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    Pandemic risk factor analysis of COVID-19 and inspirations from its prevention and control
    Wang Yongyan, Wang Zhong, Bai Weiguo, Zhi Yingjie, Wang Yanping
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 621-622.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.001
    Abstract317)      PDF(pc) (1316KB)(858)       Save
    In order to promote effective prevention and control of the pestilence by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), it’s of great significance to explore the main ways of the pestilence epidemic. The most weighted epidemic factor is the environmental degradation. Thus, the application of the Yunqi Theory emphasizing “harmony between man and nature” into the prevention and treatment of the pestilence in clinic would be the best way to gain the common consent of the effect and the decrease of the mortality, which might be a good opportunity to show TCM contribution to the health of the human. Based on the standardization of the operation procedures, it’s further suggested that extraction of key elements in patterns of the disease should be viewed as a breakthrough, combined with various technologies from the network, block data and big data of biological blockchain, thus ushering in the third stage of Chinese epidemiology.
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    Study on eight trigrams- zangfu corresponding system based on image thinking of I-ching *
    Li Honghai, Han Qi, Ma Yuexiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (7): 585-590.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.07.002
    Abstract145)      PDF(pc) (778KB)(606)       Save
    Eight trigrams- zangfu system has been used by many TCM doctors since ancient times. It plays a unique advantageous role in the interpretation of visceral manifestation and pathology. However, there still exist disputes and incompleteness in its specific corresponding relations. For example, Luo Dingchang, a doctor in the Qing Dynasty, thought that lung corresponds to Qian hexagram. Sun Yikui in the Ming Dynasty, however, held that Dui is the corresponding hexagram.Meanwhile, Zheng Qin'an in the Qing Dynasty, mainly discussed the heart and kidney from the two hexagrams of Li and Kan. As a result, the theory of eight trigrams- zangfu has not formed a unified and systematic corresponding system. Therefore, our team combined literature review and theoretical discussion in studying the relevant contents of I-Ching ( The Book of Changes in Zhou Dynasty), the TCM- Zhouyi theory, and the basic theory of TCM by using the image-number thinking in I-Ching. Based on the acquired eight trigrams, diction, shape, image and nature related to the physiological and functional characteristics of each viscera, we concluded that the correspondence of eight trigrams- zangfu system is as follows by using the thinking methods of image classification and image-number relation: Zhen corresponds to liver, gallbladder; Xun, liver; Li, heart, small intestine, pericardium; Kun, spleen, small intestine, bladder,triple energizer; Dui, lung, large intestine; Qian, lung; Kan, kidney, bladder,triple energizer; Gen, spleen, stomach, large intestine, gallbladder. And their corresponding relations are refined to the specific functions of zang-fu organs. It is hoped that the analysis and summary of the eight trigrams- zangfu corresponding system will be helpful to the development and research, and inheritance of TCM- Zhouyi theory and visceral manifestation theory, which can provide theoretical reference for clinical practice.
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    Research on the formation and development of academic thought of Liu Wansu’s fire theory *
    Liu Fan, Wei Fengqin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 27-31.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.006
    Abstract428)      PDF(pc) (1209KB)(541)       Save
    This paper focuses on the formation and development of Liu Wansu’s fire theory to shed light on its influence on the inheritance and innovation of TCM. Firstly, the paper elaborates on the forming process of Liu Wansu’s fire theory, which mainly includes his own practice, collection of classics, and integration of neo-confucianism into the theory. Secondly, from the perspectives of TCM practitioners in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, of warm pathogen diseases and modern scholars, the paper further summarizes the thread of inheritance. Finally, influence of Liu Wansu’s fire theory (formation and development) on the inheritance and innovation of modern Chinese medicine is expounded. To sum up, focusing on classics and learning from various sources are the prerequisite for successful inheritance and innovation.
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    A new interpretation of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” in Huangdi Neijing *
    Zhang Tianxing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 17-20.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.004
    Abstract951)      PDF(pc) (1146KB)(479)       Save
    The statement of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” came from the chapter entitled Yinyang Yingxiang Dalun (Major Discussion on the Theory of Yin and Yang and the Corresponding Relationships Among All the Things in Nature) in Suwen (Plain Questions). Based on the annotations of ancient doctors, this paper put forward the viewpoint of interpreting yin and yang from the aspect of interior and exterior. “Extreme yang turning into yin” means that when the exogenous pathogens are too strong or the exterior is repeatedly influenced by six pathogenic factors, the disease will transmit from the exterior to the interior, injuring qi movement of five zang-organs. “Extreme yin turning into yang” means that when the internal injury is too severe, which leads to deficiency or disorder of internal qi, the exterior will also be involved, resulting in the recurrence of exogenous diseases. The statement that “happiness and anger injure the qi, while heat and cold injure the appearance” describes the law of how endogenous and exogeous pathogens cause diseases, while “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” describes the valatility of diseases. The essence of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” is to explain the relationship between exogenous and endogenous disorders. This idea is the theoretical basis for clinical understanding of the causes, analysis of pathogenesis, and pattern differentiation, and it merits forther exploring and developing.
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    Experience of understanding pestilence from the perspective of five-circuit six-qi theory: Reading notes of two supplemented chapters in Suwen
    Wang Yongyan, Fan Yipin, Zhang Huamin, Bai Weiguo, Wang Yanping
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 445-448.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.001
    Abstract447)      PDF(pc) (1248KB)(425)       Save
    The theoretical statements on epidemic diseases in the two originally-lost later-supplemented chapters in Suwen (Plain Questions) suggest that the five-circuit six-qi theory is still of significant reference to the prevention and treatment of pestilence in modern times. Taking three major historical pandemics as example, i.e. encephalitis B in 1974, influenza in 2009 and COVID-19 in Wuhan in 2019, this paper advocates that the TCM community should take the history as a mirror while shouldering the responsibility of preventing and treating epidemic diseases. The circuit-qi theory of the traditional ancient Chinese civilization needs to be integrated with modern ecology, sociology and other diverse disciplines and perspectives to seek the underlying cause of the spreading of pestilence. This paper also summarizes the essential pattern elements and the priority of treatment. Integrated Chinese and Western medical approach is emphasized in the battle against pestilence. The original thinking of holistic manifestation, numbers and changes needs to be highlighted. Under the guidance of ancient Chinese studies, observing the xiang (manifestation) of the disease to discern the underlying dao (way) of treatment should be used to guide the clinical practice.
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    On significance of ancient astronomical coordinate systems for research into doctrine of five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences *
    Meng Qingyan, Zhang Qicheng, Zhang Qingxiang, Liu Yuanyuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 983-987.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.003
    Abstract437)      PDF(pc) (2006KB)(403)       Save
    As an important part of TCM theory, the doctrine of the five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences involves the pattern of changes in nature based on human’s observation and life experience.The doctrine emerged when astronomy in ancient China had reached a high level of precision.Thus, this paper analyzes the characteristics of three ancient astronomical coordinate systems,which may provide some reference for current study of the doctrine.It probes into the doctrine of the five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences and corrects some mistakes in the present research on the doctrine by analyzing it in the specific context where it emerged and developed. It also deepens the connotation of the doctrine by revealing the major, essential and inevitable factors in its formation, which provides reference for the learning and theoretical study of the doctrine.
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    Theoretical analyses on “tongue is the orifice of heart” *
    Li Yu, Zhang Xueliang, Zhang Min, Wang Qingguo
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 32-34.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.007
    Abstract456)      PDF(pc) (1136KB)(356)       Save
    The statement “tongue is the orifice of heart”, also known as “heart opens into the tongue”, comes from the Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). The physiological function and pathological changes of the heart are closely related to the tongue. As the orifice of the heart, tongue is connected with the heart on meridians and channels. Tongue expresses the heart by helping articulate, while the heart dominates mind by opening into the tongue. By observing the tongue, doctor can underst and the functional state of the heart’s governing blood vessels and mind. Clinically, the theory of “tongue being the orifice of the heart” can guide the diagnosis and treatment of such diseases as orifice occlusion.
