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    Inheritance and development of spleen-stomach theory in Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic) by Huang Yuanyu *
    Gao Zhili, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (11): 890-893.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.11.002
    Abstract562)      PDF(pc) (1052KB)(1385)       Save
    Spleen-stomach theory is an important academic thought in Huangdi Neijing ( Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic). The idea of emphasizing earth was a concrete embodiment of Chinese philosophy in traditional Chinese medicine at that time. Later generations of doctors inherited and developed spleen-stomach theory in Huangdi Neijing, among them, Huang Yuanyu, a physician in the Qing Dynasty, was a particular representative. Huang’s theory of qi circumfluence and four images of earth pivot emphasizes the up-downs and rotation of qi in the middle earth, and stresses ascending of the left-side qi movement. He proposed that damp earth, cold water and wood depression were main pathogenesis of human diseases, which has important influence on later clinical practice.
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    Pandemic risk factor analysis of COVID-19 and inspirations from its prevention and control
    Wang Yongyan, Wang Zhong, Bai Weiguo, Zhi Yingjie, Wang Yanping
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (8): 621-622.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.08.001
    Abstract317)      PDF(pc) (1316KB)(858)       Save
    In order to promote effective prevention and control of the pestilence by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), it’s of great significance to explore the main ways of the pestilence epidemic. The most weighted epidemic factor is the environmental degradation. Thus, the application of the Yunqi Theory emphasizing “harmony between man and nature” into the prevention and treatment of the pestilence in clinic would be the best way to gain the common consent of the effect and the decrease of the mortality, which might be a good opportunity to show TCM contribution to the health of the human. Based on the standardization of the operation procedures, it’s further suggested that extraction of key elements in patterns of the disease should be viewed as a breakthrough, combined with various technologies from the network, block data and big data of biological blockchain, thus ushering in the third stage of Chinese epidemiology.
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    Brief account of Zhang Zhongjing’s medical origin *
    Pan Zhongyi, Fu Yanling, Song Jia, Ni Shenglou
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (11): 894-899.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.11.003
    Abstract497)      PDF(pc) (1123KB)(808)       Save
    Zhang Zhongjing medicine has an extraordinary position and influence in the academic development history of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Those who have studied TCM since ancient times have absorbed nutrient from it. To study Zhongjing medicine, we should first understand its origin and development. In this paper, we comb up this issue from the following three aspects including the origin of Zhongjing medicine, the emergence of Zhongjing medicine, and the branch of Zhongjing medicine. We believe that the origin of Zhongjing medicine can be dated back to Sanshi Medicine in ancient times and Four Medical Schools in the Spring and Autumn Warring States period, the emergence of Zhongjing medicine is reflected as integration of medical classics and classical formulas and coherence of every section of TCM pattern differentiation and treatment, and the branch of Zhongjing medicine is mainly manifested as continuous development of Shanghan schools during 1 800 years, its important influence on other medical branches and schools, as well as the spread and changes abroad.
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    Study on eight trigrams- zangfu corresponding system based on image thinking of I-ching *
    Li Honghai, Han Qi, Ma Yuexiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2021, 44 (7): 585-590.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2021.07.002
    Abstract145)      PDF(pc) (778KB)(606)       Save
    Eight trigrams- zangfu system has been used by many TCM doctors since ancient times. It plays a unique advantageous role in the interpretation of visceral manifestation and pathology. However, there still exist disputes and incompleteness in its specific corresponding relations. For example, Luo Dingchang, a doctor in the Qing Dynasty, thought that lung corresponds to Qian hexagram. Sun Yikui in the Ming Dynasty, however, held that Dui is the corresponding hexagram.Meanwhile, Zheng Qin'an in the Qing Dynasty, mainly discussed the heart and kidney from the two hexagrams of Li and Kan. As a result, the theory of eight trigrams- zangfu has not formed a unified and systematic corresponding system. Therefore, our team combined literature review and theoretical discussion in studying the relevant contents of I-Ching ( The Book of Changes in Zhou Dynasty), the TCM- Zhouyi theory, and the basic theory of TCM by using the image-number thinking in I-Ching. Based on the acquired eight trigrams, diction, shape, image and nature related to the physiological and functional characteristics of each viscera, we concluded that the correspondence of eight trigrams- zangfu system is as follows by using the thinking methods of image classification and image-number relation: Zhen corresponds to liver, gallbladder; Xun, liver; Li, heart, small intestine, pericardium; Kun, spleen, small intestine, bladder,triple energizer; Dui, lung, large intestine; Qian, lung; Kan, kidney, bladder,triple energizer; Gen, spleen, stomach, large intestine, gallbladder. And their corresponding relations are refined to the specific functions of zang-fu organs. It is hoped that the analysis and summary of the eight trigrams- zangfu corresponding system will be helpful to the development and research, and inheritance of TCM- Zhouyi theory and visceral manifestation theory, which can provide theoretical reference for clinical practice.
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    Study on the correlation between TCM constitution and sleep quality of 308 patients with primary insomnia *
    Pei Qinghua, Li Xia, Xu Jing, Qu Miao, Tang Qisheng
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (10): 859-862.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.10.012
    Abstract440)      PDF(pc) (1157KB)(556)       Save
    Objective To study the distribution of TCM constitution in patients with primary insomnia, and the correlation between TCM constitution and sleep quality. Methods Cross-sectional survey was used. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and the Chinese Medical Constitution Scale were evaluated, and the data were collected to analyze the patients’ constitution distribution, sleep quality and the association between the constitution and the sleeping quality. Results A total of 308 cases (104 male & 204 female) were observed; the youngest was 20 years old, the oldest was 75 years old, with an average age of (46.32±16.23) years old. There were 162 cases of single constitution and 146 cases of combined constitution. The mean score of PSQI was (12.65±3.04). Symptoms of insomnia include poor sleep quality, shorter sleep time and longer time to falling asleep. The main symptoms were difficulty of falling asleep. Secondary symptoms of each constitution were as follows: early awakening in the phlegm dampness and yang deficiency constitutions; profuse dreaming in the blood stasis constitution; easy awakening in the yin deficiency constitution; shallow sleeping in the qi stagnation constitution, qi deficiency constitution, damp heat constitution and special constitution. Secondary symptoms of combined constitution were profuse dreaming. Conclusion The most common constitution in insomniacs were qi deficiency constitution, yin deficiency constitution and phlegm dampness constitution; and three kinds of combined constitution were qi deficiency and yang deficiency constitution, qi deficiency and yin deficiency constitution, yang deficiency and phlegm dampness constitution. There was no difference in the sleep quality between the single and combined constitutions, and the main symptom was difficulty in falling asleep. The secondary symptoms were correlated with the constitution of TCM.
