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主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    10 November 2017, Volume 40 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orignal Article
    Application of speculative organon in domain of traditional Chinese Medicine*
    WANG Weiguang, CHEN Zijie, JIAO Nan, WANG Huiru, LI Menglin, LIANG Yan, LIU Jintao, ZHAI Shuangqing
    2017, 40 (11):  885-888.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.001
    Abstract ( 495 )   PDF (1217KB) ( 435 )   Save
    In order to summarize and discuss the current situation of speculative organon applied in theoretical research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the article analyses the characteristics of speculative organon, application status, research results, misunderstanding and a series of problems caused by these misunderstanding in TCM theoretical research. Although speculative organon has played a huge role in promoting the development of TCM theoretical research, there are still four problems: abuse of speculation; absence of justice and consensus inducing concept confusion; inaccurate grasp in applied range of speculative organon; and confusion with qualitative research method. It is conductive to choose correct research methods in scientific work, and it also has a positive significance for collating TCM textbooks, studying on TCM theory, TCM education and TCM theory development.
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    Application of preventive treatment of disease theory in prevention and treatment of male reproductive function injury induced by ionizing radiation*
    WANG Lei, WANG An, HU Sumin
    2017, 40 (11):  889-893.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.002
    Abstract ( 435 )   PDF (1153KB) ( 252 )   Save
    Male reproductive system, especially the testicles, is highly sensitive to radiation rays. Small dose of ionizing radiation will lead to testicular injury, which results in spermatogenesis obstacle, and then causes temporary or permanent infertility. The theory of “preventive treatment of disease” in Chinese medicine, namely the ideas of prevention, has important guiding significance to prevent the reproductive system from being injured by radiation and to promote restoration. Before being radiated, the basic principle is to reinforce healthy qi and improve disease-resistant and recovery capability. The Chinese therapiesl with effects of tonifying Qi and blood, nourishing Yin and moistening dryness, replenishing kidney and nourishing essence are mainly used, and simultaneously assisting by medicinal with effects of purging heat and relieving toxin, clearing heat and engendering fluid, and cooling blood and stopping bleeding. After being injured by radiation, in order to prevent from deterioration and improve recovery, Chinese therapies which can invigorate kidney and liver, nourish essence and blood, soothe liver and strengthen spleen, and restore coordination between heart and kidney should be used with a view to the overall, at the same time, medicinal with effects of clearing heat and relieving toxin, engendering fluid, and activating blood and resolving stasis can be used complementally. Health care after being cured is very important as well, and a healthy life style should be maintained.
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    Theory and scientific evidence of yang-deficient constitution*
    LI Yanan, WANG Junheng, YIN Yuqing, LI Yusi, LI Yingshuai
    2017, 40 (11):  894-897.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.003
    Abstract ( 513 )   PDF (1205KB) ( 329 )   Save
    The constitution of yang deficient is characterized by insufficiency-cold manifestations, and ranks the third position in biased constitution. The theory of yang-deficient constitution is sorted out from causes, physiological and psychological characteristics, distribution in people groups, incidence tendency, and formulas and medicinal for adjusting constitution on the base of achievements in the research of yang-deficient constitution for resent 10 years. The advancements and weaknesses in the study of yang-deficient constitution are found, which will provide reference for further studies.
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    Similarities and differences in doctrine of phlegm-fluid retention between Zhu Danxi and Zhang Jingyue*
    XI Chongcheng, LIU Qi, ZHANG Jie, WANG Tong
    2017, 40 (11):  898-901.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.004
    Abstract ( 441 )   PDF (1143KB) ( 463 )   Save
    There were in-depth studies and discussions on phlegm-fluid retention by many physicians at ancient times, among them Zhu Danxi’s doctrine of phlegm-fluid retention was the most famous with a considerable influence on later generations. Zhang Jingyue realized the quintessence of Zhu’s doctrine and dared to innovate. He put forward his own unique understandings on phlegm-fluid retention combined with his clinical experience and Zhu’s doctrine, and had made a tremendous contribution to the development of diagnosis and treatment of phlegm-fluid retention. This paper discusses the exposition about phlegm-fluid retention in Danxi Xinfa (Danxi’s Experiential Therapy) and Jingyue Quanshu (Complete Works of Jingyue), and sorts out the similarities and differences between them after comparing and integrating their academic thought and features. The authors hope to get the true essence of doctrine of phlegm-fluid retention and provide guide for treatment of phlegm-fluid retention diseases in clinical practice.