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    Ye Tianshi’s treatment methods of warming spleen yang and regulating stomach yang: resolving a doubt *
    Yao Haiqiang, Wang Qi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (11): 890-893.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.11.002
    Abstract580)      PDF(pc) (1144KB)(315)       Save
    In visceral manifestation theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), spleen and stomach are coupled viscera and usually, they are also mentioned together. However, their physiological and pathological characteristics, and therapeutic Methods and suitable formulas and herbs for spleen and stomach are all different. The differences in pathogenesis, pattern manifestations, therapeutic Methods, formulas and medicinals between spleen and stomach are analyzed and summarized based on Ye Tianshi’s clinical records. The therapeutic Methods for different levels of spleen yang deficiency and stomach yang deficiency are elucidated in detail with specific medical cases, for examples, Li Dongyuan’s therapeutic method of replenishing qi and upraising yang, and therapeutic Methods of Linggui Zhugan Tang, Lizhong Tang and Fuzi Lizhong Tang for warming spleen yang, and therapeutic Methods of Dabanxia Tang, Wuzhuyu Tang and Fuzi Jingmi Tang for regulating stomach yang. In some circumstance, spleen yang deficiency and stomach yang deficiency may appear simultaneously, and they should be treated together or in proper order according to pattern manifestations. It is hoped to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of spleen-stomach diseases.
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    Citation analysis of articles in Journal of Beijing University of TCM cited by SCIE journals *
    Wang Limin, Yan Juntang, Huang Yinghua, You Haiyan, Zhang Hui, Hao Sumei, Zou Huiqin, Xu Rongting, Lu Guanglin, Liang Jichun, Luo Bin, Zhang Chi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 1049-1056.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.013
    Abstract383)      PDF(pc) (1191KB)(313)       Save
    Objective To provide reference for the development of Journal of Beijing University of TCM (JBUTCM) based on quantitative analysis of all the articles in the journals in SCIE database, which cited papers published in JBUTCM. Methods Through search on Web of Science Core Collection: Cited Reference Search, articles in the journals in SCIE database that cited papers in JBUTCM were analyzed in this paper. Results From 1995 to 2018, a total number of 556 articles were cited in SCIE database journals and the accumulative citation frequency was 879, both of which exhibited parabolic trends. The number of citing articles was 773 with annual increases. The first author’s institutional affiliation of the cited articles was mainly Beijing University of Chinese Medicine. Among all the papers published with research funding, those funded by the national funding were the majority. There were ten articles with cited frequency higher than five, five of which were published in the Science & Technology Theme column, four in the Theoretical Studies column, and the other one was in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Experimental Research column. The journals that carried the papers that cited articles in JBUTCM ranked at the middle level in the world. The citing articles were mostly in such areas as integrative and complementary medicine, pharmacology and pharmacy, and chemistry. Conclusion The percentage of cited articles accounted for only 8.7% of the total number of articles published in JBUTCM. While the journal exerted relatively large influence at home, its international influence was comparatively small. The articles in columns Science & Technology Theme and Theoretical Studies attracted more attention than those in other columns, and therefore, the two columns should be preserved and strengthened. In addition, JBUTCM should publish more and better research papers related to integrative and complementary medicine, pharmacology and pharmacy, and chemistry to improve its academic influence.
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    Effect of Xiefei Decoction on the inflammatory factors and VEGF expression in rats with pulmonary fibrosis *
    Yan Chunlu, An Fangyu, Liu Yongqi, Luo Yali, Wu Zhiwei, Liu Xuesong, Li Yang, Shi Xufeng, Zhang Xue
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (10): 847-853.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.009
    Abstract317)      PDF(pc) (1781KB)(312)       Save
    ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Xiefei Decoction (Lung Heat-clearing Decoction, XFT) on the inflammatory factors and the expression of VEGF in lung tissue of pulmonary fibrosis rats induced by bleomycin. Methods 84 SPF SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, XFT low, middle and high-dose XFT groups and prednisone group ( n = 14 in each group). Apart from the normal group, a single dose of bleomycin was intratracheally injected into the SD rats to induce pulmonary fibrosis (PF). The normal group received the same amount of normal saline. After 24 hours, low, middle and high-dose XFT groups were given a gavage of 10 g/kg·d, 20 g/kg·d and 40 g/kg·d respectively; the prednisone group was given prednisone 1.8 mg/kg·d; and the normal group and model group were given equal volume of normal saline. All rats were sacrificad after 28 days. The pathomorphism changes of lung tissue were observed with HE; the contents of IL-6 and IL-10 in serum were evaluated with ELISA; expression of VEGF gene and caspase-3 gene in lung tissue were assessed by RT-PCR; and VEGF expression in lung tissue was assessed by Western blot. Results Compared with the blank control group, the pathological score, inflammatory cell count, serum IL-6 content, and the expression of caspase-3 and VEGF in lung tissue were significantly increased, but serum IL-10 was significantly decreased in the model group ( P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in all XFT groups, the expression of VEGF decreased significantly; and the pathological score, inflammatory cell count, serum IL-6 contents, the gene expression of caspase-3 and VEGF were decreased significantly ( P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, the serum IL-10 content was significantly increased in XFT mid-dose and high-dose groups compared with the model group ( P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion XFT seems to delay disease progression of pulmonary fibrosis, possibly through inhibition of inflammation, apoptosis and angiogenesis.
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    Discussion on the application of later heaven eight diagrams (houtian bagua) in Huangdi Neijing *
    Wang Hong, Zheng Ruoyun, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 8-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.002
    Abstract489)      PDF(pc) (1684KB)(311)       Save
    Model thinking is an important way of original thinking in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Examples like three yin and three yang, Yellow River Map, Lo Shu Square, as well as the Stems-and-Branches, are all original thinking models that have played an important part in constructing the theoretical system of Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). It is very important to analyze the influence of different original thinking modals on medical theories in order to understand them. Later heaven eight diagrams (houtian bagua) is an important thinking model in both traditional culture and TCM. It contains the double connotations of time and space, which has important influences on the regional division of nine palaces and eight winds in Huangdi Neijing, and the positioning of human viscera, especially in the proposal of the “earth pivot and four images” and the theory of human body corresponding to the nine geographical divisions. It is also an important demonstration of the “unity of man and nature”.
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    The origin of discipline is the source of innovation: a thought after reading the chapter of Discussion on the Changes of Qi-Convergence in Plain Questions
    Wang Yongyan, Zhang Huamin, Ji Xinyu
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 5-7.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.001
    Abstract488)      PDF(pc) (1283KB)(306)       Save
    The chapter entitiled Discussion on the Changes of Qi-Convergence in Plain Questions is about the excess and insufficiency of five-motion qi and changes of de (function), hua (transformation), zheng (administration), ling (order), to elaborate the relation between nature, disorder and phenomena. This paper analyzes the chapter from the following three aspects: Firstly, the pathogenesis of patterns due to excessive or insufficient yearly qi helps to comprehend the general mechanism of five qi excess or insufficiency, the relations of engendering, restraining, over-restraining and counter-restraining among them. Therefore manifestation observation should be the premise of pattern diagnosis and disease treatment. Secondly, the elucidated rule of Daoism follows the law of nature and thus manifestations are for us to consider; No reckless action is to be taken without any careful account. Thirdly, innovation is the priority to inheritance of past knowledge and development of new theories. Based on the author’s research and clinical experiences against infectious diseases and H1N1 influenza in the earlier years, this paper emphasizes that independent thinking originates from the cultural awareness and that exploring the origins of the discipline is the source of innovation.