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    Research on the formation and development of academic thought of Liu Wansu’s fire theory *
    Liu Fan, Wei Fengqin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 27-31.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.006
    Abstract428)      PDF(pc) (1209KB)(541)       Save
    This paper focuses on the formation and development of Liu Wansu’s fire theory to shed light on its influence on the inheritance and innovation of TCM. Firstly, the paper elaborates on the forming process of Liu Wansu’s fire theory, which mainly includes his own practice, collection of classics, and integration of neo-confucianism into the theory. Secondly, from the perspectives of TCM practitioners in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, of warm pathogen diseases and modern scholars, the paper further summarizes the thread of inheritance. Finally, influence of Liu Wansu’s fire theory (formation and development) on the inheritance and innovation of modern Chinese medicine is expounded. To sum up, focusing on classics and learning from various sources are the prerequisite for successful inheritance and innovation.
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    A study on the volume of zhan in decoction preparation in the Song Dynasty *
    Yuan Zhen, Ma Ran, Zhang Lin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (9): 738-741.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.007
    Abstract530)      PDF(pc) (1142KB)(490)       Save
    This article explores the unit of volume measurement zhan (盏) used to explain decoction preparation based on relevant records in literature in the Song Dynasty in combination with the actual historical relic zhan. The conversion between two units of volume measurement sheng (升) and zhan is described in detail. It is found that there is a difference between the two units in the Song Dynasty. The present research discovers that sheng in the sentence “To use a large zhan of water means to use about one sheng of water” taken from medical books complied by the government in the Song Dynasty is a unique unit of measurement specific to the Song Dynasty, which is different from the general ancient unit sheng as some scholars believe. One sheng in the Song Dynasty equals about 702 milliliters in modern terms, and one zhan about 350 milliliters.
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    A new interpretation of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” in Huangdi Neijing *
    Zhang Tianxing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 17-20.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.004
    Abstract951)      PDF(pc) (1146KB)(479)       Save
    The statement of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” came from the chapter entitled Yinyang Yingxiang Dalun (Major Discussion on the Theory of Yin and Yang and the Corresponding Relationships Among All the Things in Nature) in Suwen (Plain Questions). Based on the annotations of ancient doctors, this paper put forward the viewpoint of interpreting yin and yang from the aspect of interior and exterior. “Extreme yang turning into yin” means that when the exogenous pathogens are too strong or the exterior is repeatedly influenced by six pathogenic factors, the disease will transmit from the exterior to the interior, injuring qi movement of five zang-organs. “Extreme yin turning into yang” means that when the internal injury is too severe, which leads to deficiency or disorder of internal qi, the exterior will also be involved, resulting in the recurrence of exogenous diseases. The statement that “happiness and anger injure the qi, while heat and cold injure the appearance” describes the law of how endogenous and exogeous pathogens cause diseases, while “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” describes the valatility of diseases. The essence of “extreme yin turning into yang, extreme yang turning into yin” is to explain the relationship between exogenous and endogenous disorders. This idea is the theoretical basis for clinical understanding of the causes, analysis of pathogenesis, and pattern differentiation, and it merits forther exploring and developing.
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    Ontological view of nature in Huangdi’s Internal Classics:on genuine qi *
    He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (3): 181-184.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.03.001
    Abstract682)      PDF(pc) (1204KB)(452)       Save
    Philosophy is the soul of the medical system in Huangdi’s Internal Classics while theory of qi is the core of its philosophical system. The traditional “qi monism” believed to be held by this classics, however, seems to be ambiguous when examined thoroughly. Ontological perspective of “genuine qi” and duality of yin and yang qi are presented instead. “Genuine qi” is the master of life; it is without the character of yin and yang, rise and fall, pure and turbid. The concepts of “kidney qi”, “meridian qi” and “visceral essence” in the theory of visceral manifestation are the embodiment of “genuine qi”.
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    Connotation of “extreme yin being related to earth qi” in Suwen *
    Wang Mengqi, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (8): 629-632.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.08.003
    Abstract870)      PDF(pc) (1139KB)(438)       Save
    Suwen: Liujie Zangxiang Lun (Plain Conversation: Discussion on Six-Plus-Six System and the Manifestations of Organs) is one of important chapters on the theory of visceral manifestations in Huangdi Neijing (Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic). On the understandings of the passage of “spleen, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, triple energizers, bladder… are extreme yin and they are related to earth qi”, the physicians in successive dynasties had great difference. The paper proposes, after analyzing the problems existing in several common viewpoints on the passage and combining the application of quartered yin-yang model and writing mode in the chapter, that the extreme yin can be regarded as a compromise saying by the author who tried to explain the relationship between four seasons and five zang-organs, and “extreme yin being related to earth qi” can be understand as extreme yin being related to qi of water and food. The paper also indicates that spleen and other zang-organs interact to each other in physical or pathological conditions. So it is a summarization on their functions of water-food conversion to name spleen and other zang-organs as extreme yin, which has clinical significance.
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    On inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis from view of traditional Chinese medicine *
    Ding Xia, Wei Wei, Shen Hong, Sun Zeqi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (11): 885-889.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.11.001
    Abstract551)      PDF(pc) (1132KB)(426)       Save
    The inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis is a classical model of malignant transformation from chronic uncontrollable inflammation cancer, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays an important role in delaying, blocking and reversing the progress of this disease. From the perspective of TCM, TCM cognition on inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis, and the function, value, bottleneck problem and countermeasure of TCM in controlling thus progress are expounded. At present stage, there are relatively few TCM literatures on discussion of inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis, and no systematic research Results achieved. The TCM theory of “dynamic thinking” and “preventive treatment of disease” plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis. TCM has advantages in removing causes of disease, alleviating patients’ clinical symptoms and improving the pathological morphology of gastric mucosa. In the process of controlling inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis, TCM has the characteristics of higher safety, lower drug dependence and good compliance. It is of great significance and value to control the progress of the disease and reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. However, there are still some problems including a lack of systematic ideas of differentiation and treatment in clinical practice, unclear time for intervention of inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis, and indistinct combined effects with Western medicine at the present stage. The bottleneck problems are manifested as program in scientific research cannot reflect TCM characteristics, systematic mechanism exploration is in shortage, and research Results are difficult to be applied in clinical practice. Therefore, further consideration and measures are needed in controlling inflammation-cancer transformation of chronic gastritis by TCM
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    Experience of understanding pestilence from the perspective of five-circuit six-qi theory: Reading notes of two supplemented chapters in Suwen
    Wang Yongyan, Fan Yipin, Zhang Huamin, Bai Weiguo, Wang Yanping
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 445-448.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.001
    Abstract447)      PDF(pc) (1248KB)(425)       Save
    The theoretical statements on epidemic diseases in the two originally-lost later-supplemented chapters in Suwen (Plain Questions) suggest that the five-circuit six-qi theory is still of significant reference to the prevention and treatment of pestilence in modern times. Taking three major historical pandemics as example, i.e. encephalitis B in 1974, influenza in 2009 and COVID-19 in Wuhan in 2019, this paper advocates that the TCM community should take the history as a mirror while shouldering the responsibility of preventing and treating epidemic diseases. The circuit-qi theory of the traditional ancient Chinese civilization needs to be integrated with modern ecology, sociology and other diverse disciplines and perspectives to seek the underlying cause of the spreading of pestilence. This paper also summarizes the essential pattern elements and the priority of treatment. Integrated Chinese and Western medical approach is emphasized in the battle against pestilence. The original thinking of holistic manifestation, numbers and changes needs to be highlighted. Under the guidance of ancient Chinese studies, observing the xiang (manifestation) of the disease to discern the underlying dao (way) of treatment should be used to guide the clinical practice.
