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主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    30 March 2016, Volume 39 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Syndrome differentiation and treatment under view of experiential scientific methodology*
    LIU Feng, LIU Tianjun
    2016, 39 (3):  181-185.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.001
    Abstract ( 414 )   PDF (1225KB) ( 356 )   Save
    Experiential scientific methodology, with the typical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) characteristics, is distinct from experimental scientific methodology proposed by Western medicine. The deep differences are reflected in the philosophy of guiding thoughts, contents of observation, ways to observe, and mode of analyse mentally. Experiential methodology is characterized by concrete thinking, the most representional original thinking mode in TCM. Based on the historical development of syndrome differentiation and treatment, it was the product which TCM accommodated to experimental scientific methodology, with the obvious trace of experimental scientific methodology left. So its development failed to cast away from the bandage of logical thinking. In spite of advocating flexibility outwardly, it will actually lead Chinese medicine to be formulaic and ossified due to its accurate core-philosophy, will change the thinking mode into purely metaphysical logical thinking and abstract thinking, and will push inheritance and development of TCM onto a wrong way. As much, the ability of concrete thinking is very important, with typical TCM characteristics. It is necessary to develop, improve the ability of concrete thinking and ignore the term of “syndrome differentiation and treatment”.
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    Establishment of precise states description system : the route that brings TCM to precision medicine (1)
    YUAN Bing
    2016, 39 (3):  186-190.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.002
    Abstract ( 510 )   PDF (1146KB) ( 452 )   Save
    From the perspective of the long-term goal of Precision Medicine (PM), the core meaning of “precision”, in addition to the meanings of being precise and accurate, consists also the meaning of “personalized medicine”. It is the “precise” identification of various aspects of the human condition to actualize the “precise” treatment for an individual. Obviously, this concept correlates to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theories: treatment according to person, locality, and time-syndrome differentiation and treatment. In this way, TCM that has a core characteristic of “personalized medicine” is closer to the aims of “precision medicine” and may actualize “precision” much easier. In order to be successful for TCM to migrate to “precision medicine”, the problems to face are mostly technical issues, the first and foremost is the establishment of a “precise” states description system. This paper, based on the concept of complexity science, artificial intelligence, big data, and the modern tests and measuring techniques, proposes to establish a precise body states description system.
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    Text annotation study of Qian Jin Yao Fang and Qian Jin Yi Fang of Northern Song Dynasty Edition*
    LI Nan, ZENG Feng, ZHANG Jing
    2016, 39 (3):  196-198.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.005
    Abstract ( 422 )   PDF (1203KB) ( 341 )   Save
    It had been well appraised by the later scholars that comparison of Qian Jin Yao Fang (Essential Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Pieces of Gold) and Qian Jin Yi Fang (Supplement to the Essential Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Pieces of Gold) of Song Dynasty Edition, called by a joint name of Qian Jin Fang (Thousand Pieces of Gold Formulae), was marked as text annotation, involving the prescription names, combination and dosage of the herbal ingredients, medicine decocting and taking, and types of formulation, and so on. Undoubtedly, the scholars in Bureau for Revision of Medical Classics in the Northern Dynasty had consulted countless literature with conscientious and careful attitude, but many mistakes were still found in the annotation of the two books due to difficulties of collation work and limitation of methods used in collation. When the two medical classics of Song Dynasty Edition were showed before the readers, the complexity of the completing procedure and uncertainty, to a certain extent, of the content were also showed. The writers believe that further research for Qian Jin Fang of Song Dynasty Edition should start with the annotation. From this point, we can study deeply the sources of different editions, fundamental parts, cited literature and citing ways. Annotation plays an important role in highlighting the academic topics and guiding scientific research.
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    A textual research for “medicinal cuisine” from ancient to modern time*
    FAN Ning, ZHANG Cong, LIN Yin, LIAO Yan, ZHANG Yuping, XI Xi, LI Bing
    2016, 39 (3):  199-203.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.006
    Abstract ( 480 )   PDF (1162KB) ( 619 )   Save
    Objective To clarity the connotation and denotation of medicinal cuisine from ancient and modern time, so as to develop the standardization of academic and industrial aspects. Methods With regard of archaeology of knowledge,modern literature involving 18 textbooks, 4 monographs, 32 dictionaries, 6 glossaries of technological terms and 3 regulations, from which the concepts of medicinal cuisine were searched and compared by sorting out, logical analysis and synchronic contrast analysis. Records linked to medicinal cuisine in Twenty-five Histories were searched to evaluate its professionlism. Four oldest designed monographs of medicinal cuisine remained (Tang Dynasty) were retrieved to summarize the application of the diet preparation contained Chinese medical herbs. Results The connotation and denotation of the modern concepts of medicinal cuisine were vague and conflicting. The medicinal cuisine industry was derived from the commercial operation of the non-medical staff. It was in the historical records the Chinese characters of medicinal cuisine recorded, not in the ancient medical records. The purpose of the early diet preparation contained medical herbs only directed at diseases. Conclusion In ancient time, the precise meaning of medicinal cuisine was composed of Chinese medicine and cuisine. It is inappropriate to commercially operate the modern concept of medicinal cuisine which should be one part of dietotherapy.