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    Attribution of skeletal muscle to the five zang organs in TCM *
    Guo Chunxia, Zhang Qiming, Wang Yiguo, Zhang Jianxiong, XuYang, Zheng Tengfei, Feng Hui, Yuan Xiaohui, Li Xuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (2): 93-97.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.001
    Abstract529)      PDF(pc) (1288KB)(300)       Save
    The function of “the spleen governing muscles” refers to the function of spleen to produce essence of grain and water to nourish muscles and other affiliated parts all over the whole body. However, the functions of skeletal muscles are not solely governed by the spleen.In this article,the distribution and functions of skeletal muscles in the whole body are observed according to anatomy,then these functions are compared with those of the five zang organs in TCM. The functions of skeletal muscles are supported by the physiological functions of the five organs, i.e. transportation, transformation and fixing and lifting tendency of the spleen (manifested as muscle), the respiratory function of the lung, water metabolism and reproductive function of the kidney, free flow of qi and emotions governed by the liver, and housing shen (mental activity) of the heart. To be more specific,the skeletal muscles involved in digestion corresponds with the spleen’s function of transportation and transformation.The skeletal muscles that produce muscular strength and muscular tension to maintain body movement and posture are in accordance with the spleen’s function of governing muscles in five body constituents. The fascial functions that produce tension to fix the organs and support the skin belong to the fixing and lifting function of the spleen. The skeletal muscles involved in breathing correspondto the lung’s function of governing respiration.The skeletal muscles related to urination and delivery are in accordance to the kidney’s function of governing water metabolism and reproduction.The skeletal muscles involved in the expression of emotions are related to the liver which controls free flow of qi and emotions. The skeletal muscles involved in the manifestation of spiritual activities correspond to the heart’s function of housing shen (mental activity).
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    Analysis of the concept of “Zhengqi” in Huangdi Neijing *
    Shi Lingsheng, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 469-474.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.005
    Abstract361)      PDF(pc) (1254KB)(293)       Save
    In modern Chinese medicine, “ Zhengqi”, often juxtaposed with “ Xieqi”,is an important concept in the theory of pathogenesis based on exuberance and debilitation of Xieqi (pathogenic factors) and Zhengqi (healthy qi).However,in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), “Zhengqi” originally meant “Zhengfeng” (right wind), essentially referring to wind in the right direction in the right season. Therefore, it was also an external pathogenic factor in modern sense because of its potential capacity to cause diseases. It was in the Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern dynasties (220 AD-589 AD) when “ Zhengqi” began to acquire its physiological sense. Later, it gradually became clear that the term referred to healthy qi.Its connotation of “ Zhengfeng” was formally replaced with “healthy qi” in the sentence “when there is sufficient Zhengqi inside the body, Xie (pathogen) cannot invade the body” in the chapter “Discussion on Acupuncture Methods”, the original contents of which were lost in history and the present contents were added by scholars in the Song Dynasty to Suwen (Plain Conversation). Since then, it was thoroughly established that “ Zhengqi” denoted antipathogenic physiological factors,providing significant theoretical basis for the modern concept of “ Zhengqi”.
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    On naming COVID-19 in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Liu Tiegang, Bai Chen, Liu Shaoyang, Long Chaojun, Hu Li, Zhao Yansong, Yu He, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 797-803.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.001
    Abstract546)      PDF(pc) (1274KB)(290)       Save
    Through review of national and regional Diagnosis and Treatment Plan of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related literature, this article analyzed the characteristics of COVID-19, and probed into its TCM nomenclature, combining the naming rules for pestilence in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The terms used for COVID-19 in TCM currently include pestilence, cold pestilence, cold-damp pestilence, cold-damp lung pestilence, damp pestilence, dampness-toxin pestilence, warm pestilence, damp-heat pestilence, lung pestilence, wind pestilence, winter pestilence, wind-warm and damp pestilence, wood pestilence, etc. COVID-19 can be generally referred to as “pestilence”in TCM; according to the nature of the symptoms and the characteristics of the pathogenesis, it can be named as “dampness-toxin pestilence” since symptoms of damp nature have maintained throughout the disease course with the pathogenesis of stasis and toxin obstruction; the name of “lung pestilence” according to disease location fails to reflect the lesion site of the disease; the name of “winter pestilence”, “wind pestilence” and “wind-warm and dampness pestilence” according to the time of onset, though in accordance with the definition of warm diseases, does not conform to the characteristics and pathological rules of the disease; according to the five elements motion and six climatic changes, it can be named as “wood pestilence”. At present, it is not suitable to name the disease only according to clinical characteristics, but with increased understanding of this disease, the nomenclature may be further improved.
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    Pathogenesis of “water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood” in Parkinson’s disease with depression *
    Chen Hongjing, Li Xiaoli, Liu Haipeng, Lin Liangyin, Diao Huaqiong, Ding Haiyue, Wei Dan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (2): 98-102.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.002
    Abstract584)      PDF(pc) (1224KB)(290)       Save
    “Water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood” refers to that kidney yang deficiency and cold coagulation in the kidney may lead to failune of the kidney to warm the liver and liver qi stagnation. This pathogenesis originated from the Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), and has been developed and applied to diseases of various systems by later physicians. Based on literature research, it is observed that this pathogenesis could possibly be applied in interpreting the mechanism of Parkinson’s disease with depression (PDD) from TCM perspective. For PDD, yang deficiency and cold coagulation of the kidney is the root of the attack, and liver qi stagnation appears in the initial stage. According to various clinical studies, the therapeutic method of warming the kidney yang to relieve liver qi stagnation is effective in treating PDD. Based on such findings, we have developed a formula (composed of Zhifuzi (prepared aconite root, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata), Bajitian (morinda root,Radix Morindae Officinalis), Chaihu (bupleurum, Radix Bupleuri)) with corresponding effects, which proves to be 70%effective. Pharmacological studies also show that certain traditional Chinese medicinals with the effect of warming the kidney or relieving the liver qi stagnation can show some effect in the treatment of PDD. These research results support the exploration of the pathogenesis of PDD from the perspective of “water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood”. This article has explored such a pathogenesis in PDD based on literature reviews of classical TCM literature, relevant theories and modern studies, in order to provide new ideas and references for the pathogenesis research and clinical treatment of PDD.
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    Study of the relationship between membrane system and defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Jiang Xin, Gu Xiaohong, Liu Tiegang, Yu He, Yang Guannan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 973-976.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.001
    Abstract480)      PDF(pc) (1172KB)(283)       Save
    Defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification,initiated by Ye Tianshi, an expert of warm disease at the end of the Ming Dynasty,was a cornerstone of the theory of warm disease. Based on years of clinical experience, it is found that the membrane system and collateral system, which are extensively distributed in the human body, are the defense-qi-nutrient-bloodcarrier and channel, replenishing and nourishing the whole body and ensuring the defense-qi-nutrient-blood physiological functions. At the same time, the membrane system is also the place where warm pathogens attack, transmit and change.In addition, the struggle between healthy qi and pathogenic factors in the membrane system determines the location, depth, urgency and pathological changes of disease.Therefore, this article explores the relationship between the membrane system and defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification in terms of their connotation, physiology, pathology and treatment to provide theoretical reference for clinical practice and scientific research.