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    On evolution of meridian theory in Tongren Shuxue Zhenjiu Tujing (Illustrated Manual of Acupuncture Points of the Bronze Figure) *
    Liu Jintao, Chen Zijie, Wang Weiguang, Wang Huiru, Li Menglin, Chen Jingwen, Liang Yan, Zhai Shuangqing
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (10): 816-820.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.10.005
    Abstract440)      PDF(pc) (1180KB)(411)       Save
    The concept and historical evolution of meridian theory in the Song Dynasty and dynasties before Song are clarified. After investigating the chapters of meridian theory in Tongren Shuxue Zhenjiu Tujing (Illustrated Manual of Acupuncture Points of the Bronze Figure) and comparing them with those in Huangdi Neijing (the Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic), Nanjing (Classic of Difficult Issues) and some other works, The evolution of meridian theory in Tongren Shuxue Zhenjiu Tujing is summed up as follows: Nutrient qi transforms into blood qi running in the meridian to moisten the whole body. The naming methods of the meridians changes from zang (fu) hands (feet) vessels to hands (feet) zang (fu) meridians. The theory of shidong and suoshengbing in Nanjing is inherited and developed, and pulse-taking methods on renying and qikou acupoints in Huangdi Neijing are developed to present the concept of conception vessel (CV) being the sea of yin vessels. The related concepts and origins of some problems of meridian theory before the Song Dynasty are clarified, which is helpful for us to grasp deeply the development characteristics of meridian theory.
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    Exploration of primordial qi in TCM *
    Li Zhihui, Wang Xiaoping
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (9): 709-712.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.001
    Abstract594)      PDF(pc) (1265KB)(405)       Save
    The article puts forward that primordial qi refers to prenatal qi and original qi denotes both prenatal qi and postnatal qi. It expounds the connotation of the primordial qi in TCM and its relationship with the original qi. Firstly, the article argues that it is necessary to propose the concept of primordial qi in view of the ambiguity of the concept of the original qi. Secondly, it analyzes that primordial qi means the prenatal qi of the life gate and that it is the prenatal source, primordial driving force and the essence of healthy qi. Finally, it differentiates the primordial qi from the original qi in terms of their connotations, their prenatal and postnatal attributes, their yin and yang attributes, and treatments for their diseases.
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    On significance of ancient astronomical coordinate systems for research into doctrine of five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences *
    Meng Qingyan, Zhang Qicheng, Zhang Qingxiang, Liu Yuanyuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 983-987.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.003
    Abstract437)      PDF(pc) (2006KB)(403)       Save
    As an important part of TCM theory, the doctrine of the five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences involves the pattern of changes in nature based on human’s observation and life experience.The doctrine emerged when astronomy in ancient China had reached a high level of precision.Thus, this paper analyzes the characteristics of three ancient astronomical coordinate systems,which may provide some reference for current study of the doctrine.It probes into the doctrine of the five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences and corrects some mistakes in the present research on the doctrine by analyzing it in the specific context where it emerged and developed. It also deepens the connotation of the doctrine by revealing the major, essential and inevitable factors in its formation, which provides reference for the learning and theoretical study of the doctrine.
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    Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of compound Zaofan Pills alone or combined with Western medicine in the treatment of blood diseases *
    Zhang Zhichun, Zhang Xiaobo, Ding Hao, Jia Mengran, Wang Chong, Chen Xinyi, Tian Shaodan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (10): 873-880.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.10.014
    Abstract393)      PDF(pc) (3298KB)(385)       Save
    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of compound Zaofan pills alone or combined with Western medicine in the treatment of blood diseases. Methods The researchers retrieved the seven authoritative databases commonly used, and searched published randomized controlled clinical trials on compound Zaofan pills alone or combined with Western medicine in the treatment of blood diseases from the establishment of the library to January 2018, and carried out data extraction and quality evaluation, and then the Review Manager 5.3 software was used for Meta analysis. Results Finally, 15 qualified clinical studies were included, among which 11 were aplastic anemia, 3 were myelodysplasia syndromes, and 1 was immune thrombocytopenia. Meta-analysis showed that: ①The overall efficacy evaluation showed that the compound Zaofan pills alone or combined with Western medicine was superior to Western medicine alone ( P<0.000 01). ②The efficacy of compound Zaofan pills alone or combined with Western medicine in the treatment of aplastic anemia was better than that of Western medicine alone ( P<0.000 01).③The efficacy of compound Zaofan pills alone or combined with Western medicine in the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome was better than that of Western medicine alone ( P=0.002).④Six studies reported treatment-related adverse reactions, mainly mild gastrointestinal reaction and mild liver function damage, but all of them occurred in the combined treatment group, so it could not be determined as the result of compound Zaofan pills. Conclusion Compound Zaofan pills alone or combined with Western medicine seems to be more effective than Western medicine alone in the treatment of aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome with safety.
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    Mechanism of five notes of ancient China’s pentatonic scale in disease treatment based on meridian and collateral theory *
    Lin Facai
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (6): 465-468.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.06.005
    Abstract637)      PDF(pc) (1169KB)(367)       Save
    A study of the mechanism of the correspondence between the five notes and the meridians is of great significance for the therapeutic effect of the five-element music. The five notes of ancient China’s pentatonic scale are in close association with the meridians and the acupoints on them. Based on the five-element theory, a corresponding relationship between the five notes and the meridians came into existence. The present research explored the mechanisms of the five notes, the correspondence between the meridians along with acupoints and the five notes, the diagnosis and treatment with the five notes, and the appropriate application time for the music therapy based on midnight-noon ebb-flow theory of meridians and collaterals, aiming to lay a solid foundation for a better understanding of the mechanism of the five-element music and provide new thoughts and methods for the clinical application of the five notes including the administration of music treatment in accordance with time of the day.
