern, forming two groups. Based on a 1:1 ratio between categories, 70% of all data were used as the training set and 30% as the test set. According to the “presence” and “absence” of the information, the value “1” and “0” were respectively assigned to establish the TCM clinical information database of GERD.Then a pattern differentiation model of GERD was establishedwith the Support Vector Machine (SVM), Neural Networks (NNs) and Automatic Encoder (Autoencoder) respectively.The accuracy of pattern prediction of the three methods was compared. Results There was a statistically significant difference in BMI between the two groups ( P< 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in H. pylori infection or Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) ( P> 0.05).With the same training and test sample data,the recognition accuracy of those two pattern with SVM,NNs and Autoencoder+NNswere78.3%, 79.2%and 79.2% respectively. Conclusion NNs and NNS+Autoencoder model seems to be effective in diagnosis and prediction of those two patterns. Methodologically, it might be feasible to establish a TCM intelligent pattern differentiation model of GERD based on machine learning.
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    Experience of understanding pestilence from the perspective of five-circuit six-qi theory: Reading notes of two supplemented chapters in Suwen
    Wang Yongyan, Fan Yipin, Zhang Huamin, Bai Weiguo, Wang Yanping
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 445-448.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.001
    Abstract447)      PDF(pc) (1248KB)(425)       Save
    The theoretical statements on epidemic diseases in the two originally-lost later-supplemented chapters in Suwen (Plain Questions) suggest that the five-circuit six-qi theory is still of significant reference to the prevention and treatment of pestilence in modern times. Taking three major historical pandemics as example, i.e. encephalitis B in 1974, influenza in 2009 and COVID-19 in Wuhan in 2019, this paper advocates that the TCM community should take the history as a mirror while shouldering the responsibility of preventing and treating epidemic diseases. The circuit-qi theory of the traditional ancient Chinese civilization needs to be integrated with modern ecology, sociology and other diverse disciplines and perspectives to seek the underlying cause of the spreading of pestilence. This paper also summarizes the essential pattern elements and the priority of treatment. Integrated Chinese and Western medical approach is emphasized in the battle against pestilence. The original thinking of holistic manifestation, numbers and changes needs to be highlighted. Under the guidance of ancient Chinese studies, observing the xiang (manifestation) of the disease to discern the underlying dao (way) of treatment should be used to guide the clinical practice.
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    Exploration of the mechanism of homotherapy for heteropathy of Faeces Bombycis based on network pharmacology *
    Chu Fuhao, Li Yuan, Wang Yan, Gao Ying, Zhang Beibei, Su Zeqi, Ding Xia
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 56-65.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.011
    Abstract444)      PDF(pc) (3142KB)(264)       Save
    Objective To explore the main active compositions and their targets of Cansha (Faeces Bombycis) in the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis combined with diabetes, and to reveal its characteristics of multi-composition, multi-target and multi-channel. Methods The main ingredients of Cansha were sorted out combining literature search and database mining, and the targets of main active compositions were predicted by using Parm Mapper reverse molecular docking method. The names of predicted protein were revised by using UniProt database and the information of related-diseases were revised by using Therapeutic target database (TTD). The targets, related to rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, were screened out. The composition-target-disease networks of Cansha and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed by using Cytoscape software. Functional annotation analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and signaling pathway enrichment analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were performed on the related targets of Cansha in treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. Results After screening and analysis, the main active compositions of Cansha included beta-Carotene, beta-Sitosterol, cholesterol and euchrenone A7. Network pharmacology analysis showed that 37 targets related to rheumatoid arthritis and/or diabetes, among which 6 targets related to both rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, such as SEC14-like protein 2 (S14L2), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme (DHI1), caspase-1 (CASP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (TTPA). Through GO functional annotation analysis 7 GO items were obtained ( P<0.05), of which three involved biological processes items and four molecular function items. And there were 4 signaling pathways ( P<0.05) in the KEGG signaling pathway analysis, involving prolactin signaling pathway, Osteoclast differentiation signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation signaling pathway and PPAR signaling pathway. Conclusion Cansha is characterized by multi-composition, multi-target and multi-channel in the clinical prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis combined with diabetes. This study provided a reference for further expounding on the mechanism of clinical prevention and treatment of diseases of Cansha, and the scientific basis for the study of homotherapy for heteropathy of Cansha. However, further experiments are warranted to verify key targets and regulatory mechanisms.