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    Blood-enriching effects and mechanism of albiflorin and paeoniflorin on immunosuppressional model mice with blood deficiency pattern*
    ZHU Yingli, WANG Linyuan, ZHAO Danping, WANG Chenglong, WU Li,ZHANG Jianjun
    2016, 39 (3):  204-207.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.007
    Abstract ( 428 )   PDF (1163KB) ( 408 )   Save
    Objective To observe the blood-enriching effects and mechanism of albiflorin and paeoniflorin on immunosuppressional model mice with blood deficiency pattern induced by cyclophosphamide. Methods The mouse model with blood deficiency pattern induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide was treated with intragastrical administration of albiflorin and paeoniflorin at high dose of 30 mg/kg, low dose of 15 mg/kg. Then the peripheral hemogram, thymus gland index and spleen index, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were detected. Results High dose albiflorin and high dose paeoniflorin could increase WBC count(P<0.01)and thymus gland index (P<0.01, P<0.05), serum contents of GM-CSF and G-CSF (P<0.001, P<0.01), also serum content of IL-3 (P<0.01, P<0.05),and decrease the serum content of IL-6(P<0.05)and TNF-α(P<0.001, P<0.01). Conclusion The blood-enriching effects against blood-deficiency via regulating the immunological function, suggests that albiflorin and paeoniflorin be the main effective components extracted from White Peony Root (Radix Paeoniae Alba, Baishao) with the effects of nourishing blood and liver.
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    Effects of different extracts of Hairyvein Agrimonia Herb against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury: a laboratory study based on cellular energy metabolism*
    ZHU Huiyuan, WAN Haitong, SUN Lijun
    2016, 39 (3):  208-213.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.008
    Abstract ( 389 )   PDF (1241KB) ( 627 )   Save
    Objective To screen the effective components of Hairyvein Agrimonia Herb (Agrimonia Pilosa Ledeb, Xianhecao) by exploring the effects and mechanism of Xianhecao on a rat model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. Methods Cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). SD male rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham group, model group, extract of Xianhecao groups including ethyl acetate extract group (4 g/kg), ethanol extract group (4 g/kg) and water extract group (4 g/kg), nimodipine group (0.5 mg/kg). The rats assigned to treatment groups were administered corresponding medicines after reperfusion and 6 h after MCAO. The degree of nervous function defect, cerebral infarct volume, and pathomorphological changes in brain (using transmission electron microscope) were evaluated, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. Results Water extract of Xianhecao attenuate significantly symptoms of nervous function defect(P<0.05).In addition, water extract decreased the cerebral infarct volume(P<0.01)and attenuate the pathological changes of neutrons of cerebral cortex, increased dramatically the activity of SOD after reperfusion, and lowered the levels of MDA and NO(P<0.05). Conclusion The water extract of Xianhecao may be the effective components against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. The potential mechanism for protecting the tissue and cells in brains is by the way of inhibiting lipid peroxidation reaction and increasing the levels of substances of energy in cerebral ischemic region.
