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主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    10 June 2017, Volume 40 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Inference process of discovering epidemic qi by Wu Youke*
    GUO Jin, ZHAO Yong
    2017, 40 (6):  445-450.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.001
    Abstract ( 506 )   PDF (1334KB) ( 483 )   Save
    Objective To describe the inference process of identifying epidemic qi as a disease cause. Methods Clauses related to epidemic qi in Wenyi Lun (Treatise on Warm Pestilence) written by Wu Youke were rearranged to analyze how he inferred epidemic qi as a disease cause with abductive reasoning. Results The discovery of epidemic qi as a disease cause is a complicated abductive reasoning process based on analogy, which contains Peirce's adductive model and inference model for the optimal explanation. Conclusion There are some differences between the abduction structure of TCM etiology and western medicine etiology; The etiological hypothesis, which is obtained through the process of abduction, needs to be verified from the perspective of logic.
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    Shortened and prolonged pronunciahon of medicnal names used in textual research on Bencaojing Kaozhu written by Risshi Mori
    SHI Shuangwen
    2017, 40 (6):  451-455.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.002
    Abstract ( 385 )   PDF (1122KB) ( 436 )   Save
    Commentaries on the Classic of Materia Medica (Bencaojing Kaozhu) used the textual research method of “identifying meaning in accordance with the pronunciation”, which originated from scholars in Emperor Qianlong and Jiaqing Periods of Qing dynasty. The book listed 127 Chinese medicine based on the pronunciation of their names, and analyzed nomenclature mechanism. This paper reviewed examples using “shortened or prolonged pronunciation” in the book to summarize his research methods and their strengths and weakness.
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    The eEffects of Pixu Yihao Fang on small intestinal GLUT1 of small intestine in spleen-deficient rats with functional dyspepsia rats with spleen deficiency*
    LYU Lin, WANG Fengyun, TANG Xudong, MA Xiangxue, YIN Xiaolan, SHI Xiaoshuang
    2017, 40 (6):  456-462.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.003
    Abstract ( 364 )   PDF (2345KB) ( 273 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the effects of Pixu Yihao Fang (PXYHF, No.1 Formula for Spleen Deficiency) on the expression of Glucose Transporter (GLUT1)protein (GLUT1) and mRNA in small intestine tissue of FD spleen-deficient rats and functional dyspepsia (FD) the intervention of Pixu I Fang. Methods 70 10-day-old male SD rat pups were randomly divided into normal control group (n=10), FD model group (single model, n=10), and spleen-deficient FD model group (double model, n=50). The normal control group received intragastric administration of 0.2 mL of 2% sucrose, while the single and double model groups were given 0.2 mL of 0.1 % iodoacetamide (IA)IA in 2 % sucrose, for 6 days. 6 weeks after birth consecutive days, the Modified multiple platform method (MMPM) was also applied to establish double model for 14 days after week 6. These spleen-deficient FD rats were randomly divided into double model control group, domperidone group, PXYHF low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose dose groups, and were orally gavaged with 10 mL/(kgd) of distilled water, 3.125 mg/(kgd) of domperidone, 1.275, 2.55, 5.1 g/(kgd) of PXYHF respectively for 14 days. Immunohistochemistry, Western-blot and RT-PCR methods were used to measure the GLUT1 protein expression in liver tissues. Results Compared with the normal group, average optical density of GLUT1 protein in small intestinal mucosal tissue, the expression of GLUT1 protein and GLUT1 mRNA in small intestinal tissue of double model group were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01); Compared with double model group, average optical density of GLUT1 protein in small intestinal mucosa tissue, expression of GLUT1 protein and GLUT1 mRNA in small intestinal tissue of low-dose PXYHF were increased (P<0.01). Conclusion The expression of GLUT1 gene and protein decreased in the FD rats with spleen deficiency, and Pixu Yihao Fang could increase the expression of GLUT1 gene and protein.