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    Inspiration from Huangdi Neijing for “pan-marrow” hypothesis *
    He Chunfeng, Liu Wei
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (3): 181-185.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.03.001
    Abstract442)      PDF(pc) (849KB)(141)       Save
    According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), brain marrow, spinal marrow, bone marrow, and essence, all in the category of “marrow”, are closely related in terms of physiology and pathology. Based on argument from analogy and understanding of marrow in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), this paper develops the theoretical system of the hypothesis of “pan-marrow”, an umbrella term for different types of marrow, and establishes correspondence between “pan-marrow” in Chinese medicine and multiple systems in Western medicine. As all marrow originates from kidney and gathers in the sea of marrow according to TCM, inspirations for treatment of marrow-related diseases are provided, i.e. besides supplementing kidney and essence, attention should be paid to supplementing both yin and yang and regulating body fluids, to offer new options for the prevention and combined treatment of multi-system disorders.
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    On significance of ancient astronomical coordinate systems for research into doctrine of five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences *
    Meng Qingyan, Zhang Qicheng, Zhang Qingxiang, Liu Yuanyuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 983-987.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.003
    Abstract437)      PDF(pc) (2006KB)(403)       Save
    As an important part of TCM theory, the doctrine of the five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences involves the pattern of changes in nature based on human’s observation and life experience.The doctrine emerged when astronomy in ancient China had reached a high level of precision.Thus, this paper analyzes the characteristics of three ancient astronomical coordinate systems,which may provide some reference for current study of the doctrine.It probes into the doctrine of the five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences and corrects some mistakes in the present research on the doctrine by analyzing it in the specific context where it emerged and developed. It also deepens the connotation of the doctrine by revealing the major, essential and inevitable factors in its formation, which provides reference for the learning and theoretical study of the doctrine.
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    Essence is the qi that can transform *
    Jia Chunhua
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (10): 797-801.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.001
    Abstract433)      PDF(pc) (1215KB)(130)       Save
    The prototype of the concept of essential qi should be the substance with the characteristics of either gas, liquid or even solidity. With the crucial instinct of transformation, generation and change, essential qi is regarded as the origin of all things by some schools of thought, and its form is constantly changing in such a cyclic sequence: gas→liquid→solidity→gas. In the context that everything is made of qi, essential qi can be shortened as “essence”. Ancient and modern scholars use the concept of essence at different levels to explain everything on earth, from the organic and inorganic worlds to the life sciences and human sciences. Such a natural philosophical thought is mapped to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in many propositions, such as “the essence of man is the origin of life”, “man is born from essence” and so on. Essence is the material basis of human life and its physical and mental growth, which depend largely on the change instinct of essence.
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    Approaches to diagnosis and treatment of six-meridian disorders from the perspective of ascending and descending based on yin-yang qi transformation *
    Li Jiwu, Cheng Wenhui, Meng Lifeng, Tang Aihua, Li Shuanglei, Wang Zhengang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 12-16.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.003
    Abstract431)      PDF(pc) (1210KB)(238)       Save
    This paper analyzes the “turning point” of six-meridian disorders in Shanghanlun (Treatise on Cold Damage Disease) from the perspective of qi ascending and descending movement based on yin-yang qi transformation so as to shed light on the mechanism, pattern diagnosis, formulae and herbs prescribed for six-mendian disorders. It starts with reviewing the relations between original qi and yin-yang qi, yin-yang qi and constrained transformation of ascending and descending, ascending-descending disorder and yin-yang qi disorders, yin-yang ascending and descending and turning point in six-meridian disorders to elaborate on ascending and descending of original qi, six-meridian yin-yang qi transformation. Then the paper continues to discuss on the pathomechanism, pattern diagnosis, formulae and herbs prescribed for three-yang and three-yin (six meridians) disorders from the perspective of ascending and descending disorder. This paper is written with the objectives of understanding how to diagnose and treat six-meridian disorders by using the traditional theory of yin-yang ascending and descending qi transformation, so that we could inherit the qi-transformation theory, grasp the TCM classics, use the classic formula flexibly and improve clinical competency.
