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    A new interpretation of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” in Huangdi Neijing *
    Zhang Tianxing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 17-20.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.004
    Abstract951)      PDF(pc) (1146KB)(479)       Save
    The statement of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” came from the chapter entitled Yinyang Yingxiang Dalun (Major Discussion on the Theory of Yin and Yang and the Corresponding Relationships Among All the Things in Nature) in Suwen (Plain Questions). Based on the annotations of ancient doctors, this paper put forward the viewpoint of interpreting yin and yang from the aspect of interior and exterior. “Extreme yang turning into yin” means that when the exogenous pathogens are too strong or the exterior is repeatedly influenced by six pathogenic factors, the disease will transmit from the exterior to the interior, injuring qi movement of five zang-organs. “Extreme yin turning into yang” means that when the internal injury is too severe, which leads to deficiency or disorder of internal qi, the exterior will also be involved, resulting in the recurrence of exogenous diseases. The statement that “happiness and anger injure the qi, while heat and cold injure the appearance” describes the law of how endogenous and exogeous pathogens cause diseases, while “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” describes the valatility of diseases. The essence of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” is to explain the relationship between exogenous and endogenous disorders. This idea is the theoretical basis for clinical understanding of the causes, analysis of pathogenesis, and pattern differentiation, and it merits forther exploring and developing.
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    Connotation of “extreme yin being related to earth qi” in Suwen *
    Wang Mengqi, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (8): 629-632.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.08.003
    Abstract870)      PDF(pc) (1139KB)(438)       Save
    Suwen: Liujie Zangxiang Lun (Plain Conversation: Discussion on Six-Plus-Six System and the Manifestations of Organs) is one of important chapters on the theory of visceral manifestations in Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic). On the understandings of the passage of “spleen, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, triple energizers, bladder… are extreme yin and they are related to earth qi”, the physicians in successive dynasties had great difference. The paper proposes, after analyzing the problems existing in several common viewpoints on the passage and combining the application of quartered yin-yang model and writing mode in the chapter, that the extreme yin can be regarded as a compromise saying by the author who tried to explain the relationship between four seasons and five zang-organs, and “extreme yin being related to earth qi” can be understand as extreme yin being related to qi of water and food. The paper also indicates that spleen and other zang-organs interact to each other in physical or pathological conditions. So it is a summarization on their functions of water-food conversion to name spleen and other zang-organs as extreme yin, which has clinical significance.
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    Discussion of the connotation of “zi hua yuan” in the chapter “Liuyuan Zhengji Dalun” in Suwen from the perspective of generation and restriction relationships among the five zang-organs *
    Shi Yuqi, Liu Jin, Zhang Xi, Zhu Bo, Zhang Shaoqiang, Li Xiaofeng, Wang Xiaofei, Du Wuxun
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (9): 720-724.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.003
    Abstract803)      PDF(pc) (1213KB)(319)       Save
    The concept “zi hua yuan” mentioned in the chapter “Liuyuan Zhengji Dalun” (Major Discussion on the Progress of the Six Climatic Changes) in Suwen(Simple Conversation), had different meanings according to different TCM physicians in history.Some believed that it means enriching the restricted one in “si tian” (celestial control) and “zai quan” (terrestrial effect) of the year, some believed that it means enriching the mother-phase qi of the constrained zang-organ, and other scholars believed that it means enriching the source of transformation of organs like spleen and kidney.Based on an analysis of understanding and development of concept by various TCM physicians,this paper explores the connotation of “zi hua yuan” from the perspective of the relationships of generation and restriction among the five zang-organs. To interpret the connotation of “zi hua yuan” from such perspective provides a brand new way of understanding not only because the appropriate month is selected for enriching the source of transformation according to the five-element attributes of “si tian”and “zai quan” of the year, but also an overall balance among the five zang-organs is maintained based on the relationship among them.
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    Analysis of the compatibility of ephedra and gypsum in classical prescription using geometry *
    Hu Zixin, Yu Fuhuan, Yu He
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (4): 275-279.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.002
    Abstract766)      PDF(pc) (1088KB)(150)       Save
    Zhang Zhongjing’s formulae have been complimented for its rigorous ingredient combination and structure. Ephedra and gypsum, used by Zhongjing as one main paired herbs, have been widely used by later generations. In this study, six classic formulae and another two extended prescriptions containing both ephedra and gypsum have been selected. Graphics were used to interpret the compatibility by visualizing the nature, flavor, meridian tropism, action, and the principles of the composition of prescriptions, etc. The fundamental structure is mainly composed of pungent-warm ephedra to regulate qi and pungent-cool gypsum to clear heat. Different compatibility proportion of ephedra and gypsum match with bitter-warm almond, developing a triangle fundamental structure to present clearing, dispersing and descending to balance the circulation of the lung qi, thus to restore the functions of the respiratory and regulating the respiratoy metaboism. Proportion of ephedra and gypsumcan be determined by weighing the balance of clearing heat and regulating qi movement. In addition, points, lines and surfaces would be used to modify the structures of the prescriptions according to the complicated pathogenesis to make flexible use of the prescriptions.
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    Ontological view of nature in Huangdi’s Internal Classics:on genuine qi *
    He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (3): 181-184.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.03.001
    Abstract682)      PDF(pc) (1204KB)(452)       Save
    Philosophy is the soul of the medical system in Huangdi’s Internal Classics while theory of qi is the core of its philosophical system. The traditional “qi monism” believed to be held by this classics, however, seems to be ambiguous when examined thoroughly. Ontological perspective of “genuine qi” and duality of yin and yang qi are presented instead. “Genuine qi” is the master of life; it is without the character of yin and yang, rise and fall, pure and turbid. The concepts of “kidney qi”, “meridian qi” and “visceral essence” in the theory of visceral manifestation are the embodiment of “genuine qi”.