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    Effects of Jingning Granule on attention set transfer in ADHD rats*
    YAN Suyu, ZHANG Shuofeng, ZHANG Tianrui, YANG Ailing, ZHANG Caifeng, MA Dan
    2017, 40 (6):  463-470.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.004
    Abstract ( 344 )   PDF (1090KB) ( 332 )   Save
    Objective To observe the effects of Jingning Granule on attention set shifting (AST) in rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used as rat model of ADHD. Jingning granule (20.25, 10.125, 5.062 5 g/kg), Methylphenidate HCl Extended-release Tablets (Ritalin 6.75 mg/kg) and pediatric Huanglong granule (0.937 5 g/kg) were used as the intervention respectively and administered continuously for 17 days. The number of errors, burrowing times, and error rate in AST were used as the outcome measures. Results Compared with the normal control group, the number of error, error rate, and burrowing times increased in model group in Simple Discrimination (SD) phase, Compound Discrimination (CD) phase, Intra-Dimensional shift (IDS) phase, Reversal Learning (RL) phase, and Extra-Dimensional shift (EDS) phase; compared with the model group, Jingning granule reduced the frequency of error, error rate, and frequency of burrowing, and improved the attention set shifting defects in ADHD rat model. Conclusion ADHD model rats presented defected attention set shifting, and Jingning granule could effectively improve the attention set transfer ability in ADHD model rats.
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    Effects of Wuzi Yanzong Wan on improving heat stress resistance of sertoli cell in rats based on gene expression profile*
    CAO Yan, ZHAO Junyun, GUO Jian, LI Yue, HU Suqin, JIANGUO Xuejiao
    2017, 40 (6):  471-476.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.005
    Abstract ( 344 )   PDF (1067KB) ( 275 )   Save
    Objective To study the mechanism of Wuzi Yanzong Wan (Five-Seed Progeny Pill) on improving heat stress resistance of sertoli cells in rats based on data from the whole genome microarray. Methods Sertoli cells in primary culture were randomly divided into Wuzi Yanzong Wan (WZYZW) group, normal group and model group. The cells in three groups were given WZYZW solution and equal volume of PBS respectively. After 24 hours, rats in WZYZW group and model group were placed in water bath at 43 ℃ for 15 minutes, while rats in normal group were put in water bath at 37 ℃ for 15 minutes, then total RNA of three groups were extracted respectively and data was analyzed with gene chip technology. Results Compared with the model group, there were totally 1,203 differently genes in WZYZW group based on Sertoli cell gene expression profiles, in which 697 were down regulated and 506 were up-regulated. There were totally 473 differently expressed genes in the normal group, including 168 up-regulated genes and 305 down regulated genes. Among these down-regulated gene expressions, RGD1305298, Trpt1, Dll3, Abi3 and Ppp1r12b were significant in the WZYZW group and normal group, while Dusp7 was significant among up-regulated gene expressions. The genes mentioned above were related to cell cycle, apoptosis, cell metabolism, cell adhesion and Notch signal pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, MAPK signaling pathway and tight junction pathway, etc. Conclusion The mechanism of Wuzi Yanzong pill in improving heat stress resistance of sertoli cells may involve maintenance of tight junctions between sertoli cells, inhibition of sertoli cells apoptosis and promotion of cell differentiation and maturation.
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    Effects of Huangqi and Ezhu combined with oxaliplatin on CXCR3 and CCR6 expression in mice with CT26.WT orthotopically transplanted tumor*
    CAO Zifeng, TANG Decai, SHI Xiaoxia, YANG Suyu
    2017, 40 (6):  477-482.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.006
    Abstract ( 384 )   PDF (1241KB) ( 294 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the effects of extract from couple medicinals of strengthening healthy qi and eliminating pathogenic qi, i.e. Huangqi(Radix Astragali, astragalus root) and Ezhu (Rhizoma Curcumae, curcumae rhizome), and oxaliplatin(L-OHP)on inhibiting metastasis of CT26 wild-type(CT26.WT)cells, and regulating CXCR3, CCR6 mRNA, and protein expression in rats with colon cancer. Methods Orthotopic transplantation model of BALB/c colon carcinoma was built in mice. L-OHP or L-OHP combined with extract from huangqi and ezhu were given to the mice model. Effects of those medicines on liver metastasis were observed. CXCR3 and CCR6 mRNA expression were measured by using RT-PCR, and CXCR3, CCR6 protein expression was detected with Western Blot. Results L-OHP group and L-OHP combined with Chinese medicinal groups exhibited inhibitive effects on orthotropic tumor growth, and best effect was observed in positive expression (P<0.01). L-OHP combined with TCM can decrease the incidence of liver metastasis (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, mRNA expressions of CXCR3 and CCR6 decreased in the model group and low-dose group (P<0.01). Effects of L-OHP combined with low-dose Chinese medicine were more effective than other groups(P<0.01). Compared with the control group, CXCR3 and CCR6 protein expressions decreased sinificantly in all groups(P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Mechanism of huangqi, ezhu and oxaliplatin(L-OHP) to inhibit tumor metastasis may relate to downregulation of CXCR3, CCR6 mRNA and protein expression.