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    The Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination: Decoding nutrient-defense circulation in Huangdi Neijing *
    Xing Yurui
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 977-982.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.002
    Abstract430)      PDF(pc) (1186KB)(255)       Save
    Both the point that the nutrient qi and defense qi circulate within human body fifty times during one day-night cycle and the stipulation that the duration of one session of pulse-taking should be as long as fifty pulse beats in The Spiritual Pivot probably originated from the statement in The Book of Changes that the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination is fifty. This statement, which may derive from the Number for Heaven and Earth,provided the cosmological basis for the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination and exerted profound influence on calendar and mathematics in later ages. From the perspective of the correspondence between human and universe, the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination, as the basis for denominating the timing sequence of nature, becomes the number used to regulate life activities. Therefore, the fifty times of nutrient-defense circulation and the fifty pulse beats during pulse diagnosis are probably pre-determined by the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination, which is fifty. Through mathematical deduction, it is calculated that the length of the 28 meridians in human body is 16.2 zhang (about 170.7 feet), the distance qi travels per breath (one inhalation and one exhalation) 6 cun (about 7.559 inches), and the number of breaths during one day-night cycle 13,500. However, such calculation may inevitably cause some theoretical contradictions and those numbers disagree with reality since they are influenced by Chinese numerology.
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    Research on the formation and development of academic thought of Liu Wansu’s fire theory *
    Liu Fan, Wei Fengqin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 27-31.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.006
    Abstract428)      PDF(pc) (1209KB)(541)       Save
    This paper focuses on the formation and development of Liu Wansu’s fire theory to shed light on its influence on the inheritance and innovation of TCM. Firstly, the paper elaborates on the forming process of Liu Wansu’s fire theory, which mainly includes his own practice, collection of classics, and integration of neo-confucianism into the theory. Secondly, from the perspectives of TCM practitioners in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, of warm pathogen diseases and modern scholars, the paper further summarizes the thread of inheritance. Finally, influence of Liu Wansu’s fire theory (formation and development) on the inheritance and innovation of modern Chinese medicine is expounded. To sum up, focusing on classics and learning from various sources are the prerequisite for successful inheritance and innovation.
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    Influence of Erbu Zhuyu Tang on expressions of endometrial autophagy genes-Beclin-1 and LC3B in mice with embryo implantation dysfunction *
    Liang Jialing, Liu Yanfeng, Shen Mengmeng, Pan Xue, Xu Xiuli, Xie Baozhen, Zheng Hanyu
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (11): 910-915.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.11.006
    Abstract425)      PDF(pc) (1423KB)(162)       Save
    Objective To investigate the influence of Erbu Zhuyu Tang (Decoction of Promoting Fertility with Two Tonifying Medicinals) on embryo implantation rate and mRNA and protein expressions of endometrial autophagy genes-Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3B) in mice with embryo implantation dysfunction. Methods Female ICR mice ( n=50) were randomly divided into blank group, model group, low-dose and high-dose Erbu Zhuyu Tang groups and aspirin group (each n=10). The model of embryo implantation dysfunction was established by using mifepristone. The mice in all groups were orally given corresponding medicinals each day and executed in the afternoon of the 5th d of pregnancy. The morphology of uterus was observed, pregnancy rate and average number of embryo implantation sites were calculated, and mRNA and protein expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3B were detected. Results The color of uterus was ruddy and embryo implantation sites were intumescent and distributed equally in blank group. The color of uterus was pale and slender in model group. The uterus was slender and its color was pink in medicated groups. The number of embryo implantation sites decreased in model group compared with blank group ( P<0.001). Compared with model group, the number of embryo implantation sites all increased in high-dose Erbu Zhuyu Tang group and aspirin group ( P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3B were lower in model group than those in blank group ( P<0.05). Compared with model group, the mRNA and protein expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3B increased in low-dose and high-dose Erbu Zhuyu Tang groups and aspirin group ( P<0.05). Conclusion Erbu Zhuyu Tang can increase the mRNA and protein expressions of Beclin-1 and LC3B, promote autophagy level of endometrial cells and improve endometrial receptivity and average number of embryo implantation sites.