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    Clinical observation of 40 cases of Agkistrodon acutus bite treated with Lianhua Jiedu Tang *
    Chen Jun, Dong Degang, Yan Zhangren, Wang Wanchun, Yi Jun, Mao Wenli, Li Yanfang, Wang Jiangang, Zhang Naixin, Liu Liang, Wang Xi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (12): 1053-1057.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.013
    Abstract676)      PDF(pc) (657KB)(45)       Save
    Objective To observe the clinical effect of Lianhua Jiedu Tang (Bearded Scutellaria Toxin-removing Decoction, LHJDT) on Agkistrodon acutus bite. Methods 80 patients bitten by Agkistrodon acutus were randomly divided into control group and treatment group with 40 patients in each group. While the control group was given conventional Western medical treatment, patients in the treatment group took LHJDT orally in addition to the conventional treatment. During one-week treatment, the average recovery time, the time swelling, pain and ecchymosis took to subside, and the total scores of local symptoms and systemic signs of the two groups before and after treatment were measured and recorded; furthermore, the total effective rates of the two groups were compared. Results The total effective rates were 87.17% and 65.78% in the treatment and control groups respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups of patients in the average recovery time, the time swelling, pain and ecchymosis took to subside, and the total scores of local symptoms and systemic signs on Day 3 and Day 7 during the treatment course. The curative effect of the treatment group was better than that of the control group ( P<0.05). Conclusion LHJDT can inhibit the activity of snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus with definite therapeutic effect, and further clinical application is needed.
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    Mechanism of five notes of ancient China’s pentatonic scale in disease treatment based on meridian and collateral theory *
    Lin Facai
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (6): 465-468.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.06.005
    Abstract637)      PDF(pc) (1169KB)(367)       Save
    A study of the mechanism of the correspondence between the five notes and the meridians is of great significance for the therapeutic effect of the five-element music. The five notes of ancient China’s pentatonic scale are in close association with the meridians and the acupoints on them. Based on the five-element theory, a corresponding relationship between the five notes and the meridians came into existence. The present research explored the mechanisms of the five notes, the correspondence between the meridians along with acupoints and the five notes, the diagnosis and treatment with the five notes, and the appropriate application time for the music therapy based on midnight-noon ebb-flow theory of meridians and collaterals, aiming to lay a solid foundation for a better understanding of the mechanism of the five-element music and provide new thoughts and methods for the clinical application of the five notes including the administration of music treatment in accordance with time of the day.
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    A new interpretation on five-excess and five-deficiency in Huangdi Neijing *
    Zhang Tianxing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (8): 625-628.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.08.002
    Abstract633)      PDF(pc) (1136KB)(222)       Save
    The statements of five-excess and five-deficiency were put forward in Yuji Zhenzang Lun (Discussion on Genuine-zang Pulses) in Huangdi Neijing: Suwen (Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic: Plain Conversation). The five-excess contains five symptoms including vibrant pulse, skin fever, abdominal distension, obstruction of urine and stool and delirium, and five-deficiency contains five symptoms including fine pulse, cold skin, less qi, incontinence of urine and stool, and incompatibility of diet. Ancient annotators such as Wang Bing, Zhang Jingyue and Zhang Zhicong all interpreted the statements from the excess and deficiency of five zang-organs, which may lose the original meaning. The paper puts forward a new view that the five-excess is qi movement congesting, i.e. so-called block pattern today, and five-deficiency is pattern of deficient original qi, i.e. so-called collapse pattern today. In the original text, the block pattern is treated with regulating qi movement through perspiration and defecation, and the collapse pattern is treated with therapies of nourishing stomach qi and nourishing the sources of qi. These may be the source of the therapeutic ideas such as opening orifices and block, and replenishing qi and relieving collapse. The “five” in five-excess and five-deficiency means count and emphasizes that all five symptoms are necessary conditions to make a reliable diagnosis. This expression method is conducive to the inheritance of clinical experiences and improvement of diagnostic specificity. The interpretation of five-excess and five-deficiency from block pattern and collapse pattern is logically reasonable and clinically realistic. This classic text may be the earliest record about block pattern and collapse pattern in Chinese medicine.
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    Prediction of toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang based on network pharmacology and with molecular docking *
    Zhang Dan, Dong Yizhu, Lyu Jintao, Zhang Xiaomeng, Lin Zhijian, Zhang Bing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 1006-1015.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.007
    Abstract628)      PDF(pc) (3667KB)(244)       Save
    Objective To explore the potential toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang(Tripterygium Hypoglaucum Toot, Radix Tripterygium Hypoglaucum) with Methods of network pharmacology and molecular docking. Methods Literature on Kunming shanhaitang was first comprehensively searched to identify and collect its active ingredients and adverse drug reactions (ADRs), respectively. Targets of the active ingredients were then predicted with TCMSP, Swiss, and STITCH databases. Moreover, targets of ADRs were gathered through CTD database. Next, the common genes shared by the above two types of targets were submitted to STRING to obtain protein-protein interaction. In addition, GO biological function process and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted on DAVID platform. Finally, molecular docking was carried out between characteristic ingredients of the herb and its key toxicity targets with systemsDock Web Site. Results A total of 21 ingredient candidates of Kunming shanhaitang involving 47 toxicity targets were identified by establishing toxic protein-protein interaction(PPI) network. PPI network enrichment analysis of the toxicity targets showed that such targets were probably closely associated with the p53 signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and some other pathways. According to the Results of molecular docking, the majority of the active ingredients in the medicinal herb enjoyed good binding activities with the toxicity targets. Conclusion This research verified preliminarily the toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang, providing new ideas and Methods for further research on the toxicity mechanism of ADRs of Chinese medicinal herbs with toxicity.
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    Treatment of shoulder and neck pain based on the connection between liver and large intestine *
    Chen Jingwen, Liu Zhenzhu, Zhang Ning, Li Menglin, Liu Jintao, Wang Weiguang, Huang Xunying, Xi Chongcheng, Zhai Shuangqing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (6): 451-454.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.06.002
    Abstract613)      PDF(pc) (1172KB)(272)       Save
    The theory of the connection between liver and large intestine is a part of the theory of the connection of zang-fu organs. The earliest record of this theory is seen in the book Introduction to Medicine by Li Chan published in the Ming Dynasty. We can understand the close relationship between liver and large intestine in terms of the interaction between wood and metal according to the theory of five elements. Also, blood can moisten large intestine and removing stagnancy and obstruction in the intestines can help soothe the liver. In addition, according to the opening, closing and pivoting nature of the six meridians, the foot jueyin liver meridian and the hand taiyang large intestine meridian correspond with each other as both are of closing nature. In addition, liver and large intestine are associated with shoulder and neck based on the correspondence between zang-fu organs and body parts, and on meridian circulations. In the modern society, cellphone has been overused, leading to eyestrain, which in turn impairs blood as long looking at something impairs blood. Furthermore, the night-owl lifestyle negatively impacts liver’s function of storing blood. As a result, the shoulder and neck pain of many patients is caused by liver blood insufficiency and sinew and muscle malnutrition. Liver blood insufficiency gives rise to stagnation of liver qi and constipation, since the large intestine cannot be moistened. Thus, clinical practitioners can nourish liver blood to moisten large intestine and remove stagnancy and obstruction in large intestine to soothe the liver, which will have excellent curative effect on this kind of shoulder and neck pain. As this method is rather different from treatments targeted at cold congealing, qi stagnation and blood stasis, it could provide a new approach to the treatment of shoulder and neck pain.