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    Theory construction of “the Earthly Branches transforming into qi” in theory of five circuits and six qi: a new interpretation *
    Meng Qingyan, Liu Yuanyuan, Zhang Qingxiang, Wang Shiyuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (5): 370-373.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.05.003
    Abstract462)      PDF(pc) (1252KB)(364)       Save
    The theory of five circuits and six qi is an important part of TCM theory, in which “the Earthly Branches transforming into qi” is the most basic theory. The interpretation on it is contradictory at present. The relevant content in ancient literature is analyzed by applying the embryology methods of literature analysis and theoretical study based on 7 major discourses in Neijing ( Huangdi’s Internal Classic). The theory construction of “the Earthly Branches transforming into qi” is affected by multiple factors including location of three-yin three-yang, seasonal distribution and previous theories. The construction of this theory is complex in the forming process, but closely relates to changes of four seasons and reflects plain materialism and dialectics. The theory construction of “the Earthly Branches transforming into qi” is a summary of the objective law of nature by ancestors and it is not mysterious.
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    Theoretical analyses on “tongue is the orifice of heart” *
    Li Yu, Zhang Xueliang, Zhang Min, Wang Qingguo
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 32-34.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.007
    Abstract456)      PDF(pc) (1136KB)(356)       Save
    The statement “tongue is the orifice of heart”, also known as “heart opens into the tongue”, comes from the Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). The physiological function and pathological changes of the heart are closely related to the tongue. As the orifice of the heart, tongue is connected with the heart on meridians and channels. Tongue expresses the heart by helping articulate, while the heart dominates mind by opening into the tongue. By observing the tongue, doctor can underst and the functional state of the heart’s governing blood vessels and mind. Clinically, the theory of “tongue being the orifice of the heart” can guide the diagnosis and treatment of such diseases as orifice occlusion.
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    Study on Shen Tong and his book Shigu
    Yan Minmin, Huang Zuozhen
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (2): 103-108.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.003
    Abstract484)      PDF(pc) (1379KB)(355)       Save
    Shen Tong is a scholar of Qing Dynasty in classics study and textual criticism. He kept close contacts with masters of classics such as Hui Dong and Fang Bao. Xu Lingtai, a famous doctor in the Qing Dynasty, was his fellow townsman. He had lived in Xu’s hospital for a period of time, during which an acupuncturist asked him some questions about acupoint. Since he was ashamed of his ignorance of the structure of human body and worried about the erroneous exposition that had been circulated since the Tang Dynasty, he decided to write the book later known as Shigu. Shigu (Explaining bones) is a TCM anatomy book on bones. The main contents in this book included the names, locations and appearances of bones in all parts of body which had been mentioned in Huangdi’s Internal Classics and AB Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. The exegesis and styles of this book are characterized by the statement that ”to confirm the word by classics, and explain classics with the word”. Although short in length, it had a profound influence. It was first published in Sixteenth years of Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty (1751), and spread to Japan soon after its publication, becoming an important reference book for acupuncture and moxibustion as well as the explanation of Huangdi’s Internal Classics. It is of great significance in the history of TCM anatomy.
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    Academic thought of treating infertility in Fu Qingzhu Nyuke *
    Yang Lin, Xu Xiaofeng
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (8): 643-646.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.08.006
    Abstract519)      PDF(pc) (1199KB)(352)       Save
    Fu Qingzhu Nyuke (Fu Qingzhu’s Obstetrics and Gynecology) is written by Fu Shan, and it is specialized for gynecology. Common gynecological diseases such as leucorrhea, metrorrhagia, regulating menstruation, pregnancy, gestation and postpartum are listed in the book. The treatment of infertility in the book reflects Fu’s academic thoughts, pattern differentiation thinking, therapies, formulas and medicinals, which has great influence on later generations. In Pregnancy Chapter, Fu’s therapies for infertility emphasize tonifying kidney, liver and spleen, coordinating heart and kidney, reinforcing healthy qi and eliminating pathogenic factors and combining with Menstruation Regulation Chapter, Fu Shan had realized that pregnancy followed regulating menstruation. Fu’s academic thoughts on treatment of infertility are analyzed from above aspects, and the purpose is to further understand the book’s essence, enrich physicians’ clinical experiences and offer services for more infertile patients.
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    Clarification of the original and extended meaning of Zhang Zhongjing’s original text——Taking “chuang jia” as an example *
    Dou Dou, Zhong Xianggen
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (9): 713-719.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.002
    Abstract435)      PDF(pc) (1240KB)(343)       Save
    By analyzing relevant ancient literature, this article has proved that the original meaning of “疮” (chuang) is “wounded”, and the original meaning of “家” (jia) is “patient” in the sentence “疮家,虽身疼痛,不可发汗,汗出则痉” from Essentials from the Golden Cabinet. The original meaning of the whole sentence is “when wounded patients feel painful in the body, they should not take herbs of diaphoretic property, because sweating can cause convulsion.” The paper has collected the annotations of this sentence from historical literature by annotators in the Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties and the Republic of China, and analyzed the change in the annotations in different times and its relation with the times. It can be seen from this example that the interpretation of Zhang Zhongjing’s original text has changed in different times. It is necessary to analyze the original meaning of the sentence and its various annotations in different times by referring to the original linguistic and social contexts. This article also puts forward the method and significance of clarifying the original meaning by Zhang Zhongjing.