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    Formula combination thought of Fangfeng Tongsheng San understood from angle of thinking of classification according to manifestation *
    Chen Xiangyun, Liu Zhenhong, Liu Tiantian, Yang Zhen
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (11): 894-897.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.11.003
    Abstract425)      PDF(pc) (1147KB)(253)       Save
    Fangfeng Tongsheng San (Miraculous Powder of Ledebouriella) is a representative classic formula used widely in treatment of various types of diseases. However, there are disputes on its classification, and even in the determination of the sovereign medicinal there are many differences. As the only Liu Hejian’s formula, who was a master of cold school, Fangfeng Tongsheng San is included in textbook-Science of Herbal Formula. It may embody Liu Hejian’s thought of clearing heat and is a pure heat-clearing agent. The thinking of classification according to manifestation is an important thinking pattern of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Therefore, combining with TCM thinking characteristic, the formula design thought of Fangfeng Tongsheng San is analyzed by applying TCM formulation. It is believed that Fangfeng Tongsheng San uses the therapies of treating heat with cold medicinals, removing fire stagnation, extracting the firewood from under cauldron, inducing diuresis and clearing heat, and nourishing blood and clearing heat. The understanding of Fangfeng Tongsheng San from the angle of thinking of classification according to manifestation will open a new door for us to use it flexibly.
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    Effects of Baishao on liver yin deficiency pattern in alcoholic liver injury and its mechanism *
    Jia Lan, Wang Leilei, Meng Liang, Hua Ji’an, Fu Lu, Yao Junkai, Gao Xuemin, Wang Jingxia
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (3): 203-211.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.03.005
    Abstract424)      PDF(pc) (2421KB)(73)       Save
    Objective To study the effects of Baishao (White Peony Root, Radix Paeoniae Alba) on liver yin deficiency pattern in mice with alcoholic liver injury and mechanism. Methods ICR mice were randomly divided into blank group, model group, Yiguan Jian (Effective Integration Decoction, YGJ) group and Baishao group, with 10 mice in each group. Mice models of alcoholic liver injury with liver yin deficiency pattern were established by intragastric administration of Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet plus thyroid hormone. Meanwhile, the blank group and the model group were given physiological saline by gavage, the YGJ group was given YGJ (9.07 g/kg, 20 mL/kg) by gavage, and the Baishao group baishao exact (4.3 g/kg, 20 mL/kg) by gavage. After 28 days, the state of mice in each group was observed, and their body weight, body temperature and heart rate were measured. Levels of transaminase activities, cytokine, enzyme activities related to ethanol and fat metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities of the serum and liver tissue were detected. Frozen liver sections were examined with Oil Red O staining and liver biopsies with H&E staining. Results Compared with the blank group, the weight of the mice in the model group was significantly reduced, the body temperature increased, the heart rate increased, accompanied with symptoms like lusterless hair, tiredness, sleepiness and irritability. The levels of serum ALT, AST, TG, TC and cAMP and levels of liver MDA, CYP2E1, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in the model group were significantly increased. The serum levels of cGMP and liver tissue levels of SOD, CAT, ADH, ALDH2, IL-10 and IL-1Ra were significantly reduced. In addition, lipid deposition and hepatocyte necrosis occurred in the liver. Compared with the model group, serum levels of ALT, AST, TG, TC and cAMP in the Baishao group were significantly lowered ( P<0.05), and cGMP levels were significantly increased ( P<0.05). The liver levels of CYP2E1, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly decreased ( P<0.05), and the levels of SOD, CAT, ADH, ALDH2, IL-10 and IL-1Ra were significantly increased ( P<0.05). Also, the lipid content of the liver tissue was significantly decreased ( P<0.01), and hepatocyte necrosis was reduced. Conclusion Baishao has obvious curative effect on liver yin deficiency pattern caused by alcoholic liver injury. Its mechanism is related to the regulation of cAMP/cGMP levels and cytokine levels, the restoration of normal hepatocyte function and metabolism, enhanced activities of key enzymes and antioxidant enzymes of ethanol metabolism in liver tissue, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reduction in lipid deposition.
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    Treatment of acne from perspective of qi deficiency constitution *
    Yang Yang, Ma Yuexiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 436-440.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.015
    Abstract421)      PDF(pc) (787KB)(104)       Save
    In recent years, with the acceleration of life pace and the improvement of living standards, the incidence of acne has increased year by year, with an increasingly more complicated pathogenesis. From the perspective of body constitution, modern medical practitioners have combined the differentiation of constitution, disease and pattern to explore a new approach in its diagnosis and treatment. Studies revealed that in patients with acne, the proportion of qi deficiency constitution had gradually increased. Thus, in this study, in order to improve the efficacy of treatment of patients with qi deficiency constitution, pattern differentiation for patients with acne was explored, as well as the theories on qi deficiency constitution. On basis of that, the survey results of qi deficiency constitution, and the experience of diagnosing and treating acne from the perspective of qi deficiency constitution were summarized. Thus, it was concluded that there were important clinical basis and therapeutic advantages to treat acne from the perspective of qi deficiency constitution.
