主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    10 December 2017, Volume 40 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Reflection on the connotation of yin and yang in TCM*
    HAO Yu, HE Juan
    2017, 40 (12):  973-977.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.001
    Abstract ( 577 )   PDF (1346KB) ( 675 )   Save
    Yin and yang, as the most fundamental philosophical concept in traditional Chinese medicine, is often interpreted as two opposite polar in contradictory theory or in the law of opposite unity. Yin and yang in TCM, however, has more profound meanings, which are absent in the theory of opposite unity. Connotation of yin and yang, in Huangdi’s Internal Classic (Huangdi Neijing), contains at least three levels of meanings. It refers to heaven qi and earth qi as the origin of the universe; metaphysical yin and yang; and an extrapolated thinking pattern. The law of opposite unity only expresses the connotation of the second level.
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    Identifying the main pattern as the key to treating different diseases with the same method*
    WANG Fangfang, CHEN Jiaxu, HOU Yajing, MA Qingyu, LIU Yueyun, LI Xiaojuan
    2017, 40 (12):  978-981.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.002
    Abstract ( 441 )   PDF (1254KB) ( 317 )   Save
    Treating different diseases with the same method is an exemplification of the principle of treatment based on pattern differentiation in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Different diseases that develop to the same stage showing a similar pattern, or several concomitant disorders showing the shared pattern (main pattern), can be treated with the same method. TCM mainly focuses on the difference among patterns in the treatment of diseases, and the essence of treating different diseases with the same method is to identify the main pattern among the clustered symptoms and use them as the evidence to support the choice of treatment and prescription. In this paper, the concept of pattern and treating different diseases with the same method, and the relationship between them are explained. Priority is given to grasping the main pattern in treating different diseases with the same method. At the same time, relevant examples are listed in order to help understand how this method can be used in clinical diagnosis and treatment.
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    Prevention and treatment of radiation-induced hematopoietic system injury from the perspective of treating disease before its onset*
    WANG An,WANG Lei, SHI Zhongyu, HU Sumin
    2017, 40 (12):  982-986.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.003
    Abstract ( 417 )   PDF (1203KB) ( 226 )   Save
    The hematopoietic system is extremely sensitive to radiation. Its injury severity and recovery speed play crucial roles in the development and prognosis of radiation-induced injury. The theory of “treating disease before its onset” (zhi wei bing) generalizes the essence of preventive medicine in TCM, which is of great significance in effective recovery of the injury, reducing incidence of complication and speeding up healing of patients. It refers to "taking various measures to prevent diseases from occurring, development or recurring". Before exposure to radiation, reinforcing healthy qi and resistance to pathogenic qi should be set as the principle to prevent radiation injury from occurring. Qi- and blood-tonifying herbs should be prescribed while a few heat-clearing fluid-engendering and blood-cooling blood-activating herbs could be added to assist. After radiation, in order to prevent the injury from progression, facilitate the recovery process and prevent pathogen entering the body deeper, heat-clearing toxin-removing herbs should be used in combination with qi-tonifying blood-nourishing and essence-replenishing herbs. After treatment of the radiation injury, herbs that supplement spleen and stomach shall be used as the basic herbs with yin-nourishing fluid-engendering herbs used to assist and prevent relapse, as the principle is to regulate the functions of zang-fu organs and rebalance yin-yang.