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    Expanded new concept five phase map: on model of metasystem
    Zhang Zhiqiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (5): 362-369.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.05.002
    Abstract422)      PDF(pc) (1459KB)(323)       Save
    Prof. Meng Kaitao, works on philosophical mathematics in Northwestern University and is an appointed researcher in the Institute of Chinese Basic Clinical Medicine of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, originally creates philosophical mathematics for interpreting the cosmology from thinking perspective. He has discovered twelve laws of the world based on the dialectical logic thinking mode and refined the concept of metasystem. On the basis of TCM time-space medicine, Prof. Meng combines the thinking of Hetu and Yidao and creates a new concept five phase (wood, fire, earth, metal and water) map to comprehensively interpret the origin and evolution of TCM thinking mode. The connotation of metasystem is interpreted from thinking angle, and the content of new concept five phase map, a Prof. Meng’s metasystem thinking mode, is mined in the paper, including five phase distribution, central axis, middle qi and dimensions. The paper proposes that five-phase distribution is closely related to the contents of central axis, middle qi, and dimensions. The earth in the center is surrounded by other four phases, and spleen does not correspond only one season. Spleen governing four seasons is in line with the thinking mode of the universe. The engendering and restraining of five phases are not linear sequence. The movements of five phases show a perfectly round motion with spleen in the center. The middle qi is generated due to extreme changes, which is the congenital original qi and element power of upbearing, downbearing, floating and sinking. The shape of central axis is not a physical linearity, but a spirit of thinking construction with inner yang qi. The soft upbearing of yang qi sinking and its downbearing stems from floating. The central axis is in the position between two places at the lower left and the upper right with time-space connotation. The five phase map, drawing upbearing, downbearing, floating and sinking, aims at interpreting the connotation of four-dimensional phase. The floating and sinking are the noumenon of yin and yang, and upbearing and downbearing are the transformation of yin and yang. The name is different so connotation is different, and four motions are not the extending of same dimension, while belong different dimensions. In other words, Prof. Meng proposes the law of alternating and reciprocal transformation, indicates the difference in complexity of upbearing, downbearing, floating and sinking, and points out the dimension content implicating in movements of upbearing, downbearing, floating and sinking of new concept five phase map. The changes of universe show four-dimensionality and four dimensions in TCM also contains space-time content. The four dimensions are changing. The four dimensions of metasystem contain spirit, qi and physique and will be multiplied as long with yin-yang differentiation, which is not simple three-dimension or four-dimension construction and shows multi-dimensional nature.
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    Mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder in depression *
    Yu Yao,Guo Rongjuan,Shi Huawei,Yuan Qingjie,Li Yang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (7): 602-606.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.07.012
    Abstract358)      PDF(pc) (1130KB)(320)       Save
    Depression is a major disease which can cause serious damage to human health. Its pathogenesis is still unclear; and the existing monoamine hypothesis failed to adequately explain its multi-system complex symptoms. Moreover, drug therapy also encountered bottlenecks. Many evidences have indicated that mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder is closely related to the occurrence and development of depression, which may become a new target for depression drug develop ment. In this paper, we put forward the hypothesis of mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder in depression. Our hypothesis is that mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder is an important pathological mechanism for the occurrence and development of depression, and a key pathological phenomenon manifesting as the aggravation of mental symptoms and the generalization of physical symptoms. Therefore, improving the disorder can effectively alleviate the mental and physical symptoms of depression. This hypothesis can provide new ideas for the study of depression.
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    Discussion of the connotation of “zi hua yuan” in the chapter “Liuyuan Zhengji Dalun” in Suwen from the perspective of generation and restriction relationships among the five zang-organs *
    Shi Yuqi, Liu Jin, Zhang Xi, Zhu Bo, Zhang Shaoqiang, Li Xiaofeng, Wang Xiaofei, Du Wuxun
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (9): 720-724.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.003
    Abstract803)      PDF(pc) (1213KB)(319)       Save
    The concept “zi hua yuan” mentioned in the chapter “Liuyuan Zhengji Dalun” (Major Discussion on the Progress of the Six Climatic Changes) in Suwen(Simple Conversation), had different meanings according to different TCM physicians in history.Some believed that it means enriching the restricted one in “si tian” (celestial control) and “zai quan” (terrestrial effect) of the year, some believed that it means enriching the mother-phase qi of the constrained zang-organ, and other scholars believed that it means enriching the source of transformation of organs like spleen and kidney.Based on an analysis of understanding and development of concept by various TCM physicians,this paper explores the connotation of “zi hua yuan” from the perspective of the relationships of generation and restriction among the five zang-organs. To interpret the connotation of “zi hua yuan” from such perspective provides a brand new way of understanding not only because the appropriate month is selected for enriching the source of transformation according to the five-element attributes of “si tian”and “zai quan” of the year, but also an overall balance among the five zang-organs is maintained based on the relationship among them.
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    Application and reflection of single-case randomized controlled trial in efficacy evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine *
    Jing Hanguang, Meng Qinggang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (10): 842-847.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.10.009
    Abstract336)      PDF(pc) (1426KB)(317)       Save
    Objective To explore suitable clinical research methods for traditional Chinese medicine by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the three clinical methods in traditional Chinese medicine, including single-case randomized controlled trial (n-of-1), randomized controlled trial (RCT), and real world study (RWS). Methods Relevant literature including latest guideline at home and abroad were searched to compare and contrast for analysis. Results Traditional Chinese medicine is featured by individualized treatment. N-of-1 trial seems to align with scientific and TCM rationale in clinical diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion N-of-1 trial is a scientifically refined case study in TCM. Systematic evaluation of data obtained could facilitate scientific evaluation of efficacy and validation of individualized treatment. Its application has great prospective in TCM clinical studies.
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    Ye Tianshi’s treatment methods of warming spleen yang and regulating stomach yang: resolving a doubt *
    Yao Haiqiang, Wang Qi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (11): 890-893.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.11.002
    Abstract580)      PDF(pc) (1144KB)(315)       Save
    In visceral manifestation theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), spleen and stomach are coupled viscera and usually, they are also mentioned together. However, their physiological and pathological characteristics, and therapeutic Methods and suitable formulas and herbs for spleen and stomach are all different. The differences in pathogenesis, pattern manifestations, therapeutic Methods, formulas and medicinals between spleen and stomach are analyzed and summarized based on Ye Tianshi’s clinical records. The therapeutic Methods for different levels of spleen yang deficiency and stomach yang deficiency are elucidated in detail with specific medical cases, for examples, Li Dongyuan’s therapeutic method of replenishing qi and upraising yang, and therapeutic Methods of Linggui Zhugan Tang, Lizhong Tang and Fuzi Lizhong Tang for warming spleen yang, and therapeutic Methods of Dabanxia Tang, Wuzhuyu Tang and Fuzi Jingmi Tang for regulating stomach yang. In some circumstance, spleen yang deficiency and stomach yang deficiency may appear simultaneously, and they should be treated together or in proper order according to pattern manifestations. It is hoped to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of spleen-stomach diseases.
