Loading...
主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    30 May 2018, Volume 41 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Developing law of application of pungent-warm with cold-cool medicinal combination for treating warm diseases at initial stage*
    Wang Yunhui, Yu He, Zheng Zi’an, Si Qingyang, Liu Tiegang, Gu Xiaohong
    2018, 41 (5):  357-361.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.001
    Abstract ( 619 )   PDF (1175KB) ( 402 )   Save
    The combination of pungent-warm medicinal has experience 3 changing processes during initial stage of warm diseases: simply using pungent-warm medicinal, combination of pungent-warm with bitter-cold medicinal and combination of pungent-warm with pungent-cool medicinal. There were 3 important periods during the formation of warm disease school, which were infancy stage (period from Warring States to Jin and Tang Dynasties), growth stage (periods of Song, Jin and Yuan Dynasties) and forming stage (periods of Ming and Qing Dynasties). With the deuolopment of warm disease school, the use of pungent-warm medicinal altered from hot to slight warm, and proportion of pungent-warm medicinal and cold-cool medicinal changed continuously. The combination administration of pungent-warm and cold-cool medicinal for treating febrile diseases at the initial stage was summed up, clinical prescribing according to pathogenesis was emphasized, and thinking train of property-flavor combination was stressed. The combination of pungent-warm and cold-cool medicinal aimed at releasing depression and eliminating pathogen combined with clearing heat, cooling and dispelling pathogen at the initial stage of warm diseases. The selection and dosage of medicinal should be determined according to the degree of depression of qi movement and intense heat toxin. The thought of combination of pungent-warm and cold-cool medicinal should be thought of when practicing and treating warm diseases in chinic.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Core connotation of acupuncture in four seasons based on parlance of needling superficially in spring and summer and needling deeply in autumn and winter*
    Zhang Jiale, Niu Shuping
    2018, 41 (5):  362-367.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.002
    Abstract ( 553 )   PDF (1109KB) ( 366 )   Save
    Although there are related explanations on the parlance of needling superficially in spring and summer and needling deeply in autumn and winter in Huangdi Neijing (the Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic) and Nanjing (Classic of Difficult Issues), and later generations also made some expositions on this parlance, all of them are not clear enough. The parlance can be recognized from aspects of time acupuncture and moxibustion, constitution and obtaining qi after analyzing interpretations in Huangdi Neijing and Nanjing and from physicians in all ages and relevant studies. The parlance indicates that needling should conform to four seasons, which are external environment basis of obtaining qi. Patients’ constitutions and needling based on physical differentiation are internal environment basis of obtaining qi. The thinking of acupuncture differentiation and treatment, takes pathogenesis as the core, emphasizes the key roles of location, nature and course of a disease in obtaining qi. Obtaining qi even qi arrival should be stressed in needling in clinic, and then regulating yin and yang and reaching equilibrium will be achieved.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    On Juedao in Jingmai· Lingshu (Meridian Vessel · Miraculous Pivot)
    Liu Bin, You Haiyan
    2018, 41 (5):  368-371.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.003
    Abstract ( 531 )   PDF (1101KB) ( 407 )   Save
    Juedao (channels under skin), a term used to describe the course characteristics of collateral vessels in large joints in human body, only appeared in Jingmai· Lingshu (Meridian Vessel · Miraculous Pivot), and it has a universal meaning. There was no exegetical interpretation about the term in original text of Jingmai· Lingshu, and no related researches and reports in later ages. From the perspectives of literal meaning, contextual meaning, anatomical features and functions, the actual meaning of Juedao and the structural characteristics and functions of channels under skin are studied and analyzed here based on annotations by different scholars in past dynasties about this term and content related to modern anatomy. Our findings suggest that Juedao, sandwiched by subcutaneous tissue, tendons and muscle, is a special channel in extremities major joints, plays a role of connecting proximal and distal vessel system in joints and blood circulation under skin. This term marked a subtle understanding on distribution characteristics of vessel system nearby large joints in Huangdi Neijing (the Yellow Emperor’s Internal Classic), which demonstrated the complexity of collateral vessel theory. The studies on Juedao will make a great contribution to further understanding on collateral vessel theory related body structure characteristics in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and is of great benefit for modern researches on TCM theory of human structure.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Influence of Jiyin Capsule on apoptosis pathway of ovarian caspase dependent cells in rats with peri-menopausal syndrome*