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    Treatment of dawn diarrhea based on liver cannot be ignored: time medicine foundation
    MAO Pei, ZHANG Yuzhong
    2017, 40 (11):  902-905.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.005
    Abstract ( 497 )   PDF (1142KB) ( 453 )   Save
    About the pathogenesis of dawn diarrhea, medical experts of all dynasties consider that dawn diarrhea is induced by spleen-kidney yang deficiency, and fire failing to warm earth, so dawn diarrhea is also called “renal diarrhea”, which can be treated with Sishen Wan (Four Miracle Pills) as a basic formula in clinical practice. However, after more thought, the authors fully understand the influence of liver on the occurrence of dawn diarrhea, which is the key of treatment from the chronomedicine perspective, though kidney has close relationship with the disease. The five watches of the night are in Yin Mao, which is subsumed to wood in the five elements, belongs to qi of shaoyang. At the time of five watches, qi of shaoyang sends up, and because of insufficiency of spleen, wood severely restricts earth, then dawn diarrhea occurs.
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    Restricted view on development of Chinese medicine academic thoughts in the Song Dynasty from Song’s revision edition of Qianjin Yaofang*
    LI Nan, ZENG Feng
    2017, 40 (11):  906-908.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.006
    Abstract ( 381 )   PDF (1199KB) ( 230 )   Save
    By comparing the formulas one by one between the Song’s revision edition and newly carved edition of Qianjin Yaofang (Essential Prescriptions Worth a Thousand Gold), the authors find out that the Song’s people had adjusted the arrangement order of formulas in original book according to indications, changes of their realization to disease causes and classification, and new understanding on efficacy of formulas and medicinal. This repartition of formulas and indications reflected that the Song Dynasty had developed a deeper understanding on the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal, and given a more normative therapeutic system and more completed academic framework of Qianjin Yaofang, which showed the evolution of academic thought of Chinese medicine in the Song Dynasty.
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    Effect of standing exercise in adjustment of spine balance based on three-dimensions thoracic measurement*
    LYU Jiaxuan, WEI Zeren, GUO Yu, YAN Jian, CHEN Yue, ZHANG Lin, ZHANG Jiexin, HU Qingchuan, WANG Weiwei, LI Shenyi, WEI Yulong
    2017, 40 (11):  909-916.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.007
    Abstract ( 360 )   PDF (2639KB) ( 328 )   Save
    Objective To observe the stability of orthostatism and weight-bearing position, and range of motion (ROM) of vertical plane and coronal plane of thoracic vertebrae through measuring spinal forms before and after standing exercise, and explore the corrective effect of standing exercise on spine unbalance. Methods The university students (n=30) were chosen as subjects, and divided into test group and control group. After standing exercise, the changes of thoracic intervertebral angles of spinal orthostatism and weight-bearing position, anterior flexion and posterior extension of vertical plane, and left bending and right bending of coronal plane were measured by using spinal measurement apparatus in 2 groups. The measurement results were compared. Results The comparison results showed that the stability of 2 spinal positions and ROM of vertical plane and coronal plane had significant differences between 2 groups (P<0.05). The ROM of coronal plane had greatly significant difference in test group before and after standing exercise (P<0.001), and that has no difference in control group at the same time points. Conclusion The differences in the stability and ROM of thoracic vertebrae indicate that standing exercise can adjust the form of spine and correct spine unbalance.