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    Exploration of the mechanism of homotherapy for heteropathy of Faeces Bombycis based on network pharmacology *
    Chu Fuhao, Li Yuan, Wang Yan, Gao Ying, Zhang Beibei, Su Zeqi, Ding Xia
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 56-65.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.011
    Abstract444)      PDF(pc) (3142KB)(264)       Save
    Objective To explore the main active compositions and their targets of Cansha (Faeces Bombycis) in the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis combined with diabetes, and to reveal its characteristics of multi-composition, multi-target and multi-channel. Methods The main ingredients of Cansha were sorted out combining literature search and database mining, and the targets of main active compositions were predicted by using Parm Mapper reverse molecular docking method. The names of predicted protein were revised by using UniProt database and the information of related-diseases were revised by using Therapeutic target database (TTD). The targets, related to rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, were screened out. The composition-target-disease networks of Cansha and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed by using Cytoscape software. Functional annotation analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and signaling pathway enrichment analysis of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were performed on the related targets of Cansha in treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. Results After screening and analysis, the main active compositions of Cansha included beta-Carotene, beta-Sitosterol, cholesterol and euchrenone A7. Network pharmacology analysis showed that 37 targets related to rheumatoid arthritis and/or diabetes, among which 6 targets related to both rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, such as SEC14-like protein 2 (S14L2), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme (DHI1), caspase-1 (CASP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (TTPA). Through GO functional annotation analysis 7 GO items were obtained ( P<0.05), of which three involved biological processes items and four molecular function items. And there were 4 signaling pathways ( P<0.05) in the KEGG signaling pathway analysis, involving prolactin signaling pathway, Osteoclast differentiation signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation signaling pathway and PPAR signaling pathway. Conclusion Cansha is characterized by multi-composition, multi-target and multi-channel in the clinical prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis combined with diabetes. This study provided a reference for further expounding on the mechanism of clinical prevention and treatment of diseases of Cansha, and the scientific basis for the study of homotherapy for heteropathy of Cansha. However, further experiments are warranted to verify key targets and regulatory mechanisms.
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    The Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination: Decoding nutrient-defense circulation in Huangdi Neijing *
    Xing Yurui
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 977-982.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.002
    Abstract430)      PDF(pc) (1186KB)(255)       Save
    Both the point that the nutrient qi and defense qi circulate within human body fifty times during one day-night cycle and the stipulation that the duration of one session of pulse-taking should be as long as fifty pulse beats in The Spiritual Pivot probably originated from the statement in The Book of Changes that the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination is fifty. This statement, which may derive from the Number for Heaven and Earth,provided the cosmological basis for the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination and exerted profound influence on calendar and mathematics in later ages. From the perspective of the correspondence between human and universe, the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination, as the basis for denominating the timing sequence of nature, becomes the number used to regulate life activities. Therefore, the fifty times of nutrient-defense circulation and the fifty pulse beats during pulse diagnosis are probably pre-determined by the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination, which is fifty. Through mathematical deduction, it is calculated that the length of the 28 meridians in human body is 16.2 zhang (about 170.7 feet), the distance qi travels per breath (one inhalation and one exhalation) 6 cun (about 7.559 inches), and the number of breaths during one day-night cycle 13,500. However, such calculation may inevitably cause some theoretical contradictions and those numbers disagree with reality since they are influenced by Chinese numerology.
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    Formula combination thought of Fangfeng Tongsheng San understood from angle of thinking of classification according to manifestation *
    Chen Xiangyun, Liu Zhenhong, Liu Tiantian, Yang Zhen
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (11): 894-897.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.11.003
    Abstract425)      PDF(pc) (1147KB)(253)       Save
    Fangfeng Tongsheng San (Miraculous Powder of Ledebouriella) is a representative classic formula used widely in treatment of various types of diseases. However, there are disputes on its classification, and even in the determination of the sovereign medicinal there are many differences. As the only Liu Hejian’s formula, who was a master of cold school, Fangfeng Tongsheng San is included in textbook-Science of Herbal Formula. It may embody Liu Hejian’s thought of clearing heat and is a pure heat-clearing agent. The thinking of classification according to manifestation is an important thinking pattern of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Therefore, combining with TCM thinking characteristic, the formula design thought of Fangfeng Tongsheng San is analyzed by applying TCM formulation. It is believed that Fangfeng Tongsheng San uses the therapies of treating heat with cold medicinals, removing fire stagnation, extracting the firewood from under cauldron, inducing diuresis and clearing heat, and nourishing blood and clearing heat. The understanding of Fangfeng Tongsheng San from the angle of thinking of classification according to manifestation will open a new door for us to use it flexibly.
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    Prevention and treatment strategy of COVID-19 from the perspective of TCM membrane system *
    Yang Guannan, Jiang Xin, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 630-635.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.003
    Abstract326)      PDF(pc) (1192KB)(247)       Save
    For COVID-19, there is currently limited effective therapeutic approach or antiviral drugs at present. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), COVID-19 belongs to the category of “damp plague”, and it can be diagnosed and treated with distinctive pattern differentiation methods. However, its pathogenesis and transmission still needs further exploration. The TCM membrane system theory is a systematical summary of the understanding of “membrane” based on TCM ancient literature and modern medicine. The membrane system is distributed over all body cavities, connects the three jiao and covers all of the membrane-layered structures composed of connective tissue and epithelial tissue in the whole body. This system is regarded as the physiological pathway of qi, water and fire, as well as the pathological pathway of the pathogenic factors. It is believed that the damp-warm-heat pathogenic factors invade the membrane from the external mucosal membrane system of all orifices in the human body, and distribute inside of the body along the inner and outer membrane systems. The abnormality of membrane system is the core factor of the occurrence and transmission of the disease. On the base of such pathogenesis, it is proposed that the principle of prevention and treatment of COVID-19 should be defending the toxic pathogenic factors and dredging the membrane system so as to promote the elimination and excretion of pathogenic factors.
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    Textual research on the dosage of Kai Xin San in Qian Jin Yao Fang *
    Zhang Lin, Zeng Feng
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 641-644.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.005
    Abstract382)      PDF(pc) (1126KB)(246)       Save
    With Kai Xin San (Joy Powder) in Directory of Famous Formula in Ancient Times as the study object, this paper explored the difference of the dosage in two different versions of Qian Jin Yao Fang (Important Formulas Worth a Thousand Gold Pieces): Song version and Xindiao version. In the textual research, we have taken the characteristics of the above two editions into consideration, and have compared the relevant record of other formulas in Song version. Also, we have referred to the relevant record in the contemporary book Yi Xin Fang as proof. It’s concluded that the original dosage of Kai Xin San (Joy Powder) should be “Four Fen (one Liang) of Yuanzhi (thin-leaf milkwort root, Radix Polygalae) and Renshen (ginseng, Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) respectively, two Liang of Fuling (poria, Poria), and one Liang of Changpu (grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii)”. According to the research result on the medicine tool “Fang Qi Bi” in Research on the Original Dosage in Classical Formula, the dosage is converted to modern measuring unit: Yuanzhi (thin-leaf milkwort root, Radix Polygalae) 13.8 g, Renshen (ginseng, Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) 13.8 g, Fuling (poria, Poria) 27.6 g; and Changpu (grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii) 13.8 g, and the daily administration should be Yuanzhi (thin-leaf milkwort root, Radix Polygalae) 3 g, Renshen (ginseng, Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng) 3 g, Fuling (poria, Poria) 6 g, and Changpu (grassleaf sweetflag rhizome, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii) 3 g.