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    Citation analysis of articles in Journal of Beijing University of TCM cited by SCIE journals *
    Wang Limin, Yan Juntang, Huang Yinghua, You Haiyan, Zhang Hui, Hao Sumei, Zou Huiqin, Xu Rongting, Lu Guanglin, Liang Jichun, Luo Bin, Zhang Chi
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (12): 1049-1056.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.013
    Abstract383)      PDF(pc) (1191KB)(313)       Save
    Objective To provide reference for the development of Journal of Beijing University of TCM (JBUTCM) based on quantitative analysis of all the articles in the journals in SCIE database, which cited papers published in JBUTCM. Methods Through search on Web of Science Core Collection: Cited Reference Search, articles in the journals in SCIE database that cited papers in JBUTCM were analyzed in this paper. Results From 1995 to 2018, a total number of 556 articles were cited in SCIE database journals and the accumulative citation frequency was 879, both of which exhibited parabolic trends. The number of citing articles was 773 with annual increases. The first author’s institutional affiliation of the cited articles was mainly Beijing University of Chinese Medicine. Among all the papers published with research funding, those funded by the national funding were the majority. There were ten articles with cited frequency higher than five, five of which were published in the Science & Technology Theme column, four in the Theoretical Studies column, and the other one was in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Experimental Research column. The journals that carried the papers that cited articles in JBUTCM ranked at the middle level in the world. The citing articles were mostly in such areas as integrative and complementary medicine, pharmacology and pharmacy, and chemistry. Conclusion The percentage of cited articles accounted for only 8.7% of the total number of articles published in JBUTCM. While the journal exerted relatively large influence at home, its international influence was comparatively small. The articles in columns Science & Technology Theme and Theoretical Studies attracted more attention than those in other columns, and therefore, the two columns should be preserved and strengthened. In addition, JBUTCM should publish more and better research papers related to integrative and complementary medicine, pharmacology and pharmacy, and chemistry to improve its academic influence.
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    Effect of Xiefei Decoction on the inflammatory factors and VEGF expression in rats with pulmonary fibrosis *
    Yan Chunlu, An Fangyu, Liu Yongqi, Luo Yali, Wu Zhiwei, Liu Xuesong, Li Yang, Shi Xufeng, Zhang Xue
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (10): 847-853.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.009
    Abstract317)      PDF(pc) (1781KB)(312)       Save
    ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Xiefei Decoction (Lung Heat-clearing Decoction, XFT) on the inflammatory factors and the expression of VEGF in lung tissue of pulmonary fibrosis rats induced by bleomycin. Methods 84 SPF SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, XFT low, middle and high-dose XFT groups and prednisone group ( n = 14 in each group). Apart from the normal group, a single dose of bleomycin was intratracheally injected into the SD rats to induce pulmonary fibrosis (PF). The normal group received the same amount of normal saline. After 24 hours, low, middle and high-dose XFT groups were given a gavage of 10 g/kg·d, 20 g/kg·d and 40 g/kg·d respectively; the prednisone group was given prednisone 1.8 mg/kg·d; and the normal group and model group were given equal volume of normal saline. All rats were sacrificad after 28 days. The pathomorphism changes of lung tissue were observed with HE; the contents of IL-6 and IL-10 in serum were evaluated with ELISA; expression of VEGF gene and caspase-3 gene in lung tissue were assessed by RT-PCR; and VEGF expression in lung tissue was assessed by Western blot. Results Compared with the blank control group, the pathological score, inflammatory cell count, serum IL-6 content, and the expression of caspase-3 and VEGF in lung tissue were significantly increased, but serum IL-10 was significantly decreased in the model group ( P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in all XFT groups, the expression of VEGF decreased significantly; and the pathological score, inflammatory cell count, serum IL-6 contents, the gene expression of caspase-3 and VEGF were decreased significantly ( P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, the serum IL-10 content was significantly increased in XFT mid-dose and high-dose groups compared with the model group ( P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion XFT seems to delay disease progression of pulmonary fibrosis, possibly through inhibition of inflammation, apoptosis and angiogenesis.
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    Discussion on the application of later heaven eight diagrams (houtian bagua) in Huangdi Neijing *
    Wang Hong, Zheng Ruoyun, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 8-11.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.002
    Abstract489)      PDF(pc) (1684KB)(311)       Save
    Model thinking is an important way of original thinking in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Examples like three yin and three yang, Yellow River Map, Lo Shu Square, as well as the Stems-and-Branches, are all original thinking models that have played an important part in constructing the theoretical system of Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). It is very important to analyze the influence of different original thinking modals on medical theories in order to understand them. Later heaven eight diagrams (houtian bagua) is an important thinking model in both traditional culture and TCM. It contains the double connotations of time and space, which has important influences on the regional division of nine palaces and eight winds in Huangdi Neijing, and the positioning of human viscera, especially in the proposal of the “earth pivot and four images” and the theory of human body corresponding to the nine geographical divisions. It is also an important demonstration of the “unity of man and nature”.
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    Calcifying tendinitis of the supraspinatus treated with thermo-acupuncture: a randomized controlled trial
    Wang Defeng, Cai Lin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (7): 611-616.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.07.014
    Abstract451)      PDF(pc) (1538KB)(310)       Save
    Objective To observe the clinical therapeutic effects of the thermo-acupuncture in the treatment of calcifying tendinitis of the supraspinatus and to explore its mechanism. Methods A total of 60 patients with calcifying tendinitis of the supraspinatus were randomly divided into thermo-acupuncture group (TA) (observation group) and electroacupuncture group (EA) (control group), with 30 cases in each group. In the TA group, “ Ping Bu” (moderate reinforcing) and “ Ping Xie” (moderate reducing) manipulations were applied to acupoints of Taichong (LV 3), Yanglingquan (GB 34), Xuehai (SP 10) and Fenglong (ST 40) in both sides while warm needles were applied to the acupoints of Jianliao (SJ 14) and Jugu (LI 16) in the affected side. The treatment was given once every 4-5 days. After 2-4 times when the symptoms were alleviated, the fire needles were applied to Jianliao points (SJ 14) in the affected side and Ashi points near the calcification once a week, which lasted for eight weeks. The acupoints of the EA group were the same as those of the TA group. Differently, the electroacupuncture was applied to Jianliao (SJ 14) and Jugu (LI 16) points while the other acupoints received moderate manipulations. The treatment was given once every 4-5 days with a total of 8 times. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of shoulder joint pain and the Constant System Core of the shoulder joint function before and after treatment were compared between the two groups; and the changes of calcification were compared before and 3 weeks after the 8 treatments. Results After 8 treatments, the VAS scores were lower ( P<0.05) and the Constant scores were higher ( P<0.05) in both groups. However, the TA group was better than the EA group (P<0.05). As for the changes of calcification, 25 cases disappeared after treatments in the TA group, which were 83.3% of 30 cases, and 4 cases decreased, which accounted for 13.3%. In the EA group, no calcification disappeared and only 6 cases of calcification decreased after treatments, which were 20% of the total of 30 cases. It was suggested that the efficacy of thermo-acupuncture to eliminate calcification far exceeds that of electroacupuncture. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05), for the curative rate of the TA group was 96.6% (29/30) and higher than that of the EA group (20/30). Conclusion TA, the combination of warm needle and fire needle, is an independent acupuncture therapy for calcifying tendinitis of the supraspinatus with the advantages of short-treatment term, no trauma, low cost, and high curative effect.