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    Development and primary evaluation of the Tibetan Medicine constitution questionnaire*
    LUO Hui, ZHONG Gejia, CAIXIANG Renzeng, WANG Qi
    2017, 40 (12):  987-992.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.004
    Abstract ( 442 )   PDF (1216KB) ( 426 )   Save
    Objective To develop the Tibetan Medicine constitution questionnaire (TMCQ) in order to provide a standardized instrument for the identification of Tibetan Medicine’s constitutional types. Methods International standardized work flow for scale development was applied in the study. Under the guidance of Tibetan Medicine theory, items for the questionnaire were developed based on account of the records from Tibetan Medical classics and suggestions of 12 Tibetan Medicine experts, to devise the first draft of the questionnaire. Next, we recruited 15 adults to have a test of the draft to evaluate its linguistic accuracy, based on which, the draft was modified. Then a cross-sectional survey involving 300 adults aging from 18 to 65 was conducted by using the modified questionnaire. The quality of the questionnaire was evaluated by using item analysis, internal consistency reliability and content validity tests. Results The TMCQ could be divided into three sub-scales: rlung type, mkhris-pa type and bad-kan type. It contained 37 items covering four dimensions including physiological function, psychological feature and character, pathological characteristics and adaptability to environment. The Cronbach α coefficients of the three sub-scales were 0.7159, 0.6914, and 0.7022. Twelve Tibetan Medicine experts’ consensus degree was over 83.3% (10/12) on each item of TMCQ. Conclusion It is feasible to apply methods of scale development to the standardization study of Tibetan constitutional medicine although the TMCQ needs to be further improved.
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    Textual research and interpretation of terms in the chapter of Discourse on how the generative qi communicates with Heaven from Suwen (Plain Questions): eight examples*
    ZHU Pengju
    2017, 40 (12):  993-998.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.005
    Abstract ( 416 )   PDF (1307KB) ( 387 )   Save
    With the method of exegesis, the paper studied and gave new explanations of eight terms in the chapter of Discourse on how the generative qi communicates with Heaven from Suwen (Plain Questions), including qisuo(its appropriateness,其所), yuru yunshu(like a hinge, 欲如运枢), pianju(half wetness, 偏沮), biju(closed, 闭拒), shouju(rest,收拒), qili(qi movement, 气立), lufeng(dew and wind, 露风), and hanre([disease with] chill and fever, 寒热). qisuo(其所)should actually be qiyi(its appropriateness, 其宜) and it was written as qixing(its movement,其行) in Taisu(Grand Simplicity) because suo(place, 所) and xing(movement,行)are similar in strokes and were confused in hand-written script. In the term of yuru yunshu(欲如运枢), yu (欲) and ru(如) are synonyms meaning “like”, while yunshu(运枢) should be written as lianshu(连枢).This term means that patients who have externally contracted cold evil will suffer from inhibited movement as if their waist and thigh are hinged. Pianju(偏沮) means half-body wetting rather than hemilateral anhidrosis. Biju(闭拒or 闭距) is a synonym compound meaning closed. Shouju(收拒or 收距) is also a synonym compound, which means stopwork and rest.Qili(气立) is the establishment of general qi, extended to mean the movement of qi. Lufeng(露风) indicates fog, dew and wind, referring to the external pathogen. Hanre(寒热) refers to a range of diseases with the main clinical manifestation of aversion to cold with fever, and not just the symptoms.
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    A study of commonly-seen textual errors in the Jinling edition of Bencao Gangmu and methods of revision*
    ZHANG Zhibin, ZHENG Jinsheng
    2017, 40 (12):  999-1003.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.006
    Abstract ( 408 )   PDF (1280KB) ( 471 )   Save
    The Jinling edition of Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica) comes particularly close to the original ideas of Li Shizhen’s manuscript. However, it contains numerous textual errors. There are three types of mistakes: First, errors from the engraving process. Second, errors from the cited Zhenglei Bencao(Verified and Categorized Materia Medica), a major source for the Bencao Gangmu. Third, a few errors of Li Shizhen's own scholarly understanding and compilation. In order to reveal Li Shizhen’sorginal ideasand to correct the errors in Bencao Gangmu, this article analyses the specific examples of textual errors with the focused goal of selecting different measures for correction: Errors originating from the engraving process were corrected directly, and annotations in the form of footnotes were added; Errors from the Zhenglei Bencao were corrected with annotations on the basis of the current optimal edition of Zhenglei Bencao. As for errors of Li Shizhen’s scholarly understanding, the original text was not changed, but annotations were added in the form of footnotes explaining the views of the collators. These Methods of collating and correcting the text help to preserve the original ideas of the author of the Bencao Gangmu while still ensuring the rectification of mistakes.