    Zhao Lei, Huang He, Mu Yangna, Yuan Yuan, Bao Yulong, Liang Maoxin
    2018, 41 (5):  372-375.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.004
    Abstract ( 424 )   PDF (1046KB) ( 251 )   Save
    Objective To discuss the effective mechanism of Jiyin (Nourishing Yin) Capsule in intervening peri-menopausal syndrome. Methods Normal rats (n=10) were randomly chosen into blank group. The model of peri-menopausal syndrome was established with intraperitoneal injection of VCD once a day for 60 d. When estrous cycle was disorder, level of serum estradiol (E2) was lower than the lowest level of that in blank group and level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was higher than the highest level of that in blank group, the modeling was success. The modeled rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: model group, progynova group (PGV group), Kunbao (Female Treasure) Pill group (KBP group), and low-dose, mid-dose and high-dose Jiyin Capsule groups (each n=10). After grouping, blank group and model group were given distilled water, and other groups were given corresponding medicinals once a day for 30 d. The mRNA expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and Apaf-1 were detected by using real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results Compared with blank group, mRNA expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and Apaf-1 increased significantly in model group (P<0.01). Compared with model group, mRNA expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9 and Apaf-1 decreased significantly in Jiyin Capsule groups. Conclusion Jiyin Capsule can inhibit cell apoptosis of ovarian through down-regulating conduction of apoptosis pathway of caspase dependent cells, which maybe one of its effective mechanisms of intervening peri-menopausal syndrome.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Influence of Fuzheng Tixie Souluo Fang on angiogenesis in rats with pulmonary fibrosis*
    Zhang Ning, Zheng Fengjie, Wu Huayang, Wang Dingnan, Yan Yuqin, Liu Ruolin, Gao YuShan, Zhang Shujing, Su Huiping
    2018, 41 (5):  376-382.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.005
    Abstract ( 387 )   PDF (3615KB) ( 230 )   Save
    Objective To study the influence of Fuzheng Tixie Souluo Fang (Decoction of reinforcing healthy qi, eliminating pathogen and Searching collaterals, FTSF) on angiogenesis in rats with pulmonary fibrosis (PF), and investigate its latent therapeutic mechanism. Methods Health male SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and treatment group (each n=32). The PF model was established by intravenous injection of bleomycin via tracheal intubation in model group and treatment group, and control group was given intratracheal injection of isovolumetric normal saline. After modeling for 24 h, treatment group was given orally suspension of FTSF [0.67g/(kg·d)], and control group and model group were given isovolumetric normal saline. All rats were executed respectively at different time points (7 d, 14 d, 21 d and 28 d, 8 each time) after modeling. The lung tissue was collected and given HE and Masson staining for detecting the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and its receptor-VEGFR-2 by using ELISA. The expression of CD34 antigen in lung tissue was detected by using immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining, and micro-vessel density was measured by using Weidner method. Results The pathological changes of lung tissue in treatment group were similar to those in model group, but severity of inflammation and fibrosis was milder than those in model group at the same time point. The expressions of VEGF-A and VEGF-R2 were lower in treatment group than those in model group at the same time point (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The staining of CD34 positive cells showed pale brown or brown, and micro-vessel density was lower in treatment group than that in model group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion FTSF can relieve inflammatory exudation and collagen deposition of lung tissue induced by bleomycin in PF rats. The mechanism may be related to the decreases of VEGF-A and VEGF-R2 expressions and inhibition of abnormal angiogenic activity in lung tissue.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Quantitative determination of phenolic characteristic components and their quality representation and correlation analysis of specific chromatograms in Shaji*
    Zhang Yuanyuan, Lyu Shan, Chen Mengjie, Kong Jing, Sun Rendi, Zhang Yuanyuan, Lu Dongbo, Wu Qiuhong, Li Wenxia, Wang Menglin, Fan Yuanyuan, Feng Xin, Li Sitong, Huang Yujuan, Jiang Yanyan, Shi Renbing
    2018, 41 (5):  383-394.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.006