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    Exploration of primordial qi in TCM *
    Li Zhihui, Wang Xiaoping
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (9): 709-712.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.001
    Abstract594)      PDF(pc) (1265KB)(405)       Save
    The article puts forward that primordial qi refers to prenatal qi and original qi denotes both prenatal qi and postnatal qi. It expounds the connotation of the primordial qi in TCM and its relationship with the original qi. Firstly, the article argues that it is necessary to propose the concept of primordial qi in view of the ambiguity of the concept of the original qi. Secondly, it analyzes that primordial qi means the prenatal qi of the life gate and that it is the prenatal source, primordial driving force and the essence of healthy qi. Finally, it differentiates the primordial qi from the original qi in terms of their connotations, their prenatal and postnatal attributes, their yin and yang attributes, and treatments for their diseases.
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    Pathogenesis of “water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood” in Parkinson’s disease with depression *
    Chen Hongjing, Li Xiaoli, Liu Haipeng, Lin Liangyin, Diao Huaqiong, Ding Haiyue, Wei Dan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (2): 98-102.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.002
    Abstract584)      PDF(pc) (1224KB)(290)       Save
    “Water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood” refers to that kidney yang deficiency and cold coagulation in the kidney may lead to failune of the kidney to warm the liver and liver qi stagnation. This pathogenesis originated from the Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), and has been developed and applied to diseases of various systems by later physicians. Based on literature research, it is observed that this pathogenesis could possibly be applied in interpreting the mechanism of Parkinson’s disease with depression (PDD) from TCM perspective. For PDD, yang deficiency and cold coagulation of the kidney is the root of the attack, and liver qi stagnation appears in the initial stage. According to various clinical studies, the therapeutic method of warming the kidney yang to relieve liver qi stagnation is effective in treating PDD. Based on such findings, we have developed a formula (composed of Zhifuzi (prepared aconite root, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata), Bajitian (morinda root,Radix Morindae Officinalis), Chaihu (bupleurum, Radix Bupleuri)) with corresponding effects, which proves to be 70%effective. Pharmacological studies also show that certain traditional Chinese medicinals with the effect of warming the kidney or relieving the liver qi stagnation can show some effect in the treatment of PDD. These research results support the exploration of the pathogenesis of PDD from the perspective of “water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood”. This article has explored such a pathogenesis in PDD based on literature reviews of classical TCM literature, relevant theories and modern studies, in order to provide new ideas and references for the pathogenesis research and clinical treatment of PDD.
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    Ye Tianshi’s treatment methods of warming spleen yang and regulating stomach yang: resolving a doubt *
    Yao Haiqiang, Wang Qi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (11): 890-893.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.11.002
    Abstract580)      PDF(pc) (1144KB)(315)       Save
    In visceral manifestation theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), spleen and stomach are coupled viscera and usually, they are also mentioned together. However, their physiological and pathological characteristics, and therapeutic Methods and suitable formulas and herbs for spleen and stomach are all different. The differences in pathogenesis, pattern manifestations, therapeutic Methods, formulas and medicinals between spleen and stomach are analyzed and summarized based on Ye Tianshi’s clinical records. The therapeutic Methods for different levels of spleen yang deficiency and stomach yang deficiency are elucidated in detail with specific medical cases, for examples, Li Dongyuan’s therapeutic method of replenishing qi and upraising yang, and therapeutic Methods of Linggui Zhugan Tang, Lizhong Tang and Fuzi Lizhong Tang for warming spleen yang, and therapeutic Methods of Dabanxia Tang, Wuzhuyu Tang and Fuzi Jingmi Tang for regulating stomach yang. In some circumstance, spleen yang deficiency and stomach yang deficiency may appear simultaneously, and they should be treated together or in proper order according to pattern manifestations. It is hoped to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of spleen-stomach diseases.
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    Effects of moxibustion on sleep quality of coronary heart disease patients with clopidogrel resistance *
    Zhang Xinyue, Huang Xunying, Ha Lue, Hui Xin, Wang Hao, Zhao Baixiao
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 84-88.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.015
    Abstract566)      PDF(pc) (1232KB)(114)       Save
    Objective To observe symptoms and changes in sleep quality before and after moxibustion on Xinshu (BL15), Neiguan (PC6), Danzhong (RN17), Zhongwan (RN12), Zusanli (ST36) in clopidogrel-resistant patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods The project planned to enroll 100 patients in total. In this trial study, 30 CHD patients with clopidogrel resistance and insomnia have been enrolled. All patients filled in the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale by themselves and recorded accompanying symptoms of coronary heart disease that caused physical discomfort during the past one month. For each treatment session, the operation sequence of“back to belly, top to bottom” was followed. Moxibustion was perforned first on the bilateral Xinshu (BL75) points, then on the Neiguan (PC6) points and Danzhong (RN17) points, and then on Zhongwan (RN12) points, finally on bilateral Zusanli (ST36) acupoints. PSQI scores before and after the treatment were collected. Complications of coronary heart disease were also evaluated. Results PSQI scores significantly improved ( P<0.05) both at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the treatment. CHD related symptoms were also alleviated. Conclusion Moxibustion can significantly improve insomnia and relieve the symptoms of coronary heart disease. It could benefit the prognosis and recovery of CHD patients.
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    Inheritance and development of spleen-stomach theory in Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic) by Huang Yuanyu *
    Gao Zhili, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (11): 890-893.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.11.002
    Abstract562)      PDF(pc) (1052KB)(1385)       Save
    Spleen-stomach theory is an important academic thought in Huangdi Neijing ( Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic). The idea of emphasizing earth was a concrete embodiment of Chinese philosophy in traditional Chinese medicine at that time. Later generations of doctors inherited and developed spleen-stomach theory in Huangdi Neijing, among them, Huang Yuanyu, a physician in the Qing Dynasty, was a particular representative. Huang’s theory of qi circumfluence and four images of earth pivot emphasizes the up-downs and rotation of qi in the middle earth, and stresses ascending of the left-side qi movement. He proposed that damp earth, cold water and wood depression were main pathogenesis of human diseases, which has important influence on later clinical practice.