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    Effects of Naoluo Xintong on mRNA, wnt/β-catenin in hippocampus of MCAO/R rats*
    DENG Yong, WANG Jian, TAN Hui, HE Ling
    2017, 40 (6):  483-491.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.007
    Abstract ( 356 )   PDF (3030KB) ( 329 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the mechanism of protective effects of Naoluo Xintong (NLXT) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods 144 male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 36 in each group): sham-operation group, model group, normal control group and treatment group. Each group was randomly further divided into 1/3/7d subgroups (n=12 in each subgroup). Treatment group was administered NLXT after modeling on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th days, and normal control group was given Tongxinluo on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th days. The treatment group and control group was given 10 mL/(kgd) of NLXT liquid (concentration = 0.26 g/mL) and Tongxinluo liquid (concentration = 0.02 g/mL) respectively. The model group and sham-operation group were orally gavaged with isopyknic physiological saline solution on the 1st, 3rd, 7th days. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of cerebral infarction side was measured through laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF). All the rats were dissected and hippocampal tissues were removed from their brains. Then DG area of rat’s hippocampus was measured by using HE staining. MiRNA9a, miRNA15a, and miRNA124 in the hippocampus were detected with RT-PCR; Wnt3a, Wnt5a and β-catenin was detected by using Western blot method. Results Compared with the sham-operation group, rats of the model group presented apparent cerebral ischemia; levels of miRNA124, Wnt3a, Wnt5a, and β-catenin expression in hippocampal area significantly increased (P<0.01; Levels of miRNA9a and miRNA15 expression markedly decreased. Compared with the model group, the blood flow in brain increased significantly on the 1st, 3rd, and 7th days (P<0.01; Levels of miRNA9a, miRNA15a, Wnt3a, Wnt5a, and β-catenin expression in hippocampal area increased significantly; miRNA124 expression decreased significantly. Conclusion NLXT had a good effect of treating cerebral injury of MCAO/R rats. This medicine could increase the cerebral blood flow, miRNA9a, miRNA15a, Wnt3a, Wnt5a, and β-catenin expressions, and decrease miRNA124 expression in rat hippocampus, i.e. inhibiting ischemia-reperfusion cerebral impairment in rats.
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    Study on the specificity of Tau protein phosphorylation sites in three typical patterns of senile dementia based on the same disease with different patterns*
    GUO Bin, GUO Lei, HAN Cheng, QIN Yali, SHI Weibin, HOU Jiangqi
    2017, 40 (6):  492-497.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.008
    Abstract ( 338 )   PDF (1179KB) ( 276 )   Save
    Objective To observe Tau protein phosphorylation in rats with three typical patterns of senile dementia, analyzing and summarizing the specificity of phosphorylation. Methods We ligated and dissected the left and right carotid arteries at one week’s interval with intraperitoneal injection of D-galactose to establish senile dementia model in rats. Those rats then received the intervention of excessive sexual and physical exertion, high-fat feeding milk and low temperature environment respectively to establish the rat models of senile dementia with three different patterns (group K: kidney deficiency and essence loss pattern; group P: retention of phlegm and turbid substance in orifices pattern; group C: congealing cold and blood stasis pattern). Blood lipid, blood rheology and serum testosterone were measured to identify whether those model was built successfully. Different positions of Tau phosphorylation sites were measured with Western blot method. Results In the Tau protein proline-rich region, compared with the diseased groups, phosphorylation level increased significantly at the sites of 205 and 231 in group P. This increase was also present at sites of 181, 205, and 231 in group K and 205, 231 and 262 in group C. At the C-terminal region, compared with the diseased group, phosphorylation level of P group and K group were significantly increased at the sites of 404, and the increase of group C was the highest among those groups. Conclusion There is specificity at the Tau protein phosphorylation sites in each typical senile dementia pattern. This study may reveal the scientific rationale for the presence of different patterns in the same disease.