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    Preventive and therapeutic effects of Jianpi Yiqi Shexue Keli and its disassembled prescriptions in treating zebrafish cerebral hemorrhage induced by simvastatin*
    LI Xiao, ZHU Changle, ZHAO Ning, YANG Lu, CHEN Xinyi, LIU Li
    2017, 40 (12):  1004-1010.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.007
    Abstract ( 442 )   PDF (2500KB) ( 263 )   Save
    Objectives To explore the preventive and therapeutic effects of Jianpi Yiqi Shexue Keli(Spleen-fortifying Qi-tonifyingHemostatic Granule, JPYQSXKL)and its disassembled prescriptions (Jianpi Granules) in the treatment of zebrafish cerebral hemorrhage induced by simvastatin.Methods 660 melanin alleles mutant Albino zebrafishes were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, Jianpi groups (A, B, C, D) and subgroups of their different concentration (100 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL, 500 μg/mL, 750 μg/mL, and 1 000 μg/mL) (n=30 in each group).Blinding measures were strictly followed throughout the process. The model of intracranial hemorrhage was established by adding 0.5 μM simvastatin while administering granules of different concentration at the same time. 24 hours later, 20 fishes out of each group were observed under the microscope to count the number of hemorrhagic fishes (S) and thus calculate hemorrhage percentage and its decrease rate.Results ①The incidence rate of hemorrhage in Jianpi groups (100 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL, 500 μg/mL and 750 μg/mL)was 75%, 70%, 60% and 70%;②The incidence rate of hemorrhage in Jianpi Yiqi groups (100 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL)were 60%, 40% and 85%; ③The incidence rate of hemorrhage in Jianpi Yiqi Shengxue(Spleen-fortifying Qi-tonifying Blood-nourishing) groups (100 μg/mL and 250 μg/mL)were 50% and 45%; ④The incidence rate of hemorrhage in Jianpi Yiqi Shexue groups(100 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL)were 35%, 25% and 45%.Conclusion s No protective effects of Jianpi granule and Jianpi Yiqi granule on intracranial hemorrhage induced by simvastatin in zebrafish were observed.Jianpi Yiqi Shengxue granule and Jianpi Yiqi Shexue granule appeared to have a good effect yet high dose was toxic.
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    Effects of Peiyuan Jieyu Formula on TRP-KYN metabolic pathway and its neuron protection mechanism in depressed rats induced by glucocorticoid*
    LI Haina, LI Lina, WANG Shuyan, FAN Angran, YU Xue, WANG Pingping, LIU Baoxiu, CHANG Hongsheng
    2017, 40 (12):  1011-1017.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.008
    Abstract ( 359 )   PDF (1305KB) ( 297 )   Save
    Objective To study the effects of Peiyuan Jieyu Formula (PYJYF)on rats treated with glucocorticoid, its influences on metabolism of the TRP-KYN pathway and the impacts on hippocampal and cortical neuronal plasticity. Methods 70 rats were randomly divided into the following 7 groups (n=10 in each group): normal blank group, model group, fluoxetine group, mid- and high-dose Tiansi Yin (TSY) groups, Sini San (SNS) groups, and PYJYF groups. Rat model of depression was established by intraperitoneal injection of glucocorticoid for 28 days. Sucrose solution consumption and Open-field test were conducted. The content of TRP, KYN, KA and Q in serum was measuredby using HPLC-MS/MS technique. The mRNA expressions of NR and BDNF in brain tissue were measured by using RT-PCR. Results 28 days after the injection of glucocorticoid in model group, the consumption of sucrose solution and total score in open-field test was significantly decreased(P<0.05). The ratios of KYN/TRP and KYN/KA increased significantly (P<0.05). The mRNA expression level of BDNF in hippocampal decreased significantly (P<0.05). The mRNA expression level of NR increased significantly (P<0.05). Peiyuan Jieyu Formula increased the consumption of sucrose solution (P<0.05),the total score in open-field test,the ratios of KYN/Q and the mRNA expression level of BDNF in hippocampus(P<0.05) when compared with the model group. The ratios of KYN/TRP and KYN/KA(P<0.05) and the mRNA expression level of NR in cortex (P<0.05)of Peiyuan Jieyu Formula group decreased. Conclusion Peiyuan Jieyu Formula can reduce the metabolism of TRP-KYN, inhibit neurotoxicity, improve neural protection, and promote the hippocampal and cortical neural plasticity.