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    The metaphor analysis of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” in TCM formula based on the concept of “a prescription being a state”
    Ma Sisi, Jia Chunhua, Guo Jin
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (2): 93-98.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.001
    Abstract506)      PDF(pc) (1942KB)(306)       Save
    Objective To explore the metaphorical nature of the “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” theory in TCM formula. Methods In this paper, we use the method of metaphorical cognition to explore the cognitive process and application of the theory of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” in TCM Formula. Results It is found that from the perspective of official system, “monarch-minister-assistant-envoy” composition is a three-level structure characterized “monarch-minister-assistant”. The core of the “monarch-minister-assistant-envoy” formula is the relationship between monarch and minister. There are different levels of spatial metaphor in the concept of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy”. Firstly, the effect of medicinals on the main pattern is a three-level gradient spatial metaphor; Secondly, the importance of disease and manifestations is another three-level gradient spatial metaphor. There is no way to apply the “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” theory without analyzing the importance of the disease and its manifestations. Medicinal gradient is based on the recognition of symptom gradient. Conclusion It is concluded that the essence of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” metaphor is the mapping of human conceptual thinking from the field of social system to the field of formula based on spatial metaphor. The essence of metaphor is pathway-sharing and chaos-sorting. Therefore, the theoretical system of TCM based on metaphor can guide the clinical practice of “taking unblockage as harmony” and “taking balance as the goal”.
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    The origin of discipline is the source of innovation: a thought after reading the chapter of Discussion on the Changes of Qi-Convergence in Plain Questions
    Wang Yongyan, Zhang Huamin, Ji Xinyu
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (1): 5-7.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.01.001
    Abstract488)      PDF(pc) (1283KB)(306)       Save
    The chapter entitiled Discussion on the Changes of Qi-Convergence in Plain Questions is about the excess and insufficiency of five-motion qi and changes of de (function), hua (transformation), zheng (administration), ling (order), to elaborate the relation between nature, disorder and phenomena. This paper analyzes the chapter from the following three aspects: Firstly, the pathogenesis of patterns due to excessive or insufficient yearly qi helps to comprehend the general mechanism of five qi excess or insufficiency, the relations of engendering, restraining, over-restraining and counter-restraining among them. Therefore manifestation observation should be the premise of pattern diagnosis and disease treatment. Secondly, the elucidated rule of Daoism follows the law of nature and thus manifestations are for us to consider; No reckless action is to be taken without any careful account. Thirdly, innovation is the priority to inheritance of past knowledge and development of new theories. Based on the author’s research and clinical experiences against infectious diseases and H1N1 influenza in the earlier years, this paper emphasizes that independent thinking originates from the cultural awareness and that exploring the origins of the discipline is the source of innovation.
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    Interpretation of TCM holism by qi-monism in concept of perpetual motion *
    Qi Yuanling, Zhang Qingxiang
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (5): 357-361.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.05.001
    Abstract508)      PDF(pc) (1212KB)(305)       Save
    The concept of perpetual motion refers to the viewpoint of movement, development and change that should be held in understanding the change law of things, including the medical problems of birth, old age, illness and death. Motion is the most basic and most important feature of cosmic inventory and human life, and the motive power for the development and changes of things. Qi-monism is an important philosophical thought in the Pre-Qin Dynasty. It holds that qi is the origin of the universe, the intermediary of the relationship among things, and qi has the movement forms of upward, downward, inward and outward movement. It is precisely because of the continuous movement of qi that all things change vigorously, that is, qi-monism has the concept of perpetual motion. Based on the philosophical basis of qi-monism, the holism of TCM elaborates the unity between human and nature, the homology and isomorphism of human viscera and the unity and harmony between human and society, precisely because of its concept of perpetual motion. The monism of qi, based on the concept of constant motion, maintains the overall concept of traditional Chinese medicine and makes people, nature and society an organic whole.
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    Attribution of skeletal muscle to the five zang organs in TCM *
    Guo Chunxia, Zhang Qiming, Wang Yiguo, Zhang Jianxiong, XuYang, Zheng Tengfei, Feng Hui, Yuan Xiaohui, Li Xuan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (2): 93-97.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.001
    Abstract529)      PDF(pc) (1288KB)(300)       Save
    The function of “the spleen governing muscles” refers to the function of spleen to produce essence of grain and water to nourish muscles and other affiliated parts all over the whole body. However, the functions of skeletal muscles are not solely governed by the spleen.In this article,the distribution and functions of skeletal muscles in the whole body are observed according to anatomy,then these functions are compared with those of the five zang organs in TCM. The functions of skeletal muscles are supported by the physiological functions of the five organs, i.e. transportation, transformation and fixing and lifting tendency of the spleen (manifested as muscle), the respiratory function of the lung, water metabolism and reproductive function of the kidney, free flow of qi and emotions governed by the liver, and housing shen (mental activity) of the heart. To be more specific,the skeletal muscles involved in digestion corresponds with the spleen’s function of transportation and transformation.The skeletal muscles that produce muscular strength and muscular tension to maintain body movement and posture are in accordance with the spleen’s function of governing muscles in five body constituents. The fascial functions that produce tension to fix the organs and support the skin belong to the fixing and lifting function of the spleen. The skeletal muscles involved in breathing correspondto the lung’s function of governing respiration.The skeletal muscles related to urination and delivery are in accordance to the kidney’s function of governing water metabolism and reproduction.The skeletal muscles involved in the expression of emotions are related to the liver which controls free flow of qi and emotions. The skeletal muscles involved in the manifestation of spiritual activities correspond to the heart’s function of housing shen (mental activity).
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    Development of granulomatous lobular mastitis from the perspective of “phlegm pathogen causing diseases” theory in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Liang Huan, Zhang Dongxiao, Sun Yujian, Fu Na, Xie Fang, Dong Hao, Wang Chun, Gao Qian, Huang Qiao, Zhao Wenjie
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (10): 808-811.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.10.003
    Abstract468)      PDF(pc) (1200KB)(299)       Save
    This paper discusses the relationship with the manifestations of granulomatous lobular mastitis and phlegm dampness constitution in traditional Chinese medicine based on the “phlegm pathogen causing diseases” and features of phlegm pathogen. The clinical manifestations of granulomatous lobular mastitis are varied. Phlegm is involved in the whole process of granulomatous lobular mastitis. The authors conclude that granulomatous lobular mastitis is a mass disease caused mainly by phlegm affecting the skin. In clinical practice, diagnosis should be focused on phlegm, treating the kidney, spleen and liver. The combination of pattern diagnosis and constitution differentiation could ensure a better clinical efficacy. This paper could be used as references for the theory development and clinical treatment of granulomatous lobular mastitis.