    Abstract ( 439 )   PDF (2608KB) ( 330 )   Save
    Objective To establish an analysis method for quantitatively determining phenolic characteristic components and correlation analyzing their quality representation of specific chromatograms in Shaji (Seabuckthorn Fruit, Hippophae rhamnoides), and to review the quality of Shaji effectively and accurately by applying association analysis-reviewing mode. Methods HPLC-PDA method was used to quantitatively determine the content of phenolic characteristic components in 11 batches of Shaji (protocatechuic acid, ellagic acid, narcissin, quercetin, isorhamnetin), and to establish phenolic specific chromatograms of Shaji. The quality of 11 batches of Shaji was characterized based on teasing characteristic peaks and chemical types. The quantity of 11 batches of Shaji was characterized based on quantity and peak areas of protocatechuic acid, ellagic acid, narcissin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, phenolic acids (represented by protocatechuic acid) and flavonoids (represented by narcissin) in the specific chromatograms. The characterized results of quality and quantity of 11 batches of Shaji were given association analysis based on baseline material of Shaji. Results The characteristic components of protocatechuic acid, ellagic acid, narcissin, quercetin, isorhamnetin all had good linear correlation, and the results of methodological investigation were in accordance with the quantitative determination requirements. Taken batch 7 of Shaji as baseline material, there were totally 18 characteristic peaks in phenolic specific chromatograms of Shaji, including 3 peaks of phenolic acids and 15 peaks of flavonoids, and all 18 characteristic peaks appeared in the chromatograms of 11 batches of Shaji. The quantity of characteristic components were higher in batch 8, 7, 10, 4, 5, 11 and 1 after analyzed and reviewed by using association analysis-reviewing mode. The relevance of batch 6, 2, 3, 1 and 11 was the highest with baseline material of Shaji. Comprehensive reviewing showed that the excellent extents of batch 1, 11, 8, 6 and 7 were prior. Conclusion The quantitative determination method of phenolic characteristic components in Shaji established in this study is easy and accurate. The association analysis-reviewing mode for quality characterization of phenolic specific chromatograms can be used for analyzing the quality and application validity of Shaji and reviewing quality of Shaji effectively and accurately.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Content and influencing factors of tobeimoside I in Tubeimu from different producing areas analyzed by using group-average clustering method*
    Tan Ning, Lu Yang, Xue Yutao, Li Yanping, Zeng Yanling, Du Shouying
    2018, 41 (5):  395-399.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.007
    Abstract ( 405 )   PDF (1283KB) ( 294 )   Save
    Objective To identify the content of tubeimoside I in Paniculate Bolbostemma from 16 different locations and determine the high-containing locations and influencing factors. Methods The quantitative determination method of tobeimoside I in Tubeimu (Paniculate Bolbostemma, Rhizoma Bolbostematis) in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 Edition) was used to determine the content of tobeimoside I in 16 batches of Tubeimu for deciding producing areas with higher content of Tubeimu and analyzing the influencing factors. The origin producing areas was classified by using group-average clustering analysis method taken content of tobeimoside I as the index. Results The results showed that the content of tobeimoside I was in a range from 1.234% to 3.174% in different producing areas, which was accorded with the requirement of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The clustering analysis classified 16 producing areas into 4 groups, and content of tobeimoside I was the highest in Tubeimu material produced from Shangluo and Hanzhong. Conclusion The temperature and humidity had influence on Tubeimu material, and content of tobeimoside I was higher in the producing areas with higher temperature and humidity.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Quantitative determination of N-caffeoylputrescine, kukoamine B and chlorogenic acid in Digupi*
    Su Lei, Jiang Yanyan, Chen Luxiao, Liu Jing, Liu Bin
    2018, 41 (5):  400-404.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.008
    Abstract ( 419 )   PDF (1164KB) ( 288 )   Save