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    Study of medicinal herbs in tranquilizing heyi formulas in Mongolian medicine *
    Chen Chaoguang, Tong Haiying, Chen Luyao, Wu Xiaodan, Bao Wuye, HU Rilebagen, WU Lanqiqige, Huang Xianju, Cui Jingwen
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 1030-1037.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.010
    Abstract362)      PDF(pc) (1145KB)(246)       Save
    Objective To explore the pattern of the use of medicinal herbs in tranquilizing heyi (transliteration of the formula name in Mongolian, meaning regulating qi movement) formulas in Mongolian medicine. Methods Tranquilizing heyi formulas were collected, sorted out and screened from Chinese Medical Encyclopedia: Mongolian Medicine, Traditional Mongolian Materia Medica and Formulas, Pharmaceutical Standards of the Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China:Mongolian Materia Medica,Standards for Mongolian Patent Medicine in Inner Mongolia, and Medical Formulas (Mongolian medicine textbook, in Mongolian language). Frequency data were analyzed in terms of the frequency of use of particular herbs, herb classification, medicinal properties, six medicinal flavors, medicinal effects and correlation analysis to explore the pattern of the use of medicinal herbs in such formulas. Results Herbs used at high frequency in tranquilizing heyi formulas were Roudoukou(Nutmeg, Semen Myristicae), Biba(Long Pepper Fruit, Fructus Piperis Longi), Baidoukou(Round Cardamon, Fructus Amomi Kravanh), Chenxiang(Aquilaria Wood, Lignum Aquilariae Resinatum) and Muxiang(Common Aucklandia Root, Radix Aucklandiae).Tranquilizing heyi medicinals were the main type of herbs in terms of herb classification, accounting for 32.52%, medicinal herbs warm in property the main type in terms of medicinalproperty,making up 47.36%, herbs pungent in flavor the main type in terms of medicinal flavor, constituting 54.67%, cloying herbal medicinals the main type in terms of effect, comprising 51.63%.Among 20 herb pairs used at high frequency, 18 pairs contained tranquilizing heyi medicinals. Of the 23 core herb combinations, 21 involved tranquilizing heyi medicinals and 17 included Roudoukou (Nutmeg, Semen Myristicae). Conclusion Tranquilizing heyi formulas of Mongolian medicine are mainly composed of tranquilizing heyi medicinals, which regulate the three elements in Mongolian medicine (corresponding roughly to qi, fire/gallbladder, and earth/water in Chinese medicine). Herbs pungent, warm and cloying are commonlyused. Tranquilizing heyi medicinals are often used in herb pairs and three-herb groups with Roudoukou (Nutmeg, Semen Myristicae) as the core herb. With reference to qi-regulating formulas in Chinese medicine, tranquilizing heyi medicinals can adopt some liver-soothing medicinals.
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    Prediction of toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang based on network pharmacology and with molecular docking *
    Zhang Dan, Dong Yizhu, Lyu Jintao, Zhang Xiaomeng, Lin Zhijian, Zhang Bing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 1006-1015.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.007
    Abstract628)      PDF(pc) (3667KB)(244)       Save
    Objective To explore the potential toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang(Tripterygium Hypoglaucum Toot, Radix Tripterygium Hypoglaucum) with Methods of network pharmacology and molecular docking. Methods Literature on Kunming shanhaitang was first comprehensively searched to identify and collect its active ingredients and adverse drug reactions (ADRs), respectively. Targets of the active ingredients were then predicted with TCMSP, Swiss, and STITCH databases. Moreover, targets of ADRs were gathered through CTD database. Next, the common genes shared by the above two types of targets were submitted to STRING to obtain protein-protein interaction. In addition, GO biological function process and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted on DAVID platform. Finally, molecular docking was carried out between characteristic ingredients of the herb and its key toxicity targets with systemsDock Web Site. Results A total of 21 ingredient candidates of Kunming shanhaitang involving 47 toxicity targets were identified by establishing toxic protein-protein interaction(PPI) network. PPI network enrichment analysis of the toxicity targets showed that such targets were probably closely associated with the p53 signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and some other pathways. According to the Results of molecular docking, the majority of the active ingredients in the medicinal herb enjoyed good binding activities with the toxicity targets. Conclusion This research verified preliminarily the toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang, providing new ideas and Methods for further research on the toxicity mechanism of ADRs of Chinese medicinal herbs with toxicity.
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    Analysis of distribution characteristics of TCM body constitution types in Chinese population based on data of 108 015 cases *
    Bai Minghua, Wang Ji, Zheng Yanfei, Li Yingshuai, Hou Shujuan, Li Lingru, Zhang Yan, Wang Qi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 498-507.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.010
    Abstract349)      PDF(pc) (1235KB)(242)       Save
    Objective To collect data of TCM body constitution of Chinese population aged 15 and above, and to analyze and describe the distribution characteristics of their TCM body constitution types. Methods Data of 108 015 cases were collected using Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (for Adults) and Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (for the Elderly) via the internet and terminal equipment, and distribution characteristics of body constitution types were analyzed from such perspectives as the whole sample population, gender, age and region. In addition, the representativeness and distribution of data were analyzed with χ 2 test. Results There was statistically significant difference in sex ratio but not in age structure between the sample population and the whole population of China in 2015. In the sample population on the whole, the proportion of people with gentleness (balanced) constitution type was 28.98%, and those with 8 imbalanced constitution types accounted for 71.02%, the top three types being yang-deficiency type (16.41%), qi-deficiency type (13.18%) and wetness-heat (damp-heat) type (10.23%). In the 15-64 age group, those with gentleness constitution type made up 28.80%, and those with 8 imbalanced constitution types 71.20%, the top three types being yang-deficiency type (16.75%), qi-deficiency type (13.57%) and wetness-heat type (11.30%). In the group aged above 64, people with gentleness constitution type added up to 30.25%, and those with 8 imbalanced types 69.75%, the top three types being yin-deficiency type (14.04%), yang-deficiency type (13.97%), and phlegm-wetness (phlegm-damp) type (10.70%), followed by qi-deficiency type (10.39%). There were significant differences in body constitution type distribution between different gender, age and region groups. Conclusion The age structure of the sample population is consistent with that of the whole population of China in 2015, meaning the former is representative of the latter from this perspective. The proportion of people with gentleness constitution type in each age group was smaller than 1/3 of the whole group and smaller than that 10 years ago, while the proportion of those with imbalanced constitution types increased. The top 3 imbalanced types in the whole sample population were yang-deficiency type, qi-deficiency type and wetness-heat type, the sequence of which was different from that 10 years ago. Constitution distribution patterns were different for different gender, age and region groups.
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    Approaches to diagnosis and treatment of six-meridian disorders from the perspective of ascending and descending based on yin-yang qi transformation *
    Li Jiwu, Cheng Wenhui, Meng Lifeng, Tang Aihua, Li Shuanglei, Wang Zhengang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 12-16.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.003
    Abstract431)      PDF(pc) (1210KB)(238)       Save
    This paper analyzes the “turning point” of six-meridian disorders in Shanghanlun (Treatise on Cold Damage Disease) from the perspective of qi ascending and descending movement based on yin-yang qi transformation so as to shed light on the mechanism, pattern diagnosis, formulae and herbs prescribed for six-mendian disorders. It starts with reviewing the relations between original qi and yin-yang qi, yin-yang qi and constrained transformation of ascending and descending, ascending-descending disorder and yin-yang qi disorders, yin-yang ascending and descending and turning point in six-meridian disorders to elaborate on ascending and descending of original qi, six-meridian yin-yang qi transformation. Then the paper continues to discuss on the pathomechanism, pattern diagnosis, formulae and herbs prescribed for three-yang and three-yin (six meridians) disorders from the perspective of ascending and descending disorder. This paper is written with the objectives of understanding how to diagnose and treat six-meridian disorders by using the traditional theory of yin-yang ascending and descending qi transformation, so that we could inherit the qi-transformation theory, grasp the TCM classics, use the classic formula flexibly and improve clinical competency.