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    Effects of berberine on endometrial carcinoma HEC-1A cell line in vitro*
    LU Zhounan, BAO Xiaoxia, XUE Xiaoou, TANG Yao
    2017, 40 (12):  1018-1024.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.009
    Abstract ( 386 )   PDF (1926KB) ( 269 )   Save
    Objective To study the effects of berberine on proliferation, migration, cell cycle and apoptosis in hormone-independent endometrial carcinoma cell line HEC-1A. Methods Berberine’s inhibition of HEC-1A cells proliferation was measured by using MTT colorimetry assay. Cell morphology was inspected under an inverted microscope. Investigated Berberine groups were divided into high-dose group (50 mg/L), mid-dose group (25 mg/L), and low-dose group (12.5 mg/L). Migration ability of cells in vitro was determined with Transwell. Cell cycle expressions were observed by using flow cytometry. Apoptosis of HEC-1A cells was detected with AnnexinV-FITC/PI double staining. Results Berberine may significantly inhibit the proliferation of HEC-1A cells in a dose-dependent manner (effective concentration of berberine ranged between 100 mg/L to 6.25 mg/L) (P<0.05). Berberine could markedly change cell morphology, which was visible under an inverted microscope, with vacuoles in cells, structural damage even cracking into pieces, decreased adherent cells, and scattered alignment. Berberine could significantly inhibit HEC-1A cell migration especially in the high-dose group, on which amount the number of migrating cells decreased markedly. G0/G1 phase arrest was induced by low-dose group treatment after 24 hours. Berberine could accelerate total rate of apoptosis, early apoptosis rate and late apoptosis rate of HEC-1A cells significantly; however, increase of early apoptosis rate was more apparrent. Conclusion Berberine could inhibit proliferation and migration of hormone-independent endometrial carcinoma cell line HEC-1A, and improve the apoptosis rate of HEC-1A.Low-dose berberine may induce the cell at G0/G1 phase.
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    Multi-index comprehensive evaluation and comparison of different softening methods for cortex cinnamomi*
    LUO Shengxiu, WANG Yingzi, LI Wenhua, ZHANG Yu, SUN Zhenyang, NIE Ruijie, WANG Siyu, ZHANG Jingzhen
    2017, 40 (12):  1025-1029.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.010
    Abstract ( 364 )   PDF (1385KB) ( 256 )   Save
    Objective To compare the effects of three different softening Methods (soaking, sprinkle-moistening and decompression-quenching methods) on cortex cinnamomi, contents of water extraction, volatile oil content and cinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid were analyzed to determine the best softening method of cinnamon. Methods Water extraction and volatile oil contents of each sample were determined according to China Pharmacopoeia criteria. And the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for determining the content of cinnamic acid and cinnamicaldehyde. Multi-index comprehensive evaluation method was used to analyze the results.Results The order of comprehensive evaluation scores was decompression-quenched > soaked > the original medicine> sprinkle-moinstening. Conclusion Cortex cinnamomi processed by the softening method of decompression-quenching seems to have the characteristic of the best luster and richest fragrance; furthermore, this method seems to take the least time and damage to the fewest effective components of the medicine, proving itself to be the best softening process.