    Objective To establish a method for quantitative determination of N-caffeoylputrescine, kukoamine B and chlorogenic acid in Digupi (Chinese Wolfberry Root-bark, Cortex Lycii). Methods The preparation method for solution of test sample was established by using single-factor investigation. HPLC procedure was performed for determining the content of N-caffeoylputrescine, kukoamine B and chlorogenic acid on chromatographic column of Waters Xbridge C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), mobile phase was methanol-0.05% trifluoroacetic acid in gradient elution. The flow velocity was 1.0 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 290 nm at 30℃. Results The solution of test sample was prepared after Digupi was extracted with 100 times amount of 70% methanol by using reflux extraction for 60 min. N-caffeoylputrescine showed a good linear relationship at a range from 0.013 75 mg/mL to 0.220 0 g/L (r=0.999 5), and average recovery was 99.25% (RSD=1.81%, n=6). Kukoamine B showed a good linear relationship at a range from 0.057 875 g/L to 0.926 0 mg/mL (r=0.999 8), and average recovery was 101.01% (RSD=2.81%, n=6). Chlorogenic acid showed a good linear relationship at a range from 0.009 25 g/L to 0.148 0 g/L (r=0.999 5), and average recovery was 99.51% (RSD=2.32%, n=6). Conclusion The established quantitative determination method is easy and accurate with a good repeatability, which can lay a foundation for the quality control and reviewing of Digupi.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Expressing patterns of serum inflammatory factors in patients with gastric cancer with different types of tongue fur*
    Zhang Junfeng, Zhang Liwei, Wu Juan, Xin Qianqian, Dong Wei, Wang Ruiping, Zhan Zhen
    2018, 41 (5):  405-412.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.009
    Abstract ( 381 )   PDF (1508KB) ( 259 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the expressing patterns of serum inflammatory factors in patients with gastric cancer (GC) with different types of tongue fur. Methods GC patients with different types of longue fur (n=134) and non-GC subjects with different types of tongue fur (n=93) were chosen from clinic. The levels of serum inflammatory factors were detected by using electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA), and correlation between types of tongue fur and serum inflammatory factors was analyzed by using multi-factor association method. Results The levels of serum interleukin-17α (IL-17α) had significant difference in GC patients with different types of longue fur (P<0.05). The analysis on fur color showed that level of serum IL-17α was 3.062 ng/L in GC patients with yellow fur and 3.982 ng/L in those with white fur (P<0.05). ROC analysis showed that the sensitivity was 72.7%, specificity was 91.3%and AUC (95% CI) was 0.639 (0.539-0.739) of serum IL-17α in distinguishing white fur and yellow fur, and cutoff value was 6.033 ng/L. The similar tendency was identified in non-GC subjects. The correlation analysis showed that there were 20 serum inflammatory factors with significant positive correlation in GC patients with the same types of tongue fur, and significant negative correlation in GC patients with different types of tongue fur. Conclusion The level of IL-17α can significantly distinguish white tongue fur and yellow tongue fur. The white-yellow tongue fur and thin-thick tongue fur may reflect adverse inflammatory status in GC patients.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Time series analysis on incidence trend of dysentery in Shanxi Province*
    Han Ling, Yan Long, Hao Yu, Keerqinfu, Wang Hong, He Juan
    2018, 41 (5):  413-417.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.010
    Abstract ( 338 )   PDF (1697KB) ( 270 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the feasibility and applicability of model of seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) in analysis and prediction on dysentery morbidity in Shanxi Province, and to provide decision basis for preventing and controlling dysentery. Methods SARIMA model was established based on monthly morbidity of dysentery from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2013 by using R3.3.1 software, and the predictive effect of the model was verified with monthly morbidity of dysentery in 2014. Results SARIMA model (2,1,2)(1,1,1)12 fitted very well with the monthly dysentery morbidity in Shanxi Province, and the residuals of the model were white noise sequence. The relative error between predicted and actual values at a range from 0.909% to 35.575% and average relative error was 13.399%. Conclusion SARIMA model can well reflect the incidence trend of dysentery and predict the morbidity of dysentery in a short term in Shanxi Province.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Development of predictive scale of diabetic kidney disease bases on clinical research*
    Liu Hongfang, Jiang Min
    2018, 41 (5):  418-422.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.011
    Abstract ( 378 )   PDF (1050KB) ( 220 )   Save
