主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    30 April 2018, Volume 41 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Clinical thinking pattern in integrated Chinese and Western medicine based on five diagnostic methods and ten principles*
    Song Ming, Chen Jiaxu
    2018, 41 (4):  269-273.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.001
    Abstract ( 457 )   PDF (1256KB) ( 429 )   Save
    Four diagnostic methods (inspection, listening and smelling, inquiry, and palpation) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) help diagnose common symptomatic diseases and thus give clue to the corresponding treatments. However, they are of less diagnostic value as to pre-symptomatic states and some psychological diseases in which Western medicine diagnostic technology does better in early detection. Thus, integrating modern laboratory examination into TCM diagnostic system could facilitate integration and development of TCM and Western medicine. Based on modern development and ancient experiences, this study proposes that there are five diagnostic methods and ten principles in modernized TCM diagnostic system. Five diagnostic methods are inspection, listening and smelling, inquiry, palpation, and examination; Ten principles are yin-yang, cold-heat, deficiency-excess, exterior-interior, and explicit-implicit principles. This proposal may help provide a new thinking pattern to standardize TCM diagnosis process, and facilitate integration and development of TCM and modern medicine.
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    TCM pathogenesis of tumor from the perspective of triple energizer qi transformation*
    He Wei
    2018, 41 (4):  274-278.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.002
    Abstract ( 520 )   PDF (1194KB) ( 606 )   Save
    Complex systemic factors contribute to the occurrence, recurrence and metastasis of tumor. The development of tumor is related to etiological and pathogenic factors in TCM theories. Six exogenous factors, emotions, diet, phlegm, and static blood, etc. lead to healthy qi deficiency and evil qi lingering, viscera disharmony, blood stasis, phlegm retention, and internal obstruction of heat toxin. However, all physiological or pathological changes within the body including visceral functions, and metabolism of qi, blood, and body fluids, ageing, development of tumors, and the common symptoms and complications have close relationship with the “triple energizer qi transformation”. The extent and scope of triple energizer qi transformation not only determine the prognosis and severity of tumors, but also lay theoretical foundation for guiding prevention and treatment of prescription, acupuncture, dietary therapy, psychology and qi gong.
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    Denotation of “ke” and changes of its meaning*
    Ning Jing
    2018, 41 (4):  279-283.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.003
    Abstract ( 540 )   PDF (1288KB) ( 483 )   Save
    “Ke (髁)” is a commonly used but also often misunderstood word in modern biomedicine and traditional Chinese medicine. The author tried to clarify its meaning by analyzing texts of ancient Chinese classics, investigating objects, connecting cognates. The original meaning of “ke” refers to the two circular iliac prominence attached to the sacrum. Its extended meaning is kneecap or the oval enlargement at the bone end, corresponding to condyle in English and condylus in Latin. “Ke” is also used sometimes to refer to “huai (踝)” (ankle bone). However, meanings of “ke” as femur, coccyx and hip bone in some dictionaries are all misinterpretation.
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    Xia Suntong and Physician Catalogue in Cataloged Abstract of Supplement to Si Ku Quan Shu*
    Su Xingfei, Yang Dongfang
    2018, 41 (4):  284-288.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.004
    Abstract ( 414 )   PDF (1192KB) ( 737 )   Save
    As the major contributing editor of Physician Catalogue in Cataloged Abstract of Supplement to Si Ku Quan Shu (Yijia Lei, Xuxiu Siku Quanshu Zongmu Tiyao), Xia Suntong (1857-1942) has been rarely mentioned before in academic community. This paper has documented Xia’s qualification, academic association and working attitude through multi-dimension and multi-angle textual analysis. Abundant compiling experience Xia has accumulated as well as his own profound knowledge in bibliography and medicine, have brought great academic value and significant profound impact on his works.
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    Xin’an physicians of long family tradition in Ming and Qing Dynasties*
    Wan Simei, Liu Boshan, Wang Jian
    2018, 41 (4):  289-293.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.005
    Abstract ( 429 )   PDF (1249KB) ( 587 )   Save
    Physicians of long family tradition in Xin’an emerged as a unique TCM school in Ming and Qing dynasties. They inherited family medical techniques, excelled in clinical practice and their specialties covered almost all fields for generations, with a total population of no less than 300 people. This TCM physician group accounted for one third of all TCM physicians in Xin’an. They were featured by excellence in both medical practice and Confucian literature. They were scholars who studied medicine; they were also professional practitioners with profound theoretical studies and satisfactory clinical efficacy. The family tradition of TCM physician education in early Ming Dynasty, support for medical care from clan system in Huizhou in middle Ming Dynasty, and high respect for TCM physician in Ming and Qing Dynasty in Huizhou all contributed to the formation of Xin’an school of TCM physician group during that historical period.