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    Association between TRAF6 gene polymorphisms and risk and inflammatory reactions of stroke with wind-phlegm stasis pattern*
    GU Lian, CHEN Ziwen, SU Li, YAN Yan, WU Guangliang, LIANG Baoyun, TAN Jinjing, TANG Nong
    2017, 40 (12):  1030-1036.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.011
    Abstract ( 348 )   PDF (1298KB) ( 210 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the relationship between tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to stroke with diverse TCM patterns and inflammation-related quantitative characters. Methods A case-control design was applied in this study. 311 stroke cases with the pattern of wind-phlegm stasis and 284 cases with qi-deficiency blood-stasis pattern were included in the case group, and 605 gender-matched, and age-matched cases were enrolled in the control group. The expression level of TRAF6 mRNA was determined by using real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of the TRAF6 gene, rs5030411 and rs5030416, were genotyped with Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to detect the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines. PLINK and SPSS software were used for statistical analysis. Results The TRAF6 mRNA expression level in patients with wind-phlegm stasis pattern or qi-deficiency blood-stasis pattern were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.050). Rs5030416 polymorphism has a close association with susceptibility to stroke with wind-phlegm stasis pattern (P=0.030). No relationship was found between rs5030411 polymorphism and stroke susceptibility (P>0.050). Patients carrying rs5030411-CT genotype in wind-phlegm stasis pattern group had remarkably higher interleukin-1b (IL-1b) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels than other genotype carriers. Moreover, compared with control group, the levels of IL-1b and IL-6 were significantly higher in wind-phlegm stasis pattern group (P<0.05). Conclusion TRAF6 gene polymorphism rs5030416 may play a role in the occurrence of wind-phlegm stasis pattern, and rs5030411 polymorphism may engage in the inflammatory reaction in wind-phlegm stasis pattern.
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    Cluster analysis of medicinals used by Prof. Zhao Bingnan in the treatment of skin disorders with the pattern of deficient healthy and excessive pathogenic qi*
    YANG Xujie, PEI Xiaohua, WANG Chunhui, SHEN Hui
    2017, 40 (12):  1037-1043.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.012
    Abstract ( 357 )   PDF (1217KB) ( 291 )   Save
    Objective To explore the feature of medicinals used by Prof. Zhao Bingnan in treating skin disorders with the pattern of deficient healthy qi and excessive pathogenic qi.Methods Medical records of Prof. Zhao’s patients with skin disorders were collected and 363 prescriptions were selected as the pattern diagnosis was deficient healthy qi and excessive pathogenic qi, whose rule of herbal combination would be probed by means of cluster analysis (Hierachical Cluster and K-means Cluster).Results 363 prescriptions involving 94 Chinese herbs were clustered into two categories. The first category, as the major category with much higher dosage, frequency, monarch position in the formula, included eleven kinds of Chinese herbs. Conclusion Eleven kinds of Chinese herbs were frequently used in treating skin disorders of deficient healthy qi and excessive pathogenic qi, with the major effects of nourishing blood or yin, clearing heat and cooling blood, eliminating turbidity and etc. This demonstrates a holistic, comprehensive, sequenced and stepwise approach to treatment. Analyzing and summarizing aged famed TCM practitioners’ experiences in the choice of Chinese medicinals would contribute to the enrichment of TCM dermatology.