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    Discussion on “One” in Huangdi Neijing *
    Chen Jingwen, Liu Zhenzhu, Huang Xunying, Li Menglin, Liu Jintao, Zhang Ning, Zhai Shuangqing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (11): 898-903.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.11.004
    Abstract421)      PDF(pc) (1168KB)(184)       Save
    One” contains the meaning of “ Dao” and “origin” from the perspective of ancient philosophy, which is the manifestation of the law of “ Dao”. Also, it is both the trigger power and silent selfless one, and at the same time, it is the agility and keeping awareness. “ One” in Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic) contains “ Shen” and “ Dao”, and is related to “essence of yin and yang”, also, it is used to describe the state of ordinary people. In the aspect of treatment, Huangdi Neijing thinks that doctors should strive towards the state of “ One”, and puts forward the thought of “keeping One”. The shallow level of “ One” can be understood as integrating medical theory and practice, grasping of core theory, and maintaining of all diseases and Methods being inseparable from this core by doctors in clinical practice. The deep level of “ One” requires the doctor to be very quiet and aware of the changes around him without being disturbed by the influence, which means in the state of “ Dao”. Therefore, if we do not understand “ One” and “ Dao”, the more knowledge we have while studying medicine, the more doubts we may have. That is, we should aim at “ One” as required by Huangdi Neijing. We should not be complacent about having medical knowledge. Since if there is no “ One” in the base of these knowledge, it will only increase confusions. And let people confused in the vast sea of medicine, then, it will affect the clinical efficacy
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    In-depth interpretation of TCM holistic concept from the perspective of “harmonizing & integrating” thinking *
    Wang Xiaoping
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (10): 808-812.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.003
    Abstract420)      PDF(pc) (1138KB)(158)       Save
    Holistic concept and its contents are in line with traditional Chinese culture, thus differentiating itself from the “holistic concept” of Western medicine with distinct characteristics and viewpoints. The “harmonizing & integrating” thinking is the humanistic spirit universally acknowledged by the Chinese people and the most distinctive cultural concept of ancient Chinese philosophy. “harmonizing & integrating” thinking has rich connotations such as integrity, coordination, spontaneity, dynamics, and generativeness. By interpreting and analyzing the holistic concept with such a thinking, more profound connotations of that concept are uncovered. It has the basic characteristics of the original holism, and emphasizes methodologically treating the part from the overall picture; it values the coordination and order among functions and relations, rather than the connection between anatomical structures and interaction of substantial particles; it stresses self-harmonization, and incorporates it into the therapeutic principle by advocating regulating and harmonizing instead of conflicting; by underlining the multidimensional connection of time, space, body and spirit, it promotes adapting to time and vitality transformation, which differs from anatomical structure chiefly based on space. Therefore, TCM holism is proven to be a unique and valuable concept.
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    Reconstructing theoretical framework of Chinese medicine according to Qian Xuesen’s academic idea *
    Meng Kaitao, Zhang Zhiqiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 993-997.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.005
    Abstract415)      PDF(pc) (1488KB)(100)       Save
    The systems theory proposed by Mr. Qian Xuesen,different from holism and reductionism, is the dialectical unity of holism and reductionism, which not only highlights the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine, but also makes up for its shortcomings. In this sense, it points out the right development path for Chinese medicine. Mr. Qian Xuesen’s vision that the science and technology system includes four level, i.e. philosophy, basic theory, applied theory and practical technology, is perfectly applicable to Chinese medicine. In addition, philosophical science embodies new wisdom based on the 12 laws of the universe, combining philosophical speculation with logical reasoning. Through logical reasoning, we can get rid of the irrational elements of philosophical speculation and the influence of human factors (especially ideology and concepts), and reach conclusions that are completely in line with the Objective laws of development of things. Philosophical science, slightly superior to philosophical speculation, is thus indispensable for Chinese medicine. Therefore, with the guidance of Qian Xuesen’s academic idea and philosophical science, it is possible to construct an ideal theoretical framework for Chinese medicine.