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    Protective effects of concentrate granule and ultrafine powder of danshen on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury: a comparative study*
    Li Ya, Gao Wenhui, Tang Minke
    2018, 41 (4):  294-300.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.006
    Abstract ( 449 )   PDF (1507KB) ( 347 )   Save
    Objective To compare the protective effects of concentrate granule and ultrafine powder of danshen (Salvia Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizome) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) injury. Methods Male ICR mice were randomly divided into sham operation group, model group, 0.45 g/(kg·d) danshen concentrate granule group and 2.25 g/(kg·d) danshen ultrafine powder group. CIR model was established by using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Weight of mice was monitored throughout the experiment to evaluate their health status. The influence on neurological injury, movement and sensory function was evaluated by using neurologic score test, corner test and grip strength test. The effects of ultrafine powder and concentrate granule on CIR injury were compared using the following parameters: content of water in brain, infraction volume with TTC staining, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the brain by using ELISA. Results Compared with CIR model group, the grip strength and body weight improved significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05) and contents of TNF-α and MPO decreased markedly (P<0.01 or P<0.05) in ultrafine powder group; content of water in brain decreased significantly (P<0.05) in concentrate granule group; cerebral infarction volume decreased markedly (P<0.01) in both danshen groups (P<0.01). Conclusion The danshen concentrate granule and ultrafine powder both have a protective effect on ischemia-reperfusion injury, and their efficacy is similar at the same dosage.
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    Protective effects of Lycium ruthenicum Murr.on hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular oxidative stress injury in heart-derived H9c2 cells*
    Sun Huijuan, Dong Ling, Wang Jiaxin, Pan Meng, Wu Yue, Li Sen
    2018, 41 (4):  301-305.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.007
    Abstract ( 397 )   PDF (1722KB) ( 340 )   Save
    Objective To explore the protective effects of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (Lrm) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cellular oxidative stress injury in heart-derived H9c2 cells. Methods In this study, H2O2-induced injury in heart-derived H9c2 cells was established as cellular oxidative stress injury model. The H9c2 cells were divided into blank group, model group (H2O2 400 μmol/L) and experimental group(Lrm 1.00 g/L +H2O2 400 μmol/L). The Lrm group was pretreated with Lrm for 2 h before treated with H2O2 for 6 h. Cellular morphology of all groups was observed. Cell viability (MTT assay), apoptosis rate (TUNEL assay), Bcl-2 and Bcl-2 relating x gene protein (Bax) expression were evaluated (Western Blotting). Results Compared with the blank group, abnormal cellular morphology, decreased cell activity, and increased apoptosis were observed in the model group (P<0.05). Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene was less expressed while pro-apoptotic Bax protein level was increased. Compared with the model group, cellular morphology and activity was greatly improved in the experimental group with reduced apoptosis rate (P<0.05). The increased expression of Bcl-2 and reduction of Bax were also significantly different. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Lrm tended to improve the H9c2 myocardial cellular morphology, enhance cell activity and reduce apoptosis rate. Its mechanism of action in reducing oxidative stress injury may be related to the up-regulation of Bcl-2 as well as down-regulation of Bax protein expression.
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    Effects of Zhige Jiejiu Baogan Fang on SOD, MDA and GSH in rats with alcoholic liver injury*
    Chen Feng, Liu Dianna, Chen Shaohong, Liu Haiyan, Xiu Linlin, Gao Jie, Li Na, Zhang Chen, Zhong Gansheng
    2018, 41 (4):  306-309.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.008
    Abstract ( 394 )   PDF (1253KB) ( 335 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the protective effects of Zhige Jiejiu Baogan Fang (Semen Hoveniae and Radix Puerariae Lobatae hangover-relieving and liver-protecting recipe, ZGJJBGF) on superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) rats with alcoholic liver injury. Methods 180 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: blank group, model group, positive control (Compound Methionine and Choline Bitartrate Tablet) group (0.36 g/kg), high-dose, mid-dose and low-dose ZGJJBGF groups (18, 9, 1.8 g/kg respectively). Except for the blank group, rats in other groups were orally administered with 50% ethanol (diluted with distilled water) for 6 weeks to establish the alcoholic liver injury rat model. Rats in all experimental groups except the blank and model groups received medicinal intervention respectively. The activity of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase(SOD) in serum and liver were measured at the end of the experiment. Results SOD activity in model group was significantly lower than that in the blank group, and the contents of MDA and GSH in the liver tissues and blood were significantly higher in the blank group (P<0.01). Compared with model group, mid-dose ZGJJBGF significantly increased the serum GSH level (P<0.05) and the activity of SOD (P<0.01) while reducing the content of MDA in liver tissue (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, high-dose ZGJJBGF significantly reduced the content of MDA in liver tissue of rats (P<0.01) and increased the content of GSH (P<0.01). Compared with model group, low-dose ZGJJBGF reduced serum MDA content (P<0.01). Conclusion Zhige Jiejiu Baogan Fang could enhance the antioxidant ability of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GSH. It can also inhibit the damage of liver injury of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation.