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    Heavy metal measurement in leeches with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry*
    LI Hongxia, WANG Wenyi, XU Goujie, XU Qing, ZHANG Fan, LIU Chunshen, YANG Yaojun
    2017, 40 (6):  498-502.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.009
    Abstract ( 347 )   PDF (1124KB) ( 358 )   Save
    Objective To measure the content of trace heavy metal in the medicinal leech and provide references for quality control. Methods In this study, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the content of 6 heavy metal elements in different parts of the medicinal leeches from various places of origin. Results Content of mercury, lead and cadmium of leeches from different habitats met the current national standards, arsenic in some samples is beyond the current national standard, while the content of cuprum and chromium in medicinal leeches exceeded the current national standards. There were significant differences in trace heavy metal amount in different parts of the leeches. Most heavy metal accumulated at tail, some at middle part, and less at head. Conclusion The results suggest there are significant differences in heavy mental content among medicinal leeches from different places of origin and different parts of leeches. This study provides important references for quality control of medicinal leeches.
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    Simultaneous testing of bile acid and hyodeoxycholic acid in artificial calculus bovis using HPLC-UV with pre-column derivatization*
    YANG Huan, Qiu Renjie, DING Yuezhu, WANG Xiongfei, YUAN Ruijuan
    2017, 40 (6):  503-508.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.010
    Abstract ( 433 )   PDF (1661KB) ( 308 )   Save
    Objective To establish a pre-column derivation of HPLC-UV and determine bile acid and hyodeoxycholic acid in artificial calculus bovis. Methods Bile acid and hyodeoxycholic acid were derived by 2-bromo-2'-acetonaphthoneat using triethylamine as the catalyst in 60 ℃ water bath. The effects of derivatizing agent usage, catalyst and derivatizing time were investigated to identify the optimal parameters. HPLC-UV parameters were established to determine the content of hyodeoxycholic acid in artificial calculus bovis. Results When the ratio of molar amount of derivatizing agents to that of cholic acid and hyodeoxycholic was over 30∶1, and the ratio of molar amount of catalyst to that of cholic acid and hyodeoxycholic ranged from 5∶1 to 60∶1, the reaction was completed in 60℃ water bath for 50 minutes. The linear relationship was found with agent concentration (0.4 ~5.0 μg) in cholic acid (r=0.999 5) and the linear relationship was also present in hyodeoxycholic (0.12~1.5 μg, r=0.999 8). The average recovery rate of bile acid (n=6) was 100% and that of the RSD was 2.40%. The average recovery rate of hyodeoxycholic acid was 101% and that of the RSD was 1.33%. In this sample, the content of cholic acid was 5.55% and the content of hyodeoxycholic was 2.55%. Conclusion The method is replicable, reliable and accurate to determine bile acid and hyodeoxycholic acid in artificial calculus bovis.
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    Content determination of trans-syringin and tinosinen in Tinosporae sinenisis (Lour.) Merr.*
    GUO Fengxia, JIANG Yanyan, LIU Bin
    2017, 40 (6):  509-513.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.011
    Abstract ( 418 )   PDF (1360KB) ( 356 )   Save
    Objective To establish the method of determiaing contents of trans-syringin and tinosinen in Tinosporae sinenisis(Lour.) Merr. Methods Single-factor test method was used to optimize method of sample preparation. The two components (trans-syringin and tinosinen) were measured with HPLC at gradient elution system. The chromatographic method was carried out on Waters SunFire C18 (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) column at 20℃ and 263 nm detection wavelength, with acetonitrile-water being mobile phase and 1 mL/min flow rate. Results The ideal sample preparation was extracted at 80 times amount of 30% methanol refluxing for 90 minutes. Trans-syringin in the range of 0.084~0.420 μg presented good linear relationship (r= 0.9997, average recovery rate = 101.54%; RSD = 2.52% (n= 6)). Tinosinen in the range of 0.584~2.920 μg was linear (r= 0.9997); average recovery rate was 97.17%; RSD = 1.27%(n = 6). Conclusion This simple, rapid, accurate and highly replicable method could be used as ground work for quality control and evaluation of Tinosporae sinenisis(Lour.) Merr.