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    Analysis of the properties of ancient aromatic Chinese herbs and the application of the theory of “aromatics acting on the spleen” in Huangdi Neijing *
    Huang Hsunying, Liu Zhenzhu, Wang Weiguang, Zhai Shuangqing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (6): 485-490.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.06.001
    Abstract190)      PDF(pc) (749KB)(234)       Save
    The theory that aromatic medicinals act upon the spleen was first put forward in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). It was believed that aroma primarily acted upon the spleen, so aromatic herbs also had a special regulatory effect on the spleen. In this paper, through classifying commonly used aromatic herbs recorded in ancient books on Chinese materia medica, and making statistical analysis of their nature, taste, meridian tropism and efficacy, we further explored the medicinal characteristics of aromatic herbs and their special effects on the spleen. Statistical results show that most aromatic herbs are warm in nature, and pungent and bitter in taste, and they enter primarily the spleen meridian, and secondarily the liver meridian. In terms of efficacy in modern Chinese materia medica, such herbs serve mostly to rectify qi, invigorate blood, dissolve stasis and dissipate wind-cold. It can be seen that aromatic medicinals do primarily act upon the spleen, and their effects are not limited to resolving dampness and inducing resuscitation. In addition, their pungent taste have dispersing and moving effects, their bitter taste can dry dampness, and their warm nature can raise yang. As pungent medicinals open and bitter medicinals direct things downward, aromatics are especially conducive to restoring spleen and stomach’s physiological function of raising the clear and directing the turbid downward, and then maintaining the qi circulation in the five zang and six fu organs. Therefore, the authors argue that the spleen must have played an important role in aromatic herbs’ clinical application to remove dampness and awaken the spleen and even to open the orifices and resuscitate, which also provides pharmacological evidence for the theory that aromatic medicinals act upon the spleen in Huangdi Neijing.
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    Analysis of membrane-source and clinical indications of Dayuan Yin *
    Ma Jiaju, Wang Yuguang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 463-468.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.004
    Abstract344)      PDF(pc) (1193KB)(222)       Save
    Membrane-source (pleurodiaphragmatic interspace) is an important location for the onset of epidemic disease in the body, and Dayuan Yin (Membrane-source Decoction, DYY) a typical formula indicated for the disease. However, the clinical application of the formula is limited by its acrid-warm and drying nature. Based on original texts from Wenyi Lun (Treatise on Warm-Heat Pestilence) published in the Ming Dynasty, as well as understanding by physicians in later generations, this article discusses the essence of membrane-source and proposes that DYY is indicated for critical condition caused by pattern of dampness trapping hidden deep-lying heat in the middle energizer. As epidemic disease is highly infectious with sudden onset and high mortality rate, first priority in its treatment should be dispelling pathogens hidden inside the human body. Owing to its acrid-warm and drying property, DYY can soothe and drain the membrane-source and transform the dampness-heat pattern into pure heat pattern, which corresponds to the idea of defeating the pathogen by transmitting and changing it proposed by Wu Youke, a famous Chinese epidemiologist and the author of Wenyi Lun. Such practice is still in line with the therapeutic principle of dispersing and purging pathogens through different channels separately in the treatment of dampness-heat pattern. Meanwhile, it is also proposed that the treatment of warm epidemic disease should always center on the pathogens. Besides, the indications of DDY are summarized. Finally, the theoretical significance of membrane-source and DDY is discussed in the current fight against the novel coronavirus pneumonia, also known as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
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    New insights into TCM pattern differentiation and treatment of sound abnormality after thyroid surgery *
    Li Lijing, Peng Jing, Cao Lishuang, Xia Zhongyuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 702-705.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.014
    Abstract287)      PDF(pc) (1176KB)(221)       Save
    Abnormal sound is a common complication after thyroid surgery. At present, there is no consensus on the TCM pattern differentiation or treatment methods. In this paper, it is proposed that such a disorder is caused by recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, different from “throat dysphonia” in traditional understanding. The main etiology and pathogenesis in TCM are interpreted as channel damage in the neck resulting in stasis blocking the throat and malnourishment of the vocal tract. According to the characteristics of its clinical manifestations, it can be divided into patterns of wind-heat-phlegm accumulation, qi-yin deficiency, qi stagnation, and stasis blocking the throat. On the basis of pattern differentiation, prescriptions and medicinals should be selected according to the characteristics of the specific condition, aiming at dissolving stagnation and stasis, activating blood and unblocking channels. The specialized medicinals to promote sound generation can be divided into diffusing and lung-astringing ones, and used according to the duration of the illness.
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    Determination of phenolic parts in ThymusquinquecostatusCelak by HPLC and UV-Vis *
    Fan Shusheng, Sui Hong, Chen Xiaoyi, Wang Xiuhuan, Yan Xin, Wang Le, Wang Xiaoping, Li Xiao, Xu Xiao, Li Xiang, Sun Siqi, Shen Meng, She Gaimei
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (10): 854-861.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.010
    Abstract361)      PDF(pc) (1918KB)(217)       Save
    ObjectiveTo establish methods for the determination of active components from phenolic parts of folk medicine Thymus quinquecostatus Celak by using HPLC and UV-Vis. Methods For HPLC, scutellarin and rosmarinic acid were used as references. The mobile phase A was acetonitrile while mobile B was 0.2% formic acid. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the column temperature was maintained at 25 ℃ . 10 μL sample solutions were injected into auto sampler and monitored at 280 nm. For UV-Vis, developer dosage of K 3[Fe(CN) 6]-FeCl 3 were chosen, rosmarinic acid was used as reference, the dosage of reagent was 2 mL, the determination time was 60 min and the detection wavelength was 760 nm. Results The linear ranges of scutellarin and rosmarinic acid were 0.019~0.592 g/L ( R2=0.999), 0.999~0.280 g/L ( R2=1.000), respectively. The RSDs( n=6) of precision experiment were 0.21%, 0.56%, respectively. The RSDs( n=6) of stability experiment were 0.21%, 0.56%, respectitvely. The RSDs( n=6) of reproducibility experiment were 1.35%, 1.47%, respectively, while the average adding standard recoveries were 99.42%, 95.31%, 104.49% (RSD=1.48%, 1.46%, 0.35%) and 101.23%, 102.02%, 97.62%(RSD=0.29%, 1.38%, 2.05%). The linear ranges of total polyphenolsisl 1.10~2.05 mg/L ( R2=0.999). The RSD( n=6) of precision experiment was 0.97%. The RSD( n=6) of stability experiment was 1.32%. The RSD( n=6) of reproducibility experiment was 0.89%, while the average adding standard recoveries was 100.88%(RSD=1.55%). The average content of scutellarin and rosmarinic acid in all three batchesphenolic parts was 8.40% and 8.23%, respectively, while the averagecontent of total polyphenols was 47.40%.
    Conclusion Both methods were simple, accurate, specific and sensitive, and can be foundations for the development and subsequent research of T. quinquecostatus Celak.
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    Similarities and differences in thinking on tonifying the kidney between Zhu Zhenheng and Zhang Jiebin *
    Xi Chongcheng, Tian Dong, Liu Jintao, Zhang Ning, Liu Zhenzhu, Wang Weiguang, Chen Zijie, Zhai Shuangqing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 636-640.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.004
    Abstract323)      PDF(pc) (1184KB)(215)       Save
    As one of the four great scholars in Jin and Yuan Dynasties, theory of Zhu Zhenheng(Zhu Danxi) has great influence on later generations. Zhang Jiebin studied Zhu Danxi’s theory in his early years. While criticizing and inheriting Zhu Zhenheng’s thought of nourishing yin, he became one of the representatives of the warm-nourishing school. Zhu Zhenheng and Zhang Jiebin both attach importance to supplementing kidney essence so as to tonify the kidney; in the selection of medicinals, medicinals from plants and animals are combined; besides, they both take pills as the main drug form. However, their thoughts differ in the following aspects. In warming and nourishing kidney yang, Zhu Zhenheng prefers to use moderate medicinals to generate qi without causing fire, while Zhang Jiebin prefers to use medicinals extremely pungent and heat in nature for quick effect. In nourishing kidney yin, Zhu Zhenheng advocates that yin-nourishing medicinals should be combined with bitter cold ones, then ministerial fire can be cleared; while Zhang Jiebin prefers to combine yin-nourishing, qi-supplementing and yang-warming medicinals to seek yin within yang. In Conclusion, Zhu Zhenheng’s and Zhang Jiebin’s thoughts on tonifying the kidney play a guiding role in the clinical treatment of various diseases with kidney deficiency pattern.