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    Stasis-removing phlegm-resolving formula reduces hepatic lipid deposition in rabbits with atherosclerosis through regulating mitochondrial autophagy related proteins*
    Chen Si, Jia Lianqun, Song Nan, Wang Jian, Chen Ning, Gao Yunfei, Xie Simeng
    2018, 41 (4):  310-315.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.009
    Abstract ( 373 )   PDF (1789KB) ( 384 )   Save
    Objective To observe the effect of stasis-removing phlegm-resolving formula (Huayu Qutan Fang, HYQTF) on liver mitochondrial autophagy related proteins, and to investigate the effects of mitochondrial autophagy on liver lipid deposition in rats with atherosclerosis (AS). Methods Rabbits (60-SPF-grade Zelanian purebred males) were randomly divided into normal group, model group, HYQTF group and simvastatin group. Normal group was fed with normal diet; model group, HYQTF group and simvastatin group were fed with high-fat diet. 8 weeks after the modeling, HYQTF group and simvastatin group received corresponding medicinal intervention while normal group and model group were administered with the same volume of saline. After 4 weeks, the serum contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) were measured whereas the morphological changes of rabbit liver tissue were observed by using stained HE. Accumulation of lipid droplets was evaluated with oil red O staining, and the relative expression of autophagy relating protein FUNDC1, P62 and LC3 in rabbit liver tissue were detected with Western blotting method. Results Compared with normal group, TC,TG and LDL-C levels of serum increased significantly (P<0.01) whereas HDL-C level decreased (P<0.05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, serum TC,TG and LDL-C levels in the HYQTF group and simvastatin group decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the content of HDL-C increased significantly (P<0.05). HE staining results: The liver tissue of model group rabbits became apparently swollen and formed fatty vacuolization. Fatty vacuoles in HYQTF group and simvastatin group significantly decreased or disappeared. Normal morphology of liver tissue fully or partially recovered. Oil Red O staining results: In the model group, liver cell became swollen and round, with the loose cytoplasm and obvious accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. The degree of steatosis decreased in HYQTF group and simvastatin group, with the number of lipid vacuoles decreased. Western blotting results: Compared with normal group, the relative expression of mitochondrial autophagy relating proteins LC3 and FUNDC1 in liver tissue of rabbits significantly increased in the model group (P<0.05), and the relative expression level of P62 decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the model. Compared with the normal group, mitochondrial autophagy relating protein LC3, FUNDC1 expression in model group increased significantly (P<0.05), while mitochondrial autophagy relating protein LC3, FUNDC1 expression in HYQTF group and simvastatin group decreased significantly, and the relative expression level of P62 increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion Stasis-removing phlegm-resolving formula may reduce lipid deposition in liver tissue of AS rabbits by regulating mitochondrial autophagy related proteins, thereby slowing the formation and development of atherosclerosis.