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    On inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis from view of traditional Chinese medicine *
    Ding Xia, Wei Wei, Shen Hong, Sun Zeqi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (11): 885-889.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.11.001
    Abstract551)      PDF(pc) (1132KB)(426)       Save
    The inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis is a classical model of malignant transformation from chronic uncontrollable inflammation cancer, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an important role in delaying, blocking and reversing the progress of this disease. From the perspective of TCM, TCM cognition on inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis, and the function, value, bottleneck problem and countermeasure of TCM in controlling thus progress are expounded. At present stage, there are relatively few TCM literatures on discussion of inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis, and no systematic research Results achieved. The TCM theory of “dynamic thinking” and “preventive treatment of disease” plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis. TCM has advantages in removing causes of disease, alleviating patients’ clinical symptoms and improving the pathological morphology of gastric mucosa. In the process of controlling inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis, TCM has the characteristics of higher safety, lower drug dependence and good compliance. It is of great significance and value to control the progress of the disease and reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. However, there are still some problems including a lack of systematic ideas of differentiation and treatment in clinical practice, unclear time for intervention of inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis, and indistinct combined effects with Western medicine at the present stage. The bottleneck problems are manifested as program in scientific research cannot reflect TCM characteristics, systematic mechanism exploration is in shortage, and research Results are difficult to be applied in clinical practice. Therefore, further consideration and measures are needed in controlling inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis by TCM
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    On naming COVID-19 in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Liu Tiegang, Bai Chen, Liu Shaoyang, Long Chaojun, Hu Li, Zhao Yansong, Yu He, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 797-803.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.001
    Abstract546)      PDF(pc) (1274KB)(290)       Save
    Through review of national and regional Diagnosis and Treatment Plan of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related literature, this article analyzed the characteristics of COVID-19, and probed into its TCM nomenclature, combining the naming rules for pestilence in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The terms used for COVID-19 in TCM currently include pestilence, cold pestilence, cold-damp pestilence, cold-damp lung pestilence, damp pestilence, dampness-toxin pestilence, warm pestilence, damp-heat pestilence, lung pestilence, wind pestilence, winter pestilence, wind-warm and damp pestilence, wood pestilence, etc. COVID-19 can be generally referred to as “pestilence”in TCM; according to the nature of the symptoms and the characteristics of the pathogenesis, it can be named as “dampness-toxin pestilence” since symptoms of damp nature have maintained throughout the disease course with the pathogenesis of stasis and toxin obstruction; the name of “lung pestilence” according to disease location fails to reflect the lesion site of the disease; the name of “winter pestilence”, “wind pestilence” and “wind-warm and dampness pestilence” according to the time of onset, though in accordance with the definition of warm diseases, does not conform to the characteristics and pathological rules of the disease; according to the five elements motion and six climatic changes, it can be named as “wood pestilence”. At present, it is not suitable to name the disease only according to clinical characteristics, but with increased understanding of this disease, the nomenclature may be further improved.
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    Relationship between pathogenesis of spleen deficiency in depression and mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder *
    Liu Shuhan, Guo Rongjuan, Yu Yao, Ren Feifei, Li Yang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (9): 773-777.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.012
    Abstract532)      PDF(pc) (1151KB)(191)       Save
    Depression is a syndrome characterized by low spirit, mental retardation and decreased volitional activity. As a common TCM clinical pattern related to depression, spleen deficiency is an important pathogenesis of depression. Mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder often exists in the pathophysiological process of depression. The pathogenesis of spleen deficiency is closely related to mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder. Spleen-fortifying qi-boosting medicinals have obvious effects on depression and mitochondrial damage.
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    A study on the volume of zhan in decoction preparation in the Song Dynasty *
    Yuan Zhen, Ma Ran, Zhang Lin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (9): 738-741.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.007
    Abstract530)      PDF(pc) (1142KB)(490)       Save
    This article explores the unit of volume measurement zhan (盏) used to explain decoction preparation based on relevant records in literature in the Song Dynasty in combination with the actual historical relic zhan. The conversion between two units of volume measurement sheng (升) and zhan is described in detail. It is found that there is a difference between the two units in the Song Dynasty. The present research discovers that sheng in the sentence “To use a large zhan of water means to use about one sheng of water” taken from medical books complied by the government in the Song Dynasty is a unique unit of measurement specific to the Song Dynasty, which is different from the general ancient unit sheng as some scholars believe. One sheng in the Song Dynasty equals about 702 milliliters in modern terms, and one zhan about 350 milliliters.
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    Attribution of skeletal muscle to the five zang organs in TCM *
    Guo Chunxia, Zhang Qiming, Wang Yiguo, Zhang Jianxiong, XuYang, Zheng Tengfei, Feng Hui, Yuan Xiaohui, Li Xuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (2): 93-97.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.001
    Abstract529)      PDF(pc) (1288KB)(300)       Save
    The function of “the spleen governing muscles” refers to the function of spleen to produce essence of grain and water to nourish muscles and other affiliated parts all over the whole body. However, the functions of skeletal muscles are not solely governed by the spleen.In this article,the distribution and functions of skeletal muscles in the whole body are observed according to anatomy,then these functions are compared with those of the five zang organs in TCM. The functions of skeletal muscles are supported by the physiological functions of the five organs, i.e. transportation, transformation and fixing and lifting tendency of the spleen (manifested as muscle), the respiratory function of the lung, water metabolism and reproductive function of the kidney, free flow of qi and emotions governed by the liver, and housing shen (mental activity) of the heart. To be more specific,the skeletal muscles involved in digestion corresponds with the spleen’s function of transportation and transformation.The skeletal muscles that produce muscular strength and muscular tension to maintain body movement and posture are in accordance with the spleen’s function of governing muscles in five body constituents. The fascial functions that produce tension to fix the organs and support the skin belong to the fixing and lifting function of the spleen. The skeletal muscles involved in breathing correspondto the lung’s function of governing respiration.The skeletal muscles related to urination and delivery are in accordance to the kidney’s function of governing water metabolism and reproduction.The skeletal muscles involved in the expression of emotions are related to the liver which controls free flow of qi and emotions. The skeletal muscles involved in the manifestation of spiritual activities correspond to the heart’s function of housing shen (mental activity).