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    Buyang Huanwu Decoction’s protective effect on myocardium and influence on BMSCs migration in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion rats *
    Song Zhongyang, Wang Gongchen, Zhang Zhiming, Yong Wenxing, Liu Yongqi,Zhang Liying, Li Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (2): 115-124.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.005
    Abstract330)      PDF(pc) (3447KB)(213)       Save
    Objective To study the protective effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BHD) combined with bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats and the effect of BMSCs migration. Methods 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operated group, model group, BMSCs group and BHD plus BMSCs group The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was ligated to duplicate Miri rat model in all groups except for the sham operated group. The rats were gavaged with BHD and normal saline for 14 days respectively. The levels of cTnI, CK-MB, LDH,and MDA, the content of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of SOD in serum were measured by biochemical method. The cardiac function was detected by echocardiography, the pathological morphology of myocardial tissue was detected by HE staining, the migration and distribution of GFP-labeled BMSCs were observed in vivo by Caliper IVIS Lumina II, and the content of myocardial BMSC was detected by immunofluorescence. Results Compared with the BMSCs group, in BHD plus BMSCs group, the LVIDd and LVIDs decreased significantly, while EF was increased ( P<0.05); the levels of cTnI, LDH and CK-MB were significantly decresed ( P<0.05); the activity of SOD and the content of NO were increased, while the content of MDA was decreased ( P<0.05). According to HE staining, the muscle fibers were arranged in order; there was slight edema in the intercellular matrix and a little infiltration of inflammatory cells, but the cell boundary was clear. The Caliper IVIS Lumina II in vivo showed that there were no obvious migration and distribution of GFP-labeled BMSCs in the sham operation group and model group, but the expression intensity of GFP in the BHD plus BMSCs group was significantly higher than that in the BMSCs group, and the concentration of BMSCs in the heart was significantly higher than that in the BMSCs group ( P<0.05). The results of immunofluorescence showed that the content of BMSCs in the BHD plus BMSCs group was significantly higher than that in the BMSCs group ( P<0.05). Conclusions BHD could possibly reduce transplanted BMSCs after myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rats, reduce myocardial tissue pathological morphological changes, improve cardiac function. Through improving SOD activity in serum, increasing the NO content, and reducing the CK-MB, LDH, cTnI levels and MDA concentration in serum, it seems to reduce MIRI with the myocardial protective effect. Its mechanism might be related to the reduction of the membrane lipid peroxidation, and protection from the oxidative stress injury of myocardial cells in reperfusion period. It also indicates that BHD could possibly promote the migration of BMSCs into the myocardial tissue of MIRI model rats, increase the number of BMSCs migration, and improve the homing efficiency of BMSCs.
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    Conception of life science from the perspective of Chinese medicine
    Xu Anlong, Shi Yuanyuan, Lu Tao, Jiang Miao, Li Feng, Liu Jianping, Li Hongmei
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 623-629.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.002
    Abstract396)      PDF(pc) (1214KB)(212)       Save
    The rise of modern life science has triggered a revolution in thinking and understanding of the essence of life academically. With the rapid development of modern science and technology, the modern biomedicine, represented by precision medicine and system biology, is constantly getting close to the holistic view of life cognition and the thought of the unity of man and nature in Chinese medicine. Although they belong to different academic thinking systems, with the assimilation and high quality of the global human demand for life care, the integration of Chinese medicine and Western medicine is the inevitable trend of future development. In order to promote this integration to be more orderly and quickly formed, this article attempts to propose a new disciplinary concept: Life Science From the Perspective of Chinese Medicine. This concept covers four major elements, namely, matter, energy, information and space-time. In order to promote the development of new medicine based on life science from the perspective of Chinese medicine, the combination point of life view of Chinese medicine and modern science is explored. The initial specific research directions are: the systematic material basis of Chinese medicine life concept, the energy, information, temporal and spatial changes under laws of Chinese medicine life concept, the intelligent training of Chinese medicine big data, and the development of medical engineering equipment for Chinese medicine life concept so that Chinese medicine can serve human health more effectively in the modern environment, realize the integration of Chinese and Western medicine under the framework of integration, and provide the basic support of life science for the establishment of new medicine.
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    Treatment of stomach yang deficiency pattern in yang-deficiency constitution with classical formulas based on Ye Tianshi’s medical records *
    Ma Han, Wang Qi, Guo Wenqian, Wan Jinyi, Yao Haiqiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (1): 78-82.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.01.013
    Abstract262)      PDF(pc) (692KB)(207)       Save
    Yang-deficiency constitution is one of the nine basic types of constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),with yang-deficiency of the spleen and stomach disorders as the main pattern that is frequently observed in clinical practices.The ancient practitioners usually used middle yang to refer to the spleen and stomach yang,or simply used spleen yang only while omitting the stomach yang.However,the physiological and pathological characteristics,and treatment methods of the spleen and stomach are different.Ye Tianshi advocated differentiated treatment for spleen and stomach and paid particular attention to body constitution.This paper analyzed the pathogenesis,pattern,therapeutic methods and classical formulas of stomach yang deficiency used by Ye Tianshi for yang-deficiency constitution;and expounded on different levels of therapeutic methods with specific medical cases combined,such as activating and tonifying stomach qi using Da Banxia Tang (Major Pinellia Decoction) and activating and warming stomach yang using Fuzi Jingmi Tang (Aconite and Rice Fruit Decoction),etc.The rules of pattern differentiation and treatment for stomach yang deficiency was summarized with differentiation of constitution,disease,and pattern combined,which might provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of the spleen and stomach diseases.
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    Interpretation of “pills” in the line “the doctor purged it with pills” *
    Song Qiumeng, Liu Ning, Jia Chunhua
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 809-813.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.003
    Abstract199)      PDF(pc) (1223KB)(205)       Save
    Regarding the meaning of the line “the doctor purged it with pills” in Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases), there have been various speculations since ancient time, but no detailed interpretation could be traced. Based on the original text and its context, this article attempted to analyze the nature, action, and composition of “pills” combined with previous annotations. It is deduced that those “pills” might be a class of purgatives that contain violent and even toxic drugs with pungent properties, and their indication is possibly constipation caused by unresolved exterior pathogenic factors entering the exterior of the body. Based on such deduction, two classical medical books of Wai Tai Mi Yao (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) and Qian Jin Yao Fang (Important Formulas Worth a Thousand Gold Pieces) are searched to find corresponding prescriptions, namely, Shenshi Kuaichi Pill, Gujin Luyan Xuming Pill and Kuaichi Pill.
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    Establishment of TCM intelligent pattern identification model of gastroesophageal reflux disease based on machine learning *
    Cao Yun, Lu Yi, Chen Jianxin, He Ying, Liu Kaiwen, Fu Xin, Huang Jiaqin, Ding xia, Fang Lihui, Li Zhihong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (10): 869-874.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.012
    Abstract448)      PDF(pc) (1533KB)(200)       Save
    ObjectiveTo establish a TCM intelligent pattern differentiation model of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) based on Machine Learning. Methods According to TCM pattern differentiation standards, a total of 98 samples were collected from the clinical cases of GERD Gnsitent with the diagneses of stagnated heat in liver and stomach pattern, and spleen-hypofunction and reverse qi pattern. 49 samples were collected for each pattern, forming two groups. Based on a 1:1 ratio between categories, 70% of all data were used as the training set and 30% as the test set. According to the “presence” and “absence” of the information, the value “1” and “0” were respectively assigned to establish the TCM clinical information database of GERD.Then a pattern differentiation model of GERD was establishedwith the Support Vector Machine (SVM), Neural Networks (NNs) and Automatic Encoder (Autoencoder) respectively.The accuracy of pattern prediction of the three methods was compared. Results There was a statistically significant difference in BMI between the two groups ( P< 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in H. pylori infection or Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) ( P> 0.05).With the same training and test sample data,the recognition accuracy of those two pattern with SVM,NNs and Autoencoder+NNswere78.3%, 79.2%and 79.2% respectively. Conclusion NNs and NNS+Autoencoder model seems to be effective in diagnosis and prediction of those two patterns. Methodologically, it might be feasible to establish a TCM intelligent pattern differentiation model of GERD based on machine learning.