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    Effects and mechanism of modified Fushen Powder on learning and memory of mice*
    FU Heming, MA Qing, TANG Minke
    2016, 39 (3):  214-221.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.009
    Abstract ( 378 )   PDF (1202KB) ( 336 )   Save
    Objective To evaluate the effects of modified Fushen Powder on learning and memory of normal mice and mouse model with impaired learning and memory, so as to provide experimental evidence for treating mild cognitive impairment. Methods Adult Kunming male mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, positive drug group (piracetam group at dose of 0.6 g/kg), high dose, middle dose and low dose of modified Fushen Powder groups (high-, mid-, low- dose group) at the dose of 5.6, 11.2, and 22.4 g/kg respectively. Ethological examination using Morris water maze, locomotor activity system, step-down test and step-through test was used to study the effects of modified Fushen Powder on mice locomotor activities and disorders of memory acquisition, consolidation and retrieval due to chemical substances. And the activities of acetyl cholinesterase(AchE), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in cortex were detected by chromatographic colorimetry. Results Compared with normal group, the mice in both low-dose group and mid-dose group showed significant increasing in exploratory behavior within the first 15 minutes (P<0.01 ), but no difference in the next 15 minutes; furthermore, low-dose and mid-dose Fushen Powder increased the scores of learning and memory. Compared with control group, low, middle, and high dose of Fushen Powder relieved disorder of memory acquisition(P<0.01), in addition, middle dose relieved disorder of memory retrieval (P<0.01)and decreased the activity of AchE(P<0.01 ), increased the activity of SOD (P<0.01 ), and the content of MDA (P<0.01 ). Conclusion The effects of modified Fushen Powder against the disorders of memory acquisition, consolidation and retrieval induced by scopolamine, sodium nitrite and ethanol were proved, with increasing the mice’s exploratory behavior in a novel environment and no obvious influence on their locomotive activity. The mechanism of modified Fushen Powder on antagonizing the memory disorders can be related to its effects of decreasing activity of AchE, content of MDA, and increasing activity of SOD in brain tissues.
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    Specificity analysis of psychological adjustment of Imaginary Working based on electroencephalographical power spectra*
    WANG Weiwei, WEI Zeren, HU Qingchuan, LI Shenyi, WANG Yanping, HAN Aiqing, JIA Dexian, ZHANG Weibo, WEI Yulong
    2016, 39 (3):  222-229.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.010
    Abstract ( 412 )   PDF (1296KB) ( 316 )   Save
    Objective To analysis the electroencephalographical (EEG) specificity of psychological adjustment of Imaginary Working (IW) by comparing the EEG power of trained subjects and untrained subjects. Methods University students were recruited as the subjects, randomly and equally divided into experimental group and control group. The students of experimental group were trained Imaginary Working, with no intervention on those of control group. The changes of powers during the process of Imaginary Working were synchronously detected by EEG, furthermore, the delta(δ) band, theta(θ) band, alpha(α) band, and beta (β)band were compared and analyzed from three aspects of general points, time interval, and different leads. Results There were very significant differences in δ, θ, α and β bands between the two groups at both Imaginary Working (IW) and resting state (RS)(P<0.001): the absolute power of δ band in experimental group was lower than that of control group, and the absolute powers of θ, α and β bands were higher than those of the control group. There were significant differences of absolute power of δ band at RS0, IW1, IW2 and RS3(P<0.05),and there were significant differences of θ band at RS1, RS2 and IW3(P<0.01).The changes of absolute power of δ and θ bands in experimental group were close to cosine curves. Although there were statistical differences of α band and β band at each state, from IW1 period the amplitude of α band began to keep stable, and from IW2 period the amplitude of β band did. There were no significant differences of δ band and θ band appeared different leads between the two group(P>0.05). The absolute power of α band showed statistical differences in lead of F7,C3,C4,P3,P4,T3,T4,T5,T6,PZ,O1 and O2(P<0.05), while that of β band showed significant difference in lead of FP2,F7,F8,P3,P4,T5,T6,C4,PZ,O1 and O2(P<0.05). The highest power of α and β band both appeared in the lead of O1 and O2. Conclusion Imaginary Working induced the rhythmic response of δ, θ, α and β band, especially the rhythm alternated fast waves and slow waves. It is suggested that Imaginary Working keep the brain in rest state, and relieve tension, and adjust negative emotions.
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    Effects of curcumin on β-amyloid generating enzyme and degrading enzymes in hippocampus in mice*
    DONG Yunfang, FENG Huili, HE Yingkun,FAN Hui,DANG Huizi, REN Ying, WANG Pengwen
    2016, 39 (3):  230-234.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.011
    Abstract ( 386 )   PDF (1185KB) ( 306 )   Save
    Objective To explore the sustainable effects of curcumin on presenilin 2(PS2), β-amyloid (Aβ) generation enzyme, and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) and neprilysin (NEP), Aβ degrading enzymes, in hippocampal CA1 region of 9-month-old Alzheimer’s disease (AD)mice. Methods The 3-month-old APP/PS1 double transgenic mice were randomly divided into model group, rosiglitazone group, curcumin high-dose, mid-dose and low-dose group at dose of 400, 200, 100 mg/kg, with littermate non-transgenic mice involved in the control group. After intragastrical administration medicines for consecutive six months, expressions of PS2, IDE and NEP were detected using imunohistochemistry and Western-blot methods. Results Compared with the control group, expression of PS2 increased in the model group significantly(P<0.01), and compared with the model group, expression of PS2 decreased in all the intervention groups (P<0.01 or P<0.05)with PS2-positive cells in hippocampus CA1 region decreasing (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, expressions of IDE and NEP decreased significantly in the model group (P<0.01); compared with the model group, expressions of IDE and NEP increased significantly in all the intervention groups with IDE and NEP-positive cells in hippocampus CA1 region increasing(P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion It is suggested that one of potential mechanisms of curcumin reducing Aβ accumulation may be via increasing Aβ-degrading enzyme IDE and NEP expression and reducing Aβ-generating enzyme PS2 expression.