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    Quality representation and correlation analytical study of Semen Cassiae based on phenolic characteristic architecture of medical system*
    Liu Lu, Li Qian, Zhou Deyong, Sun Daohan, Lu Dongbo, Kong Jing, Cai Xiufen, Wang Menglin, Wu Qiuhong, Li Wenxia, Li Sitong, Fan Yuanyuan, Huang Yujuan, Feng Xin, Shi Renbing
    2018, 41 (4):  316-328.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.010
    Abstract ( 406 )   PDF (3404KB) ( 353 )   Save
    Objective To establish the quality representation and correlation analysis method and the content of characteristic ingredients based on spectrum of medicinal system of Juemingzi (Semen Cassiae), in order to evaluate the quality of Semen Cassiae decocting pieces effectively and accurately. Methods HPLC-PDA method was established to characterize the quality of spectrum of Semen Cassiae medicinal system architecture; quality of 11 batches of Semen Cassiae decocting pieces was characterized based on the number and chemical type of peaks on characteristic spectrum. The content of 6 characteristic index components, naphthopyrones and anthraquinones were characterized by indexes in characteristic spectrum. Correlation analysis of quality of Semen Cassiae was then performed with reference to the standard reference pieces. Results Taken as the reference substance, characteristic spectrum of batch 10 Semen Cassiae altogether contains 12 characteristic peaks, all characteristic peaks appeared on the chromatograms of 11 batches of Semen Cassiae. In 11 batches of Semen Cassiae, No.5, 11, 8, 1, 2 pieces contained higher effective index components, while No. 5, 11, 2, 9, and 7 pieces had high relevance with the reference piece (No.10). Consolidated quality characterization and correlation analysis, the quality of No. 5, 11, 8, 1, 2, 9, and 7 were excellent and dominant. Conclusion The HPLC method to analyze quality and quantity of phenolic components spectrum of 11 batches of Semen Cassiae is simple and accurate. The evaluation mode of quantity and quality and their correalation based on Semen Cassiae medical system, including systemic correlation and appilication validity, as it can provide a reliable methodological basis for the comprehensive quality evaluation of Semen Cassiae.
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    HPLC characteristic chromatogram of Simiao Yong’an Tang aqueous extract*
    Li Caixia, Wang Chong, Jiang Yanyan, Liu Bin
    2018, 41 (4):  329-335.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.011
    Abstract ( 401 )   PDF (1980KB) ( 409 )   Save
    Objective To establish the HPLC characteristic chromatogram of Simiao Yong’ an Tang (Four Wonderfully Effective Heroes Decoction, SMYAT) aqueous extract, determining the source of each characteristic peak in HPLC chromatogram in order to provide a method for the quality control and evaluation of aqueous extract of Simiao Yong’an Tang. Methods SunfireTM C18 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm) was used with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase with gradient elution, flow rate at 1.0 mL/min, column temperature at 35 ℃, and detection wave length at 254 nm. The HPLC chromatogram of SMYAT aqueous extract were set up. The Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM (State Pharmacopoeia Commission 2004A version) was applied for similarity evaluation. The source of each characteristic peak of SMYAT aqueous extract was identified by comparing chromatogram of the whole prescription, ingredient-missing prescription and single-herb preparation. The relative deviation of retention time was utilized as an index to identify the source of each peak in HPLC chromatogram. Results The HPLC chromatogram set up in this study was precise, reproducible, and stable. 25 common characteristic peaks were determined in the HPLC chromatogram of Simiao Yong’an Tang aqueous extract. Peaks 1, 4, 8~14, 16, and 18~22 came from Jinyinhua (honeysuckle flower, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae); peaks 2, 5, 7, 23~24 from Xuanshen (figwort root, Radix Scrophulariae); peaks 3, 15 from Danggui (Chinese angelica, Radix Angelicae Sinensis); peaks 6, 17, 25 from Gancao (licorice root, Radixet Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae). . Conclusion The HPLC chromatogram of of Simiao Yong’an Tang aqueous extract can reflect the chemical components of this formula, and the method can be used for its quality control and evaluation.
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    Pharmacognosical study of snow chrysanthemum*
    Luo Qiongzhi, Wu Yanan, Qi lei, Zhang Juan, Tian Yaning, Mourboul Ablise, Wu Haozhong, Zhang Yuan
    2018, 41 (4):  336-341.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.012
    Abstract ( 439 )   PDF (3217KB) ( 381 )   Save
    Objective To conduct a pharamacognosical study on snow chrysanthemum (coreopsis tinctoria nutt.), and lay a theoretical foundation for its origin identification. Methods The properties, structure, and micro-characters of snow chrysanthemum powder were observed and described; the main components were analyzed, and finger-print was built with HPLC, aiming at analyzing snow chrysanthemum from property, microscopic, and physicochemical aspects. Results The macro-character and micro-characters of snow chrysanthemum are described as follows: the capitula of snow chrysanthemum is consistent with that of asteraceae species with two colors of the ray floret, yellow on the upper part, and purple brown in the middle of basal part. Powder under the microscope presents yellow spine spheroidal pollen grains, light yellow to brown red secretary canal scrap, papilla with simple cellular hair, basal part cell, and inner wall cells of pollen sac. The HPLC fingerprint was determined. Conclusion Snow chrysanthemum shares the common features with asteraceae species, and is different from Coreopsis lanceolate L, and Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg in the same genus. This study supplemented the gap in the pharacognosical study of snow chrysanthemum for origin identification.