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    Development and evaluation of the TCM pattern element diagnostic scale for type 2 diabetes mellitus *
    Zhao Lingyan, Bi Lifu, Chen Jianxin, Zhao Huihui, Yang Yi, Zhang Yajun, Zhang Xingguang, Wang Wei
    JOURNAL OF BEIJIGN UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINE    2018, 41 (10): 848-853.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.10.010
    Abstract381)      PDF(pc) (1224KB)(298)       Save
    Objective To establish a diagnostic scale of TCM pattern elements of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) by introducing the scale development method into the diagnosis of TCM patterns and to explore the standardization of TCM pattern by developing relevant scale. Methods Data obtained with TCM four diagnostic methods was collected from 249 qualified patients with T2DM in five grade 3 and first-class hospitals around the country by using a multi-center clinical epidemiology survey. Pattern differentiation was centrally made after all the information was collected. The entry pool of four TCM diagnostic methods of each pattern was initially identified on the basis of literature research. Correlation coefficient, stepwise regression and factor analysis methods were jointly used to do entry screening on the data of 179 samples. Logistic regression was conducted to do entry assignment, and ROC curve was used to determine the diagnostic threshold to establish the diagnosis scale of T2DM TCM pattern elements. 70 samples were used to do reliability and validity evaluation of the scale. Results There were nine pattern elements in T2DM Diagnostic Scale of TCM patterns, namely, pattern of qi deficiency, yin deficiency, internal dampness, dryness-heat, yang deficiency, blood stasis, liquid depletion, phlegm turbidity and qi stagnation, whose diagnostic threshold were: 11 points, 9 points, 8 points, 13 points, 8 points, 10 points, 12 points, 7 points and 4 points respectively. The split-half reliability of the scale was 0.878, and its Cronbach’sα was 0.844. Three common factors were extracted with factor analysis. The cumulative variance contribution rate was 69.123% and the correlation coefficient of the score of each pattern element to the total score was 0.471-0.794. Conclusions There are nine pattern elements in the diagnostic scale of T2DM TCM factors, which is of good reliability and validity, and can be used for clinical or research pattern diagnosis. It provides new ideas and methods for the study of TCM pattern standardization.
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    Analysis of the concept of “Zhengqi” in Huangdi Neijing *
    Shi Lingsheng, He Juan
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (6): 469-474.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.005
    Abstract361)      PDF(pc) (1254KB)(293)       Save
    In modern Chinese medicine, “ Zhengqi”, often juxtaposed with “ Xieqi”,is an important concept in the theory of pathogenesis based on exuberance and debilitation of Xieqi (pathogenic factors) and Zhengqi (healthy qi).However,in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), “Zhengqi” originally meant “Zhengfeng” (right wind), essentially referring to wind in the right direction in the right season. Therefore, it was also an external pathogenic factor in modern sense because of its potential capacity to cause diseases. It was in the Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern dynasties (220 AD-589 AD) when “ Zhengqi” began to acquire its physiological sense. Later, it gradually became clear that the term referred to healthy qi.Its connotation of “ Zhengfeng” was formally replaced with “healthy qi” in the sentence “when there is sufficient Zhengqi inside the body, Xie (pathogen) cannot invade the body” in the chapter “Discussion on Acupuncture Methods”, the original contents of which were lost in history and the present contents were added by scholars in the Song Dynasty to Suwen (Plain Conversation). Since then, it was thoroughly established that “ Zhengqi” denoted antipathogenic physiological factors,providing significant theoretical basis for the modern concept of “ Zhengqi”.
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    A study on acupoint selection for supplementation/drainage needling in the chapter “Zhongshi” in Lingshu*
    Yao Xin, Liu Zhenguo, Huang Zuozhen
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2019, 42 (9): 730-733.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.005
    Abstract420)      PDF(pc) (1207KB)(291)       Save
    This paper analyzes literature on acupoint selection for supplementation/drainage needling in the chapter “Zongshi” (Beginning and Ending) in Lingshu (Spiritual Pivot), and explores the actual meaning of texts related to the location of acupoints for supplementation/drainage needling, the way of acupoint selection, and the specific manipulation. According to the results of literature analysis, it is believed that the positions for supplementation/drainage needling are the starting acupoints of the meridians, i.e. the benshu (original acupoints), rather than the meridians based on conventional understanding. For example, “foot shaoyang” in “draining foot shaoyang and supplementing foot jueyin” refers to the original acupoint of the foot shaoyang gallbladder meridian rather than the meridian itself. The specific needling manipulation “two drainage and one supplementation” means draining the original acupoint of the yang meridian twice and supplementing the original acupoint of the yin meridian once; “two supplementation and one drainage” means supplementing the original acupoint of the yang meridian twice and draining the original acupoint of the yin meridian once. In addition, the original acupoint in this context denotes only one acupoint (the starting acupoint) according to its original meaning, rather than the five transport points, a prevalent explanation at that time. The locations of the original acupoints in the meridians are specified in the chapter “Weiqi” (Defense Qi) in Lingshu. It is hoped that the paper has helped to clarify the actual needling manipulation in “Zhongshi”.
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    On naming COVID-19 in traditional Chinese medicine *
    Liu Tiegang, Bai Chen, Liu Shaoyang, Long Chaojun, Hu Li, Zhao Yansong, Yu He, Gu Xiaohong
    JOURNAL OF BEIJING UNIVERSITY OF TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE    2020, 43 (10): 797-803.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.10.001
    Abstract546)      PDF(pc) (1274KB)(290)       Save
    Through review of national and regional Diagnosis and Treatment Plan of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and related literature, this article analyzed the characteristics of COVID-19, and probed into its TCM nomenclature, combining the naming rules for pestilence in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The terms used for COVID-19 in TCM currently include pestilence, cold pestilence, cold-damp pestilence, cold-damp lung pestilence, damp pestilence, dampness-toxin pestilence, warm pestilence, damp-heat pestilence, lung pestilence, wind pestilence, winter pestilence, wind-warm and damp pestilence, wood pestilence, etc. COVID-19 can be generally referred to as “pestilence”in TCM; according to the nature of the symptoms and the characteristics of the pathogenesis, it can be named as “dampness-toxin pestilence” since symptoms of damp nature have maintained throughout the disease course with the pathogenesis of stasis and toxin obstruction; the name of “lung pestilence” according to disease location fails to reflect the lesion site of the disease; the name of “winter pestilence”, “wind pestilence” and “wind-warm and dampness pestilence” according to the time of onset, though in accordance with the definition of warm diseases, does not conform to the characteristics and pathological rules of the disease; according to the five elements motion and six climatic changes, it can be named as “wood pestilence”. At present, it is not suitable to name the disease only according to clinical characteristics, but with increased understanding of this disease, the nomenclature may be further improved.
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