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    Effect and mechanism of Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule on diabetic angiogenesis through regulatingVEGF signaling pathway *
    Ni Yingqun, Fang Zhaohui, Shi Hui
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (2): 141-147.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.008
    Abstract529)      PDF(pc) (1293KB)(110)       Save
    Objective To study the effect and mechanism of Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule (DZC) on angiogenesis based on VEGF-mediated signaling pathway in diabetic rats. Methods 10 SD rats were selected as the blank group, 50 GK rats were used to establish the model of lower limb ischemia in diabetes, and were randomly divided into the model group, the Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule high-dose group (H-DZC group), the Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule medium-dose group (M-DZC group), the Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule low-dose group (L-DZC group), and the pioglitazone hydrochloride group. In each group, the GK rats were gavaged correspondingly for 30 days.Then the density of new vessels in blood and vascular tissue of lower limbs was detected under the microscope; the contents of VEGF, Ang1, Ang2, Tie2, NO and NOS inserum were detected by ELISA; Ang1, Ang2 and Tie2 in gastrocnemius muscle were detected by Western Blot. Results The VEGF/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway was inhibited in diabetic rats with lower limb ischemia. After the treatment, serum levels of VEGF, eNOS and NO in the H-DZC, M-DZC and L-DZC groups and pioglitazone group were all significantly increased ( P<0.01 or P<0.05). Similar results were also observed in the gastrocnemius muscle. The expression of p-Akt and P-eNOS in H-DZC group and pioglitazone hydrochloride group were most significantly increased( P<0.01).Among the three DZC groups, the expression of p-Akt and P-eNOS was most significantly increased in the high-dose group ( P<0.05).In addition,compared with the model group, Ang-2 levels in serum and tissues in all treatment groups were significantly reduced ( P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the decrease was more significant in H-DZC group ( P<0.01). After the treatment, the expression of Ang-1 and Tie-2 in serum and gastrocnemius muscle tissues of rats in all treatment groups were increased ( P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the increase was more significant in H-DZC group ( P<0.01). Conclusion DZC seems to activate the inhibited VEGF/Akt/eNOS and Ang/Tie2 signaling pathways in diabetic vascular lesions and promote the dissociation of vascular basement membrane, so as to prepare for and promote the initiation of angiogenesis of vessels in lower limbs.
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    Academic thought of treating infertility in Fu Qingzhu Nyuke *
    Yang Lin, Xu Xiaofeng
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (8): 643-646.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.08.006
    Abstract519)      PDF(pc) (1199KB)(352)       Save
    Fu Qingzhu Nyuke (Fu Qingzhu’s Obstetrics and Gynecology) is written by Fu Shan, and it is specialized for gynecology. Common gynecological diseases such as leucorrhea, metrorrhagia, regulating menstruation, pregnancy, gestation and postpartum are listed in the book. The treatment of infertility in the book reflects Fu’s academic thoughts, pattern differentiation thinking, therapies, formulas and medicinals, which has great influence on later generations. In Pregnancy Chapter, Fu’s therapies for infertility emphasize tonifying kidney, liver and spleen, coordinating heart and kidney, reinforcing healthy qi and eliminating pathogenic factors and combining with Menstruation Regulation Chapter, Fu Shan had realized that pregnancy followed regulating menstruation. Fu’s academic thoughts on treatment of infertility are analyzed from above aspects, and the purpose is to further understand the book’s essence, enrich physicians’ clinical experiences and offer services for more infertile patients.
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    Preliminary evaluation of clinical efficacy of Zaizao Shengxue Capsule in treating myelodysplastic syndrome *
    Ding Hao, Zeng Qing, Di Haixia, Luo Meihong, Shen Xiaohui, He Chunling, Tian Shaodan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (3): 252-258.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.03.012
    Abstract514)      PDF(pc) (866KB)(54)       Save
    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of Zaizao Shengxue (Blood-engendering Renewal) Capsule (ZZSXC) in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome. Methods A total of 139 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of Chinese and Western medicine for myelodysplastic syndrome were enrolled according to the principles of randomized multicenter controlled trials. The 103 patients in the treatment group were given 5 ZZSXCs each time, thrice daily. The 36 patients in the control group were given 8 Fufang Zaofan (Compound Zaofan) Pills (FFZFP) each time, thrice daily. The two groups were treated for 3 months. Then their hematological improvements in HI-E, HI-P and HI-N and peripheral blood parameters (HGB, RBC, MCV, PLT, WBC and NEUT) as well as subgroup analysis, TCM pattern and physical sign scores, bleeding, infection, clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated. Results In both the treatment group and the control group, the overall percentages of improvement in such hematological parameters as HI-E, HI-P and HI-N were 51.6% and 38.5%, 44.8% and 40.0%, and 51.0% and 68.2% respectively without statistically significant difference between the two groups ( P>0.05). The differences in RBC and HGB of all the patients and the subgroup of low-risk patients in the treatment group before and after treatment were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The differences in WBC of the subgroup of high-risk patients in the treatment group before and after treatment were statistically significant ( P<0.05). The differences in NEUT of all the patients and the subgroup of low-risk patients in the control group before and after treatment were statistically significant ( P<0.05). MCV was decreased of the subgroup of low-risk patients in the treatment group after treatment compared with that before treatment with statistical significance ( P<0.05). The percentages of patients that enjoyed marked curative effects and curative effects in terms of TCM patterns in the treatment group and the control group were 29.9% and 30.3%, and 62.1% and 57.6%, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups ( P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in curative effects for individual symptoms and signs between the two groups ( P>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in hemostasis, incidence of infection and safety parameters between the two groups ( P>0.05). Conclusion Both ZZSXC and FFZFP can improve morbid hematopoiesis and hematological parameters in patients with MDS, and remarkably improve their TCM patterns and individual symptoms and signs with good clinical drug safety.
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    How do we learn to use Xiaochaihu Tang *
    Jia Chunhua
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (8): 621-624.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.08.001
    Abstract510)      PDF(pc) (1217KB)(237)       Save
    The cognitive process of learning to use Xiaochaihu Tang (Minor Decoction of Bupleurum Root) is described for revealing what happened during the process from imitating other physicians to becoming proficient in clinical application. By using the basic logic and psychological methods, the reasons why the application of Xiaochaihu Tang is expanded are discussed based on some basic concepts mainly involved the deductions between shaoyang disease and pattern of Xiaochaihu Tang, shaoyang and bile, and harmonizing and releasing shaoyang and soothing and draining liver and bile. Besides, it points out that the effectiveness of inference will be questioned and the clinical cure rate will decline, with the continuous transformation of the extension and connotation of Xiaochaihu Tang.