    Objective To establish a scale integrated Chinese and Western medicine for predicting the progress of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and provide a simple and reliable predictive method for DKD progress. Methods DKD patients were divided into group of microalbuminuria stage (MAU group, n=258) and group of clinical albuminuria stage (CAU group, n=234). The basic information, detected indexes, laboratory indexes and distribution of TCM pattern factors were compared between 2 groups. The risk factors were screened by using multi-factor Logistic regression analysis, and a regression equation was obtained with Western medical indexes and TCM pattern factors as variables. The continuous variables were converted to categorical variables by using decision tree method to establish a predictive scale of DKD progress. There were 76 DKD patients in MAU group were re-chosen, and the predictive scale was verified according to their actual progress of DKD. Results The results of Logistic regression analysis showed that systolic blood pressure (OR=1.021, P=0.022), albumin (OR=0.888, P=0.000), serum creatinine (OR=1.010, P=0.000), blood uric acid (OR=1.004, P=0.000) and yang deficiency pattern (OR=1.793, P=0.006) were independently correlated to DKD developing from MAU stage to CAU stage. The total score of the scale was 86, and diagnostic threshold value was 42. The area under the ROC curve was 0.852, and small sample validation showed that sensitivity was 60%, specificity was 78.8% and accuracy rate was 76.3%. Conclusion The scale can well predict the probability of DKD developing from MAU stage to CAU stage, which is meaningful to the early prediction of DKD.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Influence of Chinese medicinals with functions of activating blood and removing toxicity on inflammatory markers and blood fat in patients with acute coronary syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention*
    Guo Ming, Gao Zhuye, Wang Peili, Shi Dazhuo
    2018, 41 (5):  423-427.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.012
    Abstract ( 381 )   PDF (1052KB) ( 184 )   Save
    Objective To observe the influence of routine statins drugs combined with Guanxin Danshen (Coronary Salvia Root) Gutta Pills and Chuanxinlian (Andrographitis) Tablet on serum inflammatory markers and blood fat in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods ACS patient (n=40) were randomly divided into control group and treatment group (each n=20) after PCI. The control group was treated with basic therapy of Western medicine and statins, and treatment group was additionally given Guanxin Danshen Gutta Pills and Chuanxinlian Tablet for 30 d. The levels of serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and blood fat were detected by using ELISA, and integrals of blood stasis pattern were calculated. Results The levels of hs-CRP and TNF-α decreased significantly in 2 groups after treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and difference between 2 groups had statistical significance after treatment (P<0.01). The level of serum total cholesterol (TC) decreased significantly and level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C increased in treatment group (P<0.05). The integrals of blood stasis pattern decreased significantly in treatment group after treatment (P<0.01). Conclusion Guanxin Danshen Gutta Pills and Chuanxinlian Tablet, with effects of activating blood and removing toxicity, can further reduce the levels of inflammatory markers, hs-CRP and TNF-α, relieve blood stasis and assist to control blood fat in patients with ACS after PCI.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Influence of Peiyuan Tongluo Fang on clinical efficacy and micro-inflammation state in patients with diabetic kidney disease*
    Liu Hong, Xiong Weijian, Li Ying, Zhong Lingyun, Zhou Xiaoli, Zheng Xin
    2018, 41 (5):  428-433.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.013
    Abstract ( 388 )   PDF (1074KB) ( 296 )   Save
    Objective To observe the influence of Peiyuan Tongluo Fang (Qi-tonifying Collateral-dredging Decoction, PTF) on clinical efficacy and micro-inflammation state in patients with phase IV diabetic kidney disease (DKD), and investigate the mechanism of PTF in treatment of DKD. Methods Phase IV DKD patients (n=106) were randomly divided into treatment group and control group (each n=53). There were actually 98 patients had complete treatment in 2 groups (each n=49). Besides of basic therapy, the treatment group was treated with PTF, and control group was treated with Niaoduqing Granule for 8 weeks. The changes of TCM patterns and levels of serum creatinine (SCr), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 24 h urinary protein excretion (24 h U-pro), urinary microalbumin protein (U-Alb), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed and analyzed statistically in two groups. Results After treatment, all TCM patterns were significantly relieved (P<0.05 or P<0.01) in treatment group compared with before, which were superior to those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). After treatment, levels of SCr, 24 h U-pro and U-Alb decreased significantly (P<0.01) and eGFR level increased (P<0.05) in treatment group compared with before treatment, which were superior to those in control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). After treatment, levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α and IL-6 decreased significantly (P<0.01) in treatment group compared with before treatment, which were superior to those in control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 73.47% (36/49) in treatment group, and 44.90% (22/49) in control group (P<0.05). No adverse reactions were observed in 2 