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    Concurrent pattern elements in patients with non-phlegm or phlegm pattern of metabolic syndrome and physiochemical parameters related to phlegm pattern*
    Zhang Mengting, Lin Xuejuan, Wang Yongfa, Yu Jie, Xiong Hongping, Gao Bizhen
    2018, 41 (4):  342-348.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.013
    Abstract ( 448 )   PDF (1291KB) ( 349 )   Save
    Objective To analyze the characteristics of concurrent pattern elements of the patients with phlegm or non-phlegm pattern in metabolic syndrome, explore the correlation between different disease locations as well as complicated diseases and physicochemical parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome, and to provide a theoretical basis for the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Methods The 2005 International Diabetes Federation diagnostic criteria and pattern element differentiation method were used to select 334 patients of metabolic syndrome with phlegm pattern and 288 patients of metabolic syndrome with non-phlegm pattern into this study. Physical and chemical parameters and TCM four diagnostic data were entered and analyzed with SPSS 20.0 to explore characteristics of concurrent pattern elements of phlegm and non-phlegm patterns in patients with metabolic syndrome, and to explore the correlation between different locations as well as complicated diseases and physicochemical parameters in patients of metabolic syndrome. Results 1.Disease locations of liver, spleen, kidney, lung, gallbladder, stomach distributed in phlegm group were more frequent than those in non-phlegm group; the percentage of patients with dampness, fever, qi stagnation, blood stasis, qi deficiency, yin deficiency, yang deficiency and blood deficiency were higher than those in non-phlegm group. 2.In male patients with phlegm pattern, the frequency of disease location in the liver was lower than that in the spleen and stomach, while the female patients had opposite distribution. The age of the liver and spleen groups were less than the age in the kidney group among patients with phlegm pattern. 3.In phlegm-pattern patients, the frequency of blood deficiency pattern among male patients was lower than that of qi deficiency, yin deficiency and yang deficiency patterns, while the frequency of females was higher than those of the three groups. The levels of uric acid (UA) and creatinine (Cr) in yang-deficiency pattern group were higher than those in blood deficiency pattern group. Cr levels in yin deficiency pattern group were also higher than those in blood deficiency pattern group. . Conclusion Disease locations of phlegm pattern group in metabolic syndrome were: liver, spleen, kidney, lung, gallbladder, stomach and miscellaneous diseases were dampness, heat, qi stagnation, blood stasis, qi deficiency, yin deficiency, yang deficiency, and blood deficiency; Non-phlegm pattern group presented no concurrent pattern element characteristics. Disease locations were in the stomach in the male while they were changed to the liver in the female. Concurrent pattern elements was blood deficiency in patients of phlegm pattern in metabolic syndrome. In addition, the order of disease location of metabolic syndrome patients with phlegm pattern was spleen, liver and kidney. There was a correlation between yin-yang disharmony and levels of UA and Cr.
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    Construction of sports biomechanical models and study on joint angle changes in rolling manipulation*
    Zhang Yanmei, Xie Hailiang, Lu Qun, Hu Guanyu, Wang Yuchen, Qi Wei
    2018, 41 (4):  349-352.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.04.014
    Abstract ( 401 )   PDF (1259KB) ( 346 )   Save
    Objective To explore kinetic and motion characteristics of the upper extremity joints and establish a more systematic and comprehensive evaluation system of tuina. Methods Two groups of participants (n=10 in the expert group; n=10 in the student group) were recruited to record and analyze their rolling manipulation on 3 link joints (upper arm, forearm, hand) and 3 joints (shoulder joint, elbow joint, wrist joint). A multi-rigid-body sports biomechanical model was established by using motion capture system. Real-time data throughout the process was collected; Work-station software was used to analyze the data. Results The established multi-rigid-body sport biomechanical model of 3 link joints and 3 joints with definite marker point could be used to describe rolling motion characteristics. In the extension phase of rolling manipulation, elbow extension degree and forearm rotation angle was 38.304±1.776°and 58.706±1.675°in the expert group; 18.199±1.675°and 42.556±2.812°in the student group, respectively. The differences were both significantly different (P<0.05). The wrist flexion degree in the experts group was 79.516±1.654°, and 78.451±2.110° in the student group, which was not significantly different (P>0.05). Conclusion The established 3-link 3- joint multi-rigid-body sport biomechanical model of rolling manipulation can simulate the spatial motion relation of each joint in the study of tuina manipulation, clarify the movement displacement and determine the space angle, which is suitable for the study of tuina techniques.
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