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    Influence and mechanism of Wuzi Yanzong Wan on proliferation of Sertoli cells in infant rats*
    HU Suqin, LI Yue, CAO Yan, JIAN Guoxuejiao, GUO Jian
    2017, 40 (11):  917-922.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.008
    Abstract ( 354 )   PDF (1553KB) ( 280 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo discuss the effect and mechanism of Wuzi Yanzong Wan (Five Seeds for Multiplying Pills) in the proliferation of Sertoli cells in infant rats. Methods The Sertoli cells were separated from male SD rats (20 d old) and cultured, and then randomly divided into normal group, low-dose Wuzi Yanzong Wan group (5 g/L, low-dose group), mid-dose Wuzi Yanzong Wan group (10 g/L, mid-dose group) and high-dose Wuzi Yanzong Wan group (15 g/L, high-dose group). The changes of optical density (OD) of Sertoli cells were detected by using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium test (MTT) in all groups. The expression of Ki67 positive granules in Sertoli cells were detected by using immunohistochemistry technique in all groups. The expressions of Akt and p-Akt in Sertoli cells were detected by using Western blot method. Results Compared with normal group, the proliferation of Sertoli cells treated with Wuzi Yanzong Wan was promoted significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The expression of Ki67 positive granules increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and relative expression of p-Akt increased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion Wuzi Yanzong Wan can possibly promote the proliferation of Sertoli cells in infant rats through activating Akt signal transduction pathway and up-regulating p-Akt expression.
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    Influence of Yiqi Huoxue Tongluo Fang on JNK signal pathway and inflammatory factors in mice with diabetic peripheral neuropathy*
    YAO Yongchuan, SHEN Guoming, JIANG Aijuan, WANG Liang, YE Shu, WANG Liu
    2017, 40 (11):  923-927.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.009
    Abstract ( 329 )   PDF (1236KB) ( 284 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo study the influence of Yiqi Huoxue Tongluo Fang (Qi-Replenishing Blood-Activating Collateral-freeing Decoction) on signal pathway of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and inflammatory factors in mice with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (db/db mice), and discuss its mechanism in protecting peripheral nerve. Methods The db/db mice (n=40) were randomly divided into 5 groups: model group, lipoic acid group, high-dose Yiqi Huoxue Tongluo Fang group (6.4 g/kg, high-dose group), mid-dose Yiqi Huoxue Tongluo Fang group (3.2 g/kg, mid-dose group) and low-dose Yiqi Huoxue Tongluo Fang group (1.6 g/kg, low-dose group), and other db/m mice (n=8) were chosen into normal group. All groups were intragastrically given corresponding drugs once a day for 8 weeks. After the last administration of drugs, the plantar thermal response time and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) were detected. The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein expressions of JNK and phosphorylase JNK (p-JNK) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) were detected by using Western blot method. Results Compared with normal group, MNCV was slower, plantar thermal response time was longer, levels of IL-1β and TNF-α increased, and protein expressions of JNK and p-JNK are stronger in model group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with model group, Yiqi Huoxue Tongluo Fang promoted MNCV, shortened plantar thermal response time, decreased levels of IL-1β and TNF-α and down-regulated protein expressions of JNK and p-JNK to some extent (P<0.01 or P<0.05). ConclusionYiqi Huoxue Tongluo Fang can inhibit the abnormal activation of JNK signal pathway and relieve inflammatory reaction to protect peripheral nerve in db/db mice.