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    Interpretation of TCM holism by qi-monism in concept of perpetual motion *
    Qi Yuanling, Zhang Qingxiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (5): 357-361.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.05.001
    Abstract508)      PDF(pc) (1212KB)(305)       Save
    The concept of perpetual motion refers to the viewpoint of movement, development and change that should be held in understanding the change law of things, including the medical problems of birth, old age, illness and death. Motion is the most basic and most important feature of cosmic inventory and human life, and the motive power for the development and changes of things. Qi-monism is an important philosophical thought in the Pre-Qin Dynasty. It holds that qi is the origin of the universe, the intermediary of the relationship among things, and qi has the movement forms of upward, downward, inward and outward movement. It is precisely because of the continuous movement of qi that all things change vigorously, that is, qi-monism has the concept of perpetual motion. Based on the philosophical basis of qi-monism, the holism of TCM elaborates the unity between human and nature, the homology and isomorphism of human viscera and the unity and harmony between human and society, precisely because of its concept of perpetual motion. The monism of qi, based on the concept of constant motion, maintains the overall concept of traditional Chinese medicine and makes people, nature and society an organic whole.
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    Meta-analysis of effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of oligospermia and asthenospermia *
    Li Boyi, Wang Qi, Zhu Bin, Yang Peiying, Dong Yang, Yan Ji, Zheng Yanfei
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (10): 863-872.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.10.013
    Abstract507)      PDF(pc) (2976KB)(222)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of oligospermia and asthenospermia. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were retrieved from CNKI, Wanfang database, VIP, CBM, PubMed, Cochrane library, EMbase, Web of Knowledge. The date of publication was January 2004 to March 2017. RCTs about traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of oligospermia and asthenospermia were included. Treatment group received traditional Chinese medicine, while the control group was treated with Western medicine. The quality of included studies was evaluated and performed by using the statistical software STATA12.0. Results A total of 44 RCTs involving 4779 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that total effective rate [RR=1.15, 95%CI (1.07-1.23), P=1.00], semen volume [MD=0.57, 95%CI (0.44-0.70), P<0.000 01], sperm density [MD=0.82, 95%CI (0.73-0.91), P<0.000 01], percentage of class A sperm [MD=0.72, 95%CI (0.60-0.84), P<0.000 01], percentage of class A + B sperm [MD=0.85, 95%CI (0.74-0.96), P<0.000 01]. Conclusion Traditional Chinese medicine was superior to Western medicine in improving semen volume, sperm density, percentage of class A sperm, percentage of class A + B sperm, and total effective rate.
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    The metaphor analysis of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” in TCM formula based on the concept of “a prescription being a state”
    Ma Sisi, Jia Chunhua, Guo Jin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (2): 93-98.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.001
    Abstract506)      PDF(pc) (1942KB)(306)       Save
    Objective To explore the metaphorical nature of the “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” theory in TCM formula. Methods In this paper, we use the method of metaphorical cognition to explore the cognitive process and application of the theory of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” in TCM Formula. Results It is found that from the perspective of official system, “monarch-minister-assistant-envoy” composition is a three-level structure characterized “monarch-minister-assistant”. The core of the “monarch-minister-assistant-envoy” formula is the relationship between monarch and minister. There are different levels of spatial metaphor in the concept of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy”. Firstly, the effect of medicinals on the main pattern is a three-level gradient spatial metaphor; Secondly, the importance of disease and manifestations is another three-level gradient spatial metaphor. There is no way to apply the “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” theory without analyzing the importance of the disease and its manifestations. Medicinal gradient is based on the recognition of symptom gradient. Conclusion It is concluded that the essence of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” metaphor is the mapping of human conceptual thinking from the field of social system to the field of formula based on spatial metaphor. The essence of metaphor is pathway-sharing and chaos-sorting. Therefore, the theoretical system of TCM based on metaphor can guide the clinical practice of “taking unblockage as harmony” and “taking balance as the goal”.
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    Rrecognition on kidney storing essence in Huangdi Neijing and clinical understand on male infertility *
    Liu Chunying, Wang Haohao, Wang Chuanhang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (8): 633-636.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.08.004
    Abstract500)      PDF(pc) (1141KB)(150)       Save
    The related thesis on theory of kidney storing essence in Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic) and male infertility were discussed combined with clinical practice. Some feelings and experiences are put forward in the paper, including “essence being stored in kidney rather than born in kidney”, “although kidney storing essence and its treatment being in liver”, “focus on liver should being in line with the five elements”, “kidney and essence deficiency being treated considering both spleen and stomach”, “spermatogenesis being easy to move and its treatment should considering warm therapies”, “peace and spermatogenesis intending to fine-tune”, and “expensive being in pattern differentiation and subtle being in modification”. The administration rules of formulas and medicinals are summarized in clinical treatment of male infertility. The important role of liver in the theory of kidney storing essence and male infertility is stressed with hope of providing a broader idea for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility.
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    Brief account of Zhang Zhongjing’s medical origin *
    Pan Zhongyi, Fu Yanling, Song Jia, Ni Shenglou
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (11): 894-899.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.11.003
    Abstract497)      PDF(pc) (1123KB)(808)       Save
    Zhang Zhongjing medicine has an extraordinary position and influence in the academic development history of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Those who have studied TCM since ancient times have absorbed nutrient from it. To study Zhongjing medicine, we should first understand its origin and development. In this paper, we comb up this issue from the following three aspects including the origin of Zhongjing medicine, the emergence of Zhongjing medicine, and the branch of Zhongjing medicine. We believe that the origin of Zhongjing medicine can be dated back to Sanshi Medicine in ancient times and Four Medical Schools in the Spring and Autumn Warring States period, the emergence of Zhongjing medicine is reflected as integration of medical classics and classical formulas and coherence of every section of TCM pattern differentiation and treatment, and the branch of Zhongjing medicine is mainly manifested as continuous development of Shanghan schools during 1 800 years, its important influence on other medical branches and schools, as well as the spread and changes abroad.