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    Research on the origin and evolution of medicinal tea formula *
    Lan Yujing, Ma Ran, Zhang Lin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (3): 186-191.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.03.002
    Abstract414)      PDF(pc) (873KB)(101)       Save
    With a long history in China, the use of tea as medicinal herb was recorded in medical books of many dynasties. The earliest record of the medicinal value of tea was found in the Newly Revised Materia Medica, the first pharmacopoeia in ancient China. The concept “medicinal tea” owed its formation to the rise of tea culture and the development of dietary therapy culture in the Tang Dynasty. Medicinal formulas with tea as an ingredient were first recorded in the Important Formulas Worth a Thousand Gold Pieces for Emergency published in the Tang Dynasty, and the term “medicinal tea” appeared formally in Formulas from Benevolent Sages Compiled during the Taiping Era published in the Song Dynasty. A review of the origin and evolution of medicinal tea formulas from the Tang Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty revealed that medicinal tea formulas came to prominence in the Song Dynasty when the development of tea culture reached its peak. Altogether 580 medicinal tea formulas were recorded in the three formula books compiled by the imperial government of the Song Dynasty. Medicinal tea formulas recorded in Beneficial Formulas from the Taiping Imperial Pharmacy accounted for 8% of all the formulas in the book, and were indicated for various diseases including mainly wind patterns, head conditions and eye diseases. Among the various uses of medicinal tea formula, to administer herbal medicine with tea was unique. The present research into medicinal tea formulas resolves the contemporary misunderstanding that “drinking tea weakens the curative effect of herbal medicine” and provides reference for the application of medicinal tea in modern Chinese medicine.
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    Metaphysical and ontological trends in interpreting visceral manifestation of heart since Song Dynasty *
    Gu Jianjun
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (10): 802-807.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.002
    Abstract412)      PDF(pc) (1090KB)(155)       Save
    With the rise of Neo-Confucianism in the Song and Ming Dynasties, medical theories tended to be philosophical, among which the concepts of zang-fu organs were gradually separated from the entity significance and presented conceptually and metaphysically. The heart in TCM has been discussed in the philosophical scope. After the Song Dynasty, the TCM heart has undergone a path of complete philosophization, mainly manifested in the following aspects: the heart function is metaphysically sumarized as monarch fire; the concept of heart is expanded as a unification of the monarch fire and the ministerial fire; the heart is changed to be ontological as tai chi; the heart is no longer viewed as a physical organ. A replacement for the heart’s physical function is constantly sought, so as to lift the heart out of the “matter” level and emphasize its ontological characteristics of “Tao”, thus completing the construction of a philosophical visceral manifestation theory model. These thoughts indicate that the focus of TCM theory is ultimately transforming to the metaphysical functions of the zang-fu organs, which leads to corresponding changes in clinical pattern identification and treatment.
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    Traditional Chinese medical strategy in the management of the corona virus disease 2019 during recovery period *
    Yang Xianzhao, Du Hongbo, He Weili, Zhang Jingfeng, Liu Ning, Cui Jie, Chen Zhengguang, Du Yong, Ye Yong’an
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (5): 363-367.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.05.002
    Abstract407)      PDF(pc) (749KB)(97)       Save
    It has been more than two months since the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the overall epidemic situation is now under effective control with the number of cured discharged cases surpassing existing confirmed ones. Although the general condition of discharged patients has been improved to a certain extent, quite a number of them still have clinical symptoms and organ injury. Therefore, follow-up rehabilitation treatment for these patients is of great importance. Our team went to Wuhan, the center of epidemic regions, to assist clinical treatment using traditional Chinese medicine. From our experience, we found the course of the disease is relatively long, and that the problem of pulmonary fibrosis is more prominent during the recovery period. Most COVID-19 patients at the recovery stage tend to present with a complicated state of multiple patterns, characterized by dominant qi deficiency, increasing severity of blood stasis together with remaining excess of pathogens. Based on field observations, we hold that the qi deficiency and blood stasis is the core pathogenesis. Therefore, management of COVID-19 patients during the recovery period should target at pulmonary fibrosis as the key pathology by using qi-tonifying blood-activating treatment as the basic principle, combined with methods of clearing away the remaining pathogenic factors. Flexible medicinal modification could help patients recover better.
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