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    Microenvironment of peripheral nerve regeneration supported by velvet antler polypeptides-PLGA compound membrane*
    WANG Keli, ZHANG Jingling, LU Laijin
    2017, 40 (11):  928-932.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.010
    Abstract ( 345 )   PDF (1734KB) ( 205 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the influence of velvet antler polypeptides (VAP)-PLGA compound membrane formed from VAP and copolymer (PLGA) of polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) on regeneration of sciatic nerve in rats. Methods Healthy male Wistar rats (n=36) were randomly divided into 4 groups (each n=9). The sciatic nerve of rat was revealed by operation, and was not treated in sham-operation group after isolating the nerve and sewed up directly broken ends in model group after cutting the nerve. The sciatic nerve of rat was sewed up and wrapped up with PLGA compound membrane in control group and the nerve was sewed up and wrapped up with VAP-PLGA compound membrane in treatment group. The samples were collected respectively on the 2nd, 4thand 6th weeks after the operation and given histological and immunohistochemical observation and detection. Results The histological observation showed that nervous axon was normal in sham-operation group at 3 time points. The quantity of medullated fibers was significantly more, and axon regeneration rate and maturity of regenerated axon were significantly higher in treatment group than those in model group and control group (P<0.05) at 3 time points. The immunohistochemical detection showed that the antigen staining and antigen expressions of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in regenerated nerve fiber axon and myelin sheath were significantly higher in treatment group than those in sham-operation group, model group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusion VAP-PLGA compound membrane can provide a microenvironment and neuroactive factors required by neural restoration, and promote the regeneration of peripheral nerve, which is an ideal biological material for neural restoration.
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    Regulation on autophagy with tanshinone ⅡA for anti-oxidative stress damage of endothelial cells through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway*
    CAO Huimin, SONG Nan, ZHANG Ni, YANG Guanlin, CHEN Wenna, ZHANG Zhe, JIA Lianqun
    2017, 40 (11):  933-939.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.011
    Abstract ( 328 )   PDF (2429KB) ( 520 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the protective and mechanism of tanshinone ⅡA (TSⅡA) in oxidative stress damage of endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) based on PI3K/Akt/mTOR autophagy pathway. Methods EA. hy926 cells were cultured in vitro, and then randomly divided into normal group, model group, ox-LDL+TSⅡA group, ox-LDL+TSⅡA+LY294002 group, TSⅡA group and LY294002 group. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by using chromatoptometry, autophagy status was observed by using FITC-LC3 fluorescence microscope and Naolive 3D Cell Explorer Real-time Microscopic Imaging System, and meanwhile, expressions of autophagy-related proteins and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway proteins were detected by using Western Blotting. Results Compared with normal group, MDA content increased, SOD activity decreased and content of LC3-I/LC3-II protein increased in model group (P<0.01), and after TSⅡA intervention, MDA content decreased, SOD activity increased and content of LC3-I/LC3-II protein increased (P<0.01). Compared with normal group, protein expressions of PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR decreased significantly in model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with model group, protein expressions of PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR decreased significantly after TSⅡA intervention (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with ox-LDL+TSⅡA group, content of LC3-I/LC3-II protein decreased and autophagy level decreased (P<0.01) after applying LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K. Conclusion Tanshinone ⅡA may improve autophagy through regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway to relieve the oxidative stress damage of EA. Hy926 cells and prevent atherosclerosis.
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    Influence of Bugan Jianyao Fang (Liver-tonifying Lumbar-invigorating Decoction) on expressions of MMP-3 and TIMP-1 in rats with lumbar disc degeneration*
    QIU Xiangzhong, LIU Dong, ZHANG Xincheng, TAN Xuyi, TANG Hao, JIANG Shengchang
    2017, 40 (11):  940-945.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.012
    Abstract ( 316 )   PDF (3324KB) ( 199 )   Save
    Objective To observe the influence of Bugan Jianyao Fang (Liver-tonifying Lumbar-invigorating Decoction) on expressions of intervertebral disc matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in rats with lumbar disc degeneration. Methods SD rats (n=75) were randomly divided into sham-operation group, model group, Yaobitong (Waist Impediment-Freeing Capsules) group, doxycycline (DOX) group and Bugan Jianyao Fang group (each n=15). After establishing successfully the model of lumbar disc degeneration in rats, all groups were, respectively, given orally Yaobitong, DOX and Bugan Jianyao Fang. The expressions of intervertebral disc MMP-3 and TIMP-1 were detected in all group after and 20 d and 4 d after intervention. Results After intervention for 20 d and 40 d, the expressions of intervertebral disc MMP-3 and TIMP-1 decreased in Yaobitong group, DOX group and Bugan Jianyao Fang group compared with model group (P<0.05). The difference in expressions of intervertebral disc MMP-3 and TIMP-1 had statistical significance in Yaobitong group, DOX group and Bugan Jianyao Fang group after intervention compared with those in the same groups before intervention (P<0.05). The comparison among Bugan Jianyao Fang group, Yaobitong group and DOX group showed that the difference had no statistical significance (P>0.05) at all time points. Conclusion Bugan Jianyao Fang can reduce the expressions of intervertebral disc MMP-3 and TIMP-1 in rats with lumbar disc degeneration, which may be one of mechanisms of Bugan Jianyao Fang preventing and curing lumbar disc degeneration.