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    The triple burners and four qi paths
    Ma Ning
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (10): 797-802.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.10.001
    Abstract493)      PDF(pc) (9654KB)(202)       Save
    The triple burners (Sanjiao) and the four qi paths (Sijie) are the major cavities and spaces in the human body. They are the most important spaces to accommodate and distribute the defensive qi (weiqi). Triple burners are body cavities: the upper burner ( Shangjiao) is the mediastinum; the middle burner ( Zhongjiao) is the peritoneal cavity; and the lower burner (Xiajiao) is the general term for the retro-peritoneal cavity. Consistent with modern anatomical nomenclature, Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic) named the retro-peritoneal cavity in two terms: lower burner (Xiajiao) and Sanjiao. Xiajiao referred to the perirectal space and Sanjiao referred to retro-peritoneal space. The retroperitoneal space is renamed as “retro- Sanjiao” in this article in order to differentiate the general term of Sanjiao when it refers to the three body cavities. The lower burner is the base of the generation, accumulation and distribution of the defensive qi. Four qi paths are the extension of the upper and lower burners. The abdominal qijie corresponds to extraperitoneal fascia, and the leg qijie refers to the anterior and posterior osteofascial sheathes. The pectoral qijie is equivalent to the endothoracic fascia, and the head qijie refers to retropharyngeal space and prevertebral space etc. Triple burners and meridians are the spaces and routes for the distribution and circulation of defensive qi. Once there is an obstruction in the four extremities, one of the four qi path will open and engage to relieve the pressure of defensive qi, and eventually will involve all of four qi paths. Therefore, it is necessary not only to stimulate the points related to four qi paths, but also has to resolve the obstruction in the body extremities in order to regain the normal circulation of the defensive qi.
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    Study on identification and intervention of composite constitutions
    Sun Pengcheng, Wang Ji, Yang Peiying, Wang Qi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (2): 99-102.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.002
    Abstract492)      PDF(pc) (1230KB)(215)       Save
    Composite constitution is prevalent among people. Its complexity makes it difficult to identify or intervene; therefore, this is one of the most difficult problems in today’s TCM constitution study. This article proposes the idea of further analyzing composite constitution with the help of auxiliary analysis scale, finding out the dominant constitution, and classifying it into nine basic constitution types. For particular composite constitution, this article puts forward corresponding methods to intervene. For constitutions that don’t contradict each other, they should be intervened equally; while for contradictory constitutions, the dominant constitution should get more intervention. Another important rule is that, during the whole intervention, the vital qi should be supported gradually. This proposal could serve as a reference for new approaches to the identification and intervention of composite constitution.
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    Facial diagnosis in the que section in Huangdi Neijing *
    Jiang Shiqian, Li Hua, Liu Wanghua, Li Yuxiang, Chen Yanyan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (4): 280-283.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.003
    Abstract491)      PDF(pc) (692KB)(75)       Save
    According to the original text of the Huangdi's Internal Classic ( Huangdi Neijing)and the related statements of the later generations, this paper discusses the main contents of facial diagnosis in the que section from four aspects: evaluating the physique, identifying wind or blockage, viscera, and five colors. Firstly, wide and bulging glabella usually means strong physique. Secondly, wind means exogenous pathogenic factors attacking on the skin, hair and lung, while blockage refers to the blockage of meridians, qi and blood. Thirdly, the attribution for viscera can be lung, heart or liver. Lastly, five colors in the que Section can be divided into two modes: Yin-Yang and five elements. Commonly-seen five color diseases are also listed to provide new ideas for the theoretical research of Neijing and divisional facial diagnosis, and provide reference for the clinical application of the theory of Neijing and divisional facial diagnosis.
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    Discussion on the application of later heaven eight diagrams (houtian bagua) in Huangdi Neijing *
    Wang Hong, Zheng Ruoyun, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 8-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.002
    Abstract489)      PDF(pc) (1684KB)(311)       Save
    Model thinking is an important way of original thinking in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Examples like three yin and three yang, Yellow River Map, Lo Shu Square, as well as the Stems-and-Branches, are all original thinking models that have played an important part in constructing the theoretical system of Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). It is very important to analyze the influence of different original thinking modals on medical theories in order to understand them. Later heaven eight diagrams (houtian bagua) is an important thinking model in both traditional culture and TCM. It contains the double connotations of time and space, which has important influences on the regional division of nine palaces and eight winds in Huangdi Neijing, and the positioning of human viscera, especially in the proposal of the “earth pivot and four images” and the theory of human body corresponding to the nine geographical divisions. It is also an important demonstration of the “unity of man and nature”.
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    The origin of discipline is the source of innovation: a thought after reading the chapter of Discussion on the Changes of Qi-Convergence in Plain Questions
    Wang Yongyan, Zhang Huamin, Ji Xinyu
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 5-7.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.001
    Abstract488)      PDF(pc) (1283KB)(306)       Save
    The chapter entitiled Discussion on the Changes of Qi-Convergence in Plain Questions is about the excess and insufficiency of five-motion qi and changes of de (function), hua (transformation), zheng (administration), ling (order), to elaborate the relation between nature, disorder and phenomena. This paper analyzes the chapter from the following three aspects: Firstly, the pathogenesis of patterns due to excessive or insufficient yearly qi helps to comprehend the general mechanism of five qi excess or insufficiency, the relations of engendering, restraining, over-restraining and counter-restraining among them. Therefore manifestation observation should be the premise of pattern diagnosis and disease treatment. Secondly, the elucidated rule of Daoism follows the law of nature and thus manifestations are for us to consider; No reckless action is to be taken without any careful account. Thirdly, innovation is the priority to inheritance of past knowledge and development of new theories. Based on the author’s research and clinical experiences against infectious diseases and H1N1 influenza in the earlier years, this paper emphasizes that independent thinking originates from the cultural awareness and that exploring the origins of the discipline is the source of innovation.
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    Historical compilation and inheritance of Sun Simiao’s Version of Shang Han Lun *
    Fu Peng, Wang Yulin, Zhou Liqun
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (4): 284-288.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.004
    Abstract487)      PDF(pc) (1528KB)(68)       Save
    Sun Simiao’s Version of Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases(Shang Han Lun, SHL) in the Tang dynasty is an important text different from the Song dynasty version. It is often referred to as Tang Dynasty SHL version.This paper expounds the academic background of Sun Simiao's SHL Version and studies its major versions available in later generations. Then it explores the textual changes throughout the history and analyzes the relations between different versions and corresponding academic thoughts. These changes, especially the occurrence and development of the Sun Simiao’s SHL separatum, represent two opposing schools of act in compiling and inheriting ancient classics in the Ming and Qing dynasties: respecting the classics by maintaining faithful to the ancient text versus revising and renewing textual errors.The compilation and inheritance history has contributed to the abundant academic exchange and literature.