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    Ultrastructure and penetration of cell co-culture model of human skin equivalent*
    LI Hui, WANG Jingyan, LIN Hongmei, YU Jingxin, ZHANG Yewen, MAO Yingqiu, WU Qing
    2016, 39 (3):  235-240.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.012
    Abstract ( 383 )   PDF (1276KB) ( 561 )   Save
    Objective To observe the structure of human skin equivalent (HSE) model in vitro, and to preliminarily assess the barrier function of HSE. Methods The HSE model was established by two steps: preparation of dermal layer and preparation of full-thickness skin. Keratinocytes were inoculated on the surface of dermal layer prepared by type 1 collagen coating fibroblasts. After submerged cultured for one week, air-liquid interface cultured for three weeks to enhance the proliferation of keratinocytes, the HSE model was obtained. Then the macroscopical structure and electon microscopical structure of HSE were studied. To investigate the barrier function of HSE model, indometacin was selected as the model drug for the penetration testing in vitro. Results The structures similar to dermal layer and epidermal layer of human skin were developed in HSE model, furthermore, complete straum corneum with similar ultrastructure of human skin was developed on the surface of epidermal layer. The penetration testing showed that the barrier function of HSE was slightly lower than that of rat abdominal skin within 24 h, but the cumulative content (Q24) of indometacin of HSE was far slower (only 28%) than rat abdominal skin from 22 to 24 h. However, the steady state flux of indometacin showed no significant difference in HSE model and rat abdominal skin(P>0.05). Conclusion The morphology and structure of HSE model were close to human skin; and in HSE model, the barrier function against indometacin was almost as the same as the rat abdominal skin. It is expected that HSE model be an alternative option of animal skin to evaluate the effect of transdermal drug delivery system.
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    Effects of acupuncture on cysteine-containing aspartate-specific proteases 3 and c-Jun in the hippocampus of depression rats induced by force swimming stress*
    GUO Yu, BAO Wuye, TU Ya,WU Jihong,WANG Yu, ZHANG Xuhui, XU Mingmin, YU Miao, ZHANG Chuntao, ZHAO Bingcong
    2016, 39 (3):  241-246.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.013
    Abstract ( 369 )   PDF (1187KB) ( 276 )   Save
    Objective To observe the interventional effect of acupuncture on apoptosis of hippocampal neuron of depression model rats, and the effect on the c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK)pathway, so as to reveal the mechanism of anti-depression of acupuncture. Methods Altogether 36 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (each n=6): control group, control+ inhibitor (SP600125, a JNK inhibitor ) group, model group, model + inhibitor group, acupuncture group and acupuncture + inhibitor group. Except the control group and control + inhibitor group, the rats in the other four groups were forced to swim and be bred solitarily to establish the rat depression model. Baihui (GV20) and Yintang (GV29), the acupoints selected in rats of acupuncture group and acupuncture + inhibitor group, were needled for 20 minutes, once daily for two days. Using Western blot to detect the protein expression of c-Jun, the substrate of JNK pathway, in hippocampus of all groups of rats, and using RT-PCR to examine the gene expression of apoptosis-related caspase-3 in hippocampus of rats. Results Compared with the control group, caspase-3 gene expression and c-Jun protein expression showed no significant difference in control + inhibitor group(P>0.05), but both were higher in those of model group(P<0.01). Compared with model group, the expression levels of caspase-3 were lower significantly in model+inhibitor group, acupuncture group and acupuncture + inhibitor group(P<0.01), and the protein expression levels of c-Jun were lower significantly in model+inhibitor group, acupuncture group and acupuncture + inhibitor group(P<0.05,P<0.05,P<0.01). Conclusion Apoptosis of hippocampal neurons may be inhibited via the interventional effect of acupuncture on JNK pathway activities which down-regulate c-Jun protein expression and apoptosis-related caspase-3 gene expression. It may be one of the potential molecular mechanisms of antidepressant effect of acupuncture.