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    Comparing the colonic motility and expression of M3 muscarinic receptor in IBS rats by stimulating LI 4 and ST 36 with electroacupuncture*
    LAN Ying, GAO Yushan, ZHU Wenlian, REN Xiaoxuan, GUO Mengyi, WANG Shan, WU Yanying, LI Kaige, TAN Lihua, JI Maoxian
    2017, 40 (12):  1044-1049.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.013
    Abstract ( 353 )   PDF (1388KB) ( 266 )   Save
    Objective To observe and compare the effects of LI 4 and ST 36 electroacupuncture on colonic motility and positive expression of M3 receptor in colon of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model rats, and to explore the mechanism behind those differences. Methods 40 neonatal Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, LI 4 group, and ST 36 group. IBS rat model was built by using neonatal maternal separation and acetic acid enema, and colorectal distension (CRD) stimulation in rats except the blank control group. At 9 weeks rats in LI 4 group and ST 36 group were given electroacupuncture(EA) intervention once every other day for 5 times. Blank group and model group didn’t receive acupuncture intervention. After the treatment, Bristol Stool Scale was applied to identify the feces types of the IBS rats before and after electroacupuncture invention; Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) was evaluated to asess the intestinal sensitivities and smooth muscle contraction intensity; and latency, contraction wave and pressure value of initial wave were observed; The expression of M3 receptor was measured using immunohistochemistry. Results Bristol scores of LI 4 group and ST 36 group significantly decreased (P<0.01). Compared with blank group, the stool score of model group was significantly increased (P<0.01); the latency was shortened (P<0.01); the number of contraction waves was significantly increased (P<0.01); the immunohistochemical expression of M3 receptor in the colon was significantly increased (P<0.01). The immunohistochemical expression of M3 receptor in the colon in LI 4 group was increased (P<0.01). Compared with model group, after electroacupuncture stimulation, the stool score of LI 4 group and ST 36 group was significantly decreased (P<0.01); the latency was significantly prolonged (P<0.01); the number of contraction wave was significantly decreased in LI 4 group (P<0.01) and ST 36 group (P<0.05); immunohistochemical expression of M3 receptor in the colon was significantly decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the LI 4 group, the stool score in ST 36 group was decreased (P<0.05); the pressure value of initial wave significantly decreased (P<0.01); the immunohistochemical expression of M3 receptor in the colon was decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion Stimulating LI 4 or ST 36 with electroacupuncturing could both inhibit gastrointestinal tract contraction, reduce intestinal sensitivity and relieve IBS symptoms in rats. LI 4 appears to be more effective than ST 36 in relieving abdominal pain, while ST 36 is better than LI 4 to stop diarrhea. Stimulating different acupoints or acupoints on different nerve segments with electro-acupuncture have specific effects on IBS rats.
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    Effects of Lingnan traditional herbal patch on quality of life in patients with bi-syndrome of knee*
    LEI Lifang, XU Shujun, WU Zhongzun, ZHOU Junhe, XU Zhenhua, FU Wenbin
    2017, 40 (12):  1050-1056.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2017.12.014
    Abstract ( 350 )   PDF (1233KB) ( 258 )   Save
    Objective To evaluate the effects of Lingnan traditional herbal patch on quality of life among patients with knee bi-syndrome (osteoarthritis), in traditional Chinese medicine.Methods 93 patients were randomly assigned into treatment group(47 cases) and placebo group(46 cases).The former group was treated with the Lingnan traditional herbal patch therapy while the lattfer group received placebo treatment with the same acupoints selected for both groups. Patient report outcome (PRO)model was used for outcome measurement, using VAS, IKDC, and SF-36 scalesto evaluate the clinical effect at the following timepoints: before treatment, after treatment, 1-month follow up, and 3-month follow up.Results VAS score of both groups were decreased.There were significant differences between the two groups at each time point (F=10.912, P=0.003; F=28.351, P=0.020; F=7.072, P=0.016).VASreduction rates after treatment in the treatment groups were 35.40%, 62.03%. 66.32%, and they were 18.01%, 18.35%, 18.01% in the placebo group respectively.There were significant differences between the two groups (P=0.000). IKDC scores of the two groups were lower than before, and the difference between the two groups after treatment were statistically significant (F=212.976, P=0.000, F=105.554, P=0.000, F=121.007, P=0.000). The PCS scoresof both groups were increased after treatment; however,theyreduced at the 1-monthfollow-up and 3-monthfollow-up time pointcompared with the after-treatment time pointwith statistically significant difference (P<0.05); MCS scoresof both groups increased after treatment.Butscores of two groups were decreased at the 3-month follow-up time point with pairwise comparison; differences between treatment group and placebo groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Herbal patch treatment can better relieve the pain, improve knee function and reduce symptoms of the knee osteoarthritic patients.Conclusion This study showed that Lingnan traditional Herbal Patch therapy has a positive effect on improving the quality of life of patients with knee bi-syndrome, and it is worth popularizing.
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