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    Study on Shen Tong and his book Shigu
    Yan Minmin, Huang Zuozhen
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (2): 103-108.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.003
    Abstract484)      PDF(pc) (1379KB)(355)       Save
    Shen Tong is a scholar of Qing Dynasty in classics study and textual criticism. He kept close contacts with masters of classics such as Hui Dong and Fang Bao. Xu Lingtai, a famous doctor in the Qing Dynasty, was his fellow townsman. He had lived in Xu’s hospital for a period of time, during which an acupuncturist asked him some questions about acupoint. Since he was ashamed of his ignorance of the structure of human body and worried about the erroneous exposition that had been circulated since the Tang Dynasty, he decided to write the book later known as Shigu. Shigu (Explaining bones) is a TCM anatomy book on bones. The main contents in this book included the names, locations and appearances of bones in all parts of body which had been mentioned in Huangdi’s Internal Classics and AB Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. The exegesis and styles of this book are characterized by the statement that ”to confirm the word by classics, and explain classics with the word”. Although short in length, it had a profound influence. It was first published in Sixteenth years of Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty (1751), and spread to Japan soon after its publication, becoming an important reference book for acupuncture and moxibustion as well as the explanation of Huangdi’s Internal Classics. It is of great significance in the history of TCM anatomy.
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    Study of the relationship between membrane system and defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Jiang Xin, Gu Xiaohong, Liu Tiegang, Yu He, Yang Guannan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 973-976.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.001
    Abstract480)      PDF(pc) (1172KB)(283)       Save
    Defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification,initiated by Ye Tianshi, an expert of warm disease at the end of the Ming Dynasty,was a cornerstone of the theory of warm disease. Based on years of clinical experience, it is found that the membrane system and collateral system, which are extensively distributed in the human body, are the defense-qi-nutrient-bloodcarrier and channel, replenishing and nourishing the whole body and ensuring the defense-qi-nutrient-blood physiological functions. At the same time, the membrane system is also the place where warm pathogens attack, transmit and change.In addition, the struggle between healthy qi and pathogenic factors in the membrane system determines the location, depth, urgency and pathological changes of disease.Therefore, this article explores the relationship between the membrane system and defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification in terms of their connotation, physiology, pathology and treatment to provide theoretical reference for clinical practice and scientific research.
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    Textual research of the Chinese character bi in clause 32 of Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases
    Yang Xingliang, Yang Dongfang, Wang Cuicui
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (2): 109-112.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.004
    Abstract479)      PDF(pc) (1226KB)(209)       Save
    Since ancient times, TCM scholars have had different interpretation of the Chinese character bi (必) in clause 32 of Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases (Shanghan Lun) of Song Dynasty Edition. Most of these explanations defined it as “must”. Some however argued that bi meant “if” and represented a hypothetical relationship. This paper used textual criticism and annotation through using exegesis method and documentation records, and arrived at the conclusion that the meaning of bi should be “if”. This conclusion had practical significance in the understanding of the text.
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    A new interpretation of the exterior concept in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Hu Rong, Tian Yongyan, Li Jintian, Zhao Xiaoqiang, Zhao Zhiwei, Lian Fenhong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (10): 803-807.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.10.002
    Abstract478)      PDF(pc) (3259KB)(287)       Save
    With regard to “exterior”, it is generally considered that this entity refers to the muscle and surface of human body. In fact, according to the depth of human tissue and the connection with the outside world, the exterior can be further refined into “the surface of exterior”, “the lining of exterior”, “the surface of interior”. The skin, hair and muscle are in direct contact with the outside world. The outermost layer of the human body is “the surface of exterior”; the meridians, bones, and blood vessels is deeper than the surface of the exterior, and it is not directly connected with the outside world. So it is the human body “the lining of exterior”; human internal organs that communicate directly with the outside world are the “the surface of interior”. The defensive function of the “exterior” is the embodiment of the defensive qi (weiqi) function, and the function of the defensive qi depends on the “exterior” of the tangible entity. This “exterior” entity division can broaden the scope of application ofexterior-resolving method and wind-expelling medicinals, and enrich the theory of external treatment.
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    Effect and mechanism of Huxie Huaji Ointment combined with cisplatin on apoptosis of H22 cells of liver cancer *
    Du Qing, Cai Yuan, Shen Bingbing, Li Xinliang, Xie Fangyi, Zhang Shuihan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (5): 409-415.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.05.009
    Abstract475)      PDF(pc) (2125KB)(118)       Save
    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of Huxie Huaji Ointment combined with cisplatin on apoptosis of H22 cells of liver cancer. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into blank control group and Huxie Huaji Ointment, and the blood samples were collected from abdominal aorta for preparing medicated serum of Huxie Huaji Ointment after treatment continuously for 3 d. The logarithmic H22 cells were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal group, blank control group, cisplatin group, 20% of medicated serum group and 20% of medicated serum+cisplatin group. The influence of the medicated serum on H22 apoptosis was detected by using CCK-8 method, and apoptotic morphologic changes of H22 cells was observed after Hoechst 33258 staining in all groups. The expressions of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), cytochrome C (Cyt C), BCL2-associated X (Bax) and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-9 (caspase-9) in H22 cells were detected by using high-content cell imaging analysis technology. Results Compared with blank control group, the proliferation of H22 cells was inhibited in a dose-time-dependent manner in medicated serum group,and the efficacr was the best in 20% of medicated serum group. Compared with blank control group, cisplatin group and medicated serum group, H22 cells showed nuclear chromatin aggregation and karyopyknosis in varying degrees, and more typical apoptotic characteristics in medicated serum+cisplatin group. The mean fluorescence intensity values of Cyt C, Bax and caspase-9 increased significantly in H22 cells ( P<0.01 of P<0.05), and their protein expressions increased significantly. The mean fluorescence intensity value of Bcl-2 decreased significantly in H22 cells ( P<0.01 of P<0.05), and its protein expression decreased significantly. Conclusion The medicated serum of Huxie Huaji Ointment combined with cisplatin can significantly inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis of H22 cells, and the mechanism may be related to the imbalance of Bax and Bcl-2 protein expressions, and increases of Cyt C secretion and caspase-9 protein expression.
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