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    Understanding the “eight extraordinary meridians system” in the Case Records as a Guide to Clinical Practice based on the theory of “six compartments of yin and yang” *
    Chen Xu, Jia Bo
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 825-829.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.005
    Abstract193)      PDF(pc) (1168KB)(198)       Save
    The pattern identification of the eight extraordinary meridians reflected in the book titled Lin Zheng Zhi Nan Yi An (Case Records as a Guide to Clinical Practice) includes the theories of “six compartments of yin and yang”, “triple jiao” and “branch, root and center of six qi” in Huangdi Neijing, align with Ye Tianshi’s theory of “defense-qi-construction and blood” and “triple jiao”. The common route of Taichong meridians is from the bottom to the top, or from the root of Shaoyin through Yangming to the top of Guangming, crossing three jiao and three compartments, supplied with defense, qi, nutrient and blood by all the meridians. The essential qi is thus vaporized upwards to the brain. The defensive qi of all zang-organs in the triple jiao diverges into two pathways: one outside the vessels, or defensive qi goes out of triple jiao and flows into six fu organs; the other infusing into the vessels and converge at the extra meridians. The extra meridians are similar to lakes and rivers. They echo with the solitary organ of triple jiao. Interiorly, extra meridians unite the defense, qi, nutrient and blood, govern the three yin and three yang meridians to harmonize yin and yang, harmonize the essential qi and unite six qi; whereas exteriorly, triple jiao governs the defense, qi, fluids and humor, so as to balance heat and cold as well as yin and yang. When extra meridians and triple jiao are harmonious interiorly and exteriorly, yin-yang balance is achieved. By establishing the extra meridian system of Ye Tianshi, it can be used as reference to help us understand the physiology and pathology of traditional Chinese medicine, as well as predict, prevent, diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
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    Mechanism of Majie Decoction against allergic rhinitis based on network pharmacology and preliminary verification *
    Wu Jinyang, Zhang Boran, Zhang Yuteng, Zhang Hongchun
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 675-679.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.010
    Abstract293)      PDF(pc) (2179KB)(194)       Save
    Objective To study the mechanism of Majie Decoction (Ephedra and White Mustard Seed Decoction) against allergic rhinitis based on network pharmacology and preliminarily verify it through in vivo experiments in mice. Methods Effective constituents of Majie Decoction (Ephedra and White Mustard Seed Decoction) were selected from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP database) based on threshold of oral availability (OB) and drug-likeness (DL). Then corresponding targets of the selected constituents were obtained to form an effective constituents-targets network Targets relevant to allergic rhinitis were achieved based on Digsee database. The intersection dataset of these datasets was analyzed. Then the protein-protein reaction and its effect on the KEGG/Reactome pathway were analyzed based on String database. IL-4 signal pathway were verified by mouse model. Results 53 unduplicated effective constituents, including neobaicalein, panicolin, and 34 important targets against allergic rhinitis, including ESR1, AR, PPARG, PTGS2, DPP4, were obtained. The protein interaction network and enrichment analyses showed that targets of Majie Decoction (Ephedra and White Mustard Seed Decoction) are enriched in various inflammatory factor-related pathways. Animal experiments showed that Majie Decoction (Ephedra and White Mustard Seed Decoction) significantly reduced the levels of serum IgE, histamine and IL-4 in mice with allergic rhinitis. Conclusion The main mechanism of Majie Decoction (Ephedra and White Mustard Seed Decoction) may be relevant to regulation of multiple inflammatory factor-related pathways, especially IL-4 and IL-13.
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    On the formation of the genuine qi root theory in Huangdi Neijing
    Shi Lingsheng, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (4): 269-274.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.001
    Abstract464)      PDF(pc) (970KB)(194)       Save
    Genuine qi ( Zhen qi) is the core concept of qi root theory in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). It has unique philosophical connotations in the root theory and historical origins in ancient China. The original denotation of “ zhen” refers to the process that pearls gradually accumulate and form in the oysters. This Chinese character had been used to refer to “the uncarved and innocent nature”. Daode Jing and Zhuangzi, the representative books of Taoism in the Warring States Period, were the first ones to use the word “ Zhen” when discussing the root philosophical thoughts, which was considered as the origin of the philosophical origin of genuine qi. And under the influence of ideological trend of “Tao and Qi as one” at the late stage of the Warring States Period, the philosophical connotation of “ Zhen” and qi theory was integrated theoretically. The earliest extant compound word “ Zhen qi” was first found in Huangdi Neijing, which inherited the Taoist Root thoughts about “ Zhen”, and supplemented the concrete embodiment of genuine qi in all aspects of life activities, and thus established an ontological view of genuine qi theory.
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    Review of pattern and treatment of “cold cough” *
    Miao Qing, Fan Yiling, Ma Chong, Cao Qing, Wang Ning
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 482-486.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.007
    Abstract385)      PDF(pc) (1187KB)(190)       Save
    As a commonly encountered clinical symptom, cough may easily develop into chronic cough if treated in an inappropriate way. Pathogenic cold is one of the important causes of cough as is well summarized in the quote “the invasion of cold into the body and drinking cold water impair the lung” from Nanjing (The Classic of Difficult Issues). Descriptions of the pattern and treatment of “cold cough” have been scattered in classics of traditional Chinese medicine and records of clinical practice, but a systematic review is lacking. Therefore, we put forward the following ideas and framework of treating cold cough from the perspective of triple energizer and zang-fu organs. (1)When cold pathogen attacks the lung, Zhisou San (Cough-Stopping Powder), Jinfeicao San (Inula Powder), Mahuang Tang (Ephedra Decoction) and relevant modified formulas should be used according to the severity of the cold pathogen. As for cough caused by cold with fluid retention, Xiaoqinglong Tang (Minor Green Dragon Decoction) and Linggui Zhugan Tang (Poria, Cinnamon Twig, Atractylodes Macrocephala and Licorice Decoction) are preferred. (2)If cold pathogen invades the spleen or stomach in the middle energizer, treatment should be tailored to the spleen, stomach and gallbladder respectively. For cough as a result of attack on the spleen from cold, Lizhong Tang (Center-Regulating Decoction) and similar formulas are suitable. For cough resulting from attack on the stomach by cold, Xiaobanxia Jia Fuling Tang (Minor Pinellia Decoction Plus Poria), Banxia Xiexin Tang (Pinellia Heart-Draining Decoction) and relevant modified formulas should be adopted. For cough with gallbladder heat and spleen cold, we could choose Chaihu Guizhi Ganjiang Tang (Bupleurum, Cinnamon Twig and Dried Ginger Decoction). (3)As for cough due to cold attack on the kidney in the lower energizer, it is key to warm the kidney and dissipate cold with effective formulas such as Erxian Tang (Two Immortals Decoction), Zhenwu Tang (True Warrior Decoction) and Jinshui Liujun Jian (Gold Water Six Gentlemen Decoction). In conclusion, when treating cold cough, we should choose formulas and medicinals based on careful pattern differentiation according to the severity and location of the disease and the affected zang-fu organs.
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