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    Comparing effects of ST36 and LI14 on intestinal pain sensitivity and abnormal motility in IBS rat*
    WU Yanying, REN Xiaoxuan, GUO Mengwei, TAN Lihua, LI Kaige, LAN Ying, WANG Shan, JI Maoxian, ZHANG Honglin
    2017, 40 (6):  514-521.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.012
    Abstract ( 444 )   PDF (1617KB) ( 316 )   Save
    Objective To compare the effects and explore mechanism of acupoints on various meridians or nerve segments in treating different symptoms in one disease. Methods Neonatal Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, model group, ST36 group, and LI14 group (n=10-12 in each group).IBS model was established by administering acetic acid enema combining colorectal distension (CRD) test to rats in all groups except the normal control group.These rats were all isolated from their mothers.2-month old rats in the ST36 group and LI14 group received electro-acupuncture five times, once every two days for 20 minutes.Stool consistency was evaluated according to the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS), and visceral sensitivity was observed based on abdominal withdraw reflection (AWR).Levels of TRPV1 and 5-HT2AR in rat colon tissues were measured with immunohistochemical method. Results Before electro-acupuncture stimulation, BSFS score of rats in all groups increased significantly (P<0.01) compared with the normal control group; after electro-acupuncture, BSFS score of the model group (P<0.01) and LI14 group (P<0.05) were increased; threshold value of intestinal pressure of model group and ST36 group decreased (P<0.01), and the contraction waves increased significantly (P<0.01).Positive TRPV1 expression increased (P<0.01); and TRPV1 expression in LI14 group increased (P<0.05).The level of 5-HT2AR in the model group and LI14 group were raised markedly (P<0.01).Compared with the model group, BSFS score of the EA groups decreased significantly (P<0.01); threshold value of intestinal pressure increased (P<0.01); contraction wave decreased significantly (P<0.01), and the expression of TRPV1 and 5-HT2AR reduced significantly (P<0.01).Compared with the ST36 group, BSFS score of the LI14 group increased significantly (P<0.05); expression of TRPV1 reduced (P<0.01), and the level of 5-HT2AR increased significantly (P<0.01). Conclusion Stimulating LI4 and ST36 with electro-acupuncture could reduce the visceral sensitivity and the gastrointestinal motility disorder in IBS model rat. LI4 has a better effect of treating gastrointestinal motility disorder, and ST36 has a better effect of relieving visceral pain.This study illustrates the existence of therapeutic specificity of acupoints, which means acupoints on different meridians or ganglions can be used to treat the same disease yet with different effects.
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    Correlation between frequency of ventricular premature beats and patterns of Traditional Chinese Medicine based on multivariate statistical analysis*
    WANG Chao, WANG Zhentao, ZHAO Haibin
    2017, 40 (6):  522-528.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.06.013
    Abstract ( 325 )   PDF (1078KB) ( 224 )   Save
    Objective To explore the correlation between frequency of ventricular premature beats (VPB) and Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns (TCMP) based on such multivariate statistical analysis as factor analysis combined with analysis of variance or nonparametric test. Methods 428 patients with VPB were included and divided into five groups according to the frequency of premature beats. We screened the TCMP with incidence over 40% to conduct the factor analysis. Then we computed the factor scores of every participant and conducted the analysis of variance or nonparametric test based on the factor scores. Results Six component factors were identified in total: F1 were symptoms of myocardial ischemia; F2, ache and parahypnosis; F3, body fluids and mood disorders; F4, main symptoms of VPB; F5, head discomfort; F6, memory-related symptoms. Factor scores of F1, F3 and F4 (Z1,Z3,Z4)were not statistically different. There were statistical difference in F2 factor scores (P<0.0083) when comparing VPB >30,000/24 h group with 1,000~4,999/24 h group and <1,000/24 h group; or when comparing 1,000~3,000/24 h group with 1,000~4,999/24 h group and <1,000/24 h group (P<0.008 3). Factor scores of F5(Z5) showed statistical difference between >30,000/24h and<1,000/24h groups; between 10,000~30,000/24 h and <1,000/24 h groups (P<0.008 3) or facfor scores of F6(Z6) when comparing VPB>30,000/24 h group with 5,000~9,999/24h group and <1,000/24 h group (P<0.008 3). Conclusion Participants with different VBP frequency presented myocardial ischemia symptoms of the same severity such as chest stuffiness, shortness of breath, lack of strength, body fluids disorders, mood disorders, and main patterns of VPB. The severity of ache, parahypnosis, head discomfort, and memory symptoms, however, would become more serious as the frequency of VBP increased.
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