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    Quality analysis on fresh Danshen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Red Sage Root) from different producing areas based on technology of high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry*
    SHAO Yuanyang, XU Guojie, JIN Xiaoyan, LIU Siqi, ZHANG Chi, WANG Juan, MA Shuangshuang, ZHANG Caijuan, QIU Minyi, LIU Chunsheng, WANG Xueyong
    2017, 40 (11):  946-953.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.013
    Abstract ( 398 )   PDF (2256KB) ( 232 )   Save
    Objective To analyze the content of active components in fresh Danshen (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Red Sage Root) from different producing areas, and review reasonably the medicinal quality of fresh Danshen. Methods The content of 5 salvianolic acids and 12 tanshinones in fresh Danshen, from 7 different producing areas, were determined by applying LTQ-Orbitrap XL high-resolution mass spectrometer. On this basis, all content were analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) analysis. Results The content of active components in fresh Danshen from the same producing area were basically the same, and difference was significant in content of active components among fresh Danshen from different producing areas. The content of salvianolic acids was the highest in fresh Danshen from Hubei, and content of tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA were the highest in fresh Danshen from Sichuan and Henan. The analysis results of PCA and PLS showed that the distribution of most active components had a distinct regional specificity. Conclusion The difference is significant in quality of fresh Danshen from different producing areas, and they have a distinct regional specificity. Using fresh Danshen as quality evaluation materials, that is a useful supplement to review quality of raw medicinal materials based on dry herbs. It explored a new and more comprehensive approach for reviewing other Chinese medicinal materials.
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    Extraction of polysaccharides of Luotuopeng (Peganum harmala L., Herb of Common Peganum) and its effect on toxicity of PolyQ accumulation in Caenorhabditis elegans*
    QUAN Qinghua, JI Ruifang, YUAN Jiang, WANG Jiali, LIU Yibing, ZOU Yuan, GUO Xiaoyu, ZHANG Jiamei, LIU Yonggang, GAO Zengping
    2017, 40 (11):  954-959.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.014
    Abstract ( 396 )   PDF (1256KB) ( 363 )   Save
    Objective To probe into the influence of polysaccharides of Luotuopeng (Peganum harmala L., Herb of Common Peganum) on toxicity of PolyQ accumulation in the muscle cells of AM141 strain of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Methods The polysaccharides of Luotuopeng were extracted by using water extraction followed by sequential alcohol deposition method, and the content of each precipitation was determined by using phenol-sulfuric acid method. The polysaccharides were added to medium, and then samples were collected for counting the number of fluorescence dots due to PolyQ-YFP accumulation in the muscle cells of C. elegans. The influence of the polysaccharides on toxicity of PolyQ accumulation in AM141 strain of C. elegans was reviewed. The precipitation precipitated by 60% ethanol with higher activity was purified by using macroporous resin for re-reviewing the activity. Results The mass fractions of the polysaccharides precipitated by 30% ethanol, 60% ethanol or 80% ethanol were, respectively, 20.07%, 21.80%, 19.98%. The inhibition rates of the polysaccharides on the fluorescence dots due to PolyQ-YFP accumulation in the muscle cells of C. elegans were, respectively, 7.9%, 17% and -1.72%. After the precipitation precipitated by 60% ethanol purified with macroporous resin, the mass fractions of the polysaccharides, in 10% and 20% ethanol elution with higher mass fractions, were, respectively, 49.76% and 38.26%, and the inhibition rates were, respectively, 35.25% and 18.03%. Conclusion The method for reviewing the influence of the polysaccharides on toxicity of PolyQ accumulation through model of AM141 strain of C. elegans is easy, stable and reliable. The polysaccharide precipitated by 60% ethanol has the highest inhibitory effect on PolyQ accumulation with a dose-effect relationship.