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    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Chicory Root by LC/MS and HPLC*
    ZHU Chunsheng, LIN Zhijian, ZHANG Bing, NIU Hongjuan, WANG Xuejie, ZHANG Xiaomeng
    2016, 39 (3):  247-251.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.014
    Abstract ( 456 )   PDF (1219KB) ( 615 )   Save
    Objective To establish the methods for identification and determination of chemical components in Chicory (Herba Cichorii Radix Cichorii, Juju) to optimize the quality control methods of Chinese medicinal materials. Methods High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detctor (DAD)-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used for separation and characterization, and HPLC for simultaneous determination of five active components in Chicory. Results Six of ten components identified were aesculin, chlorogenic acid, esculetin, chicoric acid, chlorogenic acid B and chlorogenic acid A, in line with the features of retention time and MS fragment ions, four of ten were preliminarily determined their chemical constitutions by MS/MS spectra and data from literature. In addition, the regression equations of chlorogenic acid, esculetin, chicoric acid, chlorogenic acid B and chlorogenic acid A were established and showed good linear relationship(r>0.999 5)with the recovery of standard additon of 95.94%~104.41%. The contents of the five components were determined using HPLC. Conclusion The method established could rapidly separate, identify and measure the bioactive components of Chicory Root, which can be proposed to control the quality of medicinal material.
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    Simultaneous determination of residual amount of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in 13 Miao ethnomedicines using UAE-SPME-GC*
    HE Maoqiu, LIANG Jinliang, XU Changyan, ZHOU Wei, HAO Xiaoyan, LIANG Yan
    2016, 39 (3):  252-258.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.015
    Abstract ( 376 )   PDF (1196KB) ( 496 )   Save
    Objective To establish a new gas chromatography (GC) method coupled with ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solid-phase microextraction ( SPME) for rapid determination of seven kinds of organophosphorus pesticide residues and three kinds of pyrethroid pesticide residues in 13 Miao ethnomedicines produced in Guizhou province. Methods Japanese Honeysuckle Flower (Flos Lonicerae Japonicae, Jinyinhua) was the optimization object. SPME was used directly for enrichment of extracts obtained by ultrasonic-assisted solvent. Then gas chromatography-electron capture detector was used for the determination. Results Under optimum conditions, seven kinds of organophosphorus pesticides showed a good linear relationship at the range from 5 to 500 μg/L, and three kinds of pyrethroid pesticides did at the range from 2.5 to 250 μg/L. The recovery was from 85.6 % to 112.7 % with the RSD 3.2%~9.8%. The limit of detection was from 0.02 to 0.33 μg/L. Conclusion UAE-SPME-GC established is an easy, environmental-friendly and rapid method for simultaneous determination of residual amount of 10 organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides in Miao ethomedicines. This method with directly enriching and sampling, was a simplified sample pretreatment procedure without purification process.
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    Characteristics of pulse manifestation information of malignant tumor patients: a 90-case study*
    XU Gang, WEI Hong, LI Fengzhu, YI Qiuxia
    2016, 39 (3):  259-264.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2016.03.016
    Abstract ( 494 )   PDF (1544KB) ( 602 )   Save
    Objective To reveal the characteristics of pulse manifestation information of malignant tumor patients. Methods Altogether 90 patients with malignant tumor, 30 patients without malignant tumor, and 30 healthy examinees were included. Combining modern technology with the TCM theory of pulse diagnosis, according to demand of three regions and nine divisions pulse taking sites, dynamic pulse manifestation information of six positions of two wrists of each subject was collected using “Three-probe TCM Pulse Pattern Diagnosis Acquisition and Analysis System” in our laboratory. Then the comprehensive analysis was carried on by the integration of comparative analysis and TCM syndrome differentiation. Results The specific changes were found in malignant tumor patients, especially rough pulse with its variability and bimodal M wave. In addition, the detection rate of abnormal pulse was 80%, statistical difference compared with patients without malignant tumor and healthy persons. Conclusion It is suggested that the characteristic changes of pulse manifestation information of patients with malignant tumor, correlation between malignant tumor and pathological changes of disorders of zang-fu organs, qi, blood, yin and yang, disorders be revealed using “Three-probe TCM Pulse Pattern Diagnosis Acquisition and Analysis System”.
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