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    Symptom characteristics of TCM excess pattern of primary bronchogenic lung cancer*
    CHEN Xun, YAN Xiaoru, ZHANG Peitong
    2017, 40 (11):  960-963.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.015
    Abstract ( 398 )   PDF (1205KB) ( 241 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo investigate the typing characteristics of TCM excess pattern of primary bronchogenic lung cancer. Methods The diagnostic criteria for primary bronchogenic lung cancer were formulated after referring past relevant criteria and literature and combining past research achievements by Professor Zhang Peitong’s research team. The unified pattern differentiation and classification were carried out in the patients with primary bronchogenic lung cancer (n=135). Results All 135 patients had manifestations of excess pattern, and the frequency of manifestations of excess pattern were, in an descending order, qi stagnation pattern, qi counterflow pattern, phlegm congealing pattern, and blood stasis pattern. There were 2 (1.48%) patients with single pattern and 133 (98.52%) with combination of 2 or more patterns. The frequency of 4-pattern combination, 3-pattern combination and 5-pattern combination were higher. The frequency of in-pairs excess patterns, were qi stagnation pattern+qi counterflow pattern, qi counterflow pattern+phlegm congealing pattern, qi stagnation pattern+phlegm congealing pattern, qi stagnation pattern+blood stasis pattern, qi counterflow pattern+blood stasis pattern, and blood stasis pattern+phlegm congealing pattern. Conclusion Qi stagnation pattern and qi counterflow pattern dominate the occurrence and development of primary bronchogenic lung cancer. The combinations of multi-pattern are common and 4-pattern combination is the most common in the patients. The in-pairs excess patterns are qi stagnation pattern, qi counterflow pattern, phlegm congealing pattern and blood stasis pattern.
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    Pathogenesis and diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of Sjogren’s syndrome based on TCM theory of five zang-organs*
    WANG Qing, CHEN Yilian, WU Guolin, LU Wenwen, YU Guoyou
    2017, 40 (11):  964-968.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.11.016
    Abstract ( 413 )   PDF (1153KB) ( 226 )   Save
    Sjogren’s syndrome (SS), named as dry impediment in Chinese medicine, has complex clinical symptoms. It is mostly caused by constitutional insufficiency, emotional disorder and improper diet combining external pathogen attack, resulting in dysfunction and interaction of five zang-organs, overconsumption and distribution dysfunction of yin, blood and fluid-humor, and failing to arrive at all limbs, bones and orifices. The paper elucidates the pathogenesis and diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics of dry impediment, and indicates the disease is related to all five zang-organs (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney) while most closely related to kidney, spleen and liver. The pathogenesis of the disease is based on deficiency of kidney yin and essence, and mainly dominated by dysfunction of spleen in transportation and block of liver’s free activity. The treatment of the disease, based on pattern differentiation, commonly use therapies of nourishing yin and tonifying kidney, fortifying spleen and tonifying qi, soothing liver and activating blood, clearing lung-heat and moistening dryness, and nourishing heart and tranquilizing mind, meanwhile matched with nourishing blood and engendering fluid, freeing collateral vessels and relieving pain, and clearing heat and eliminating dampness. Among these therapies, nourishing yin, tonifying qi and activating blood are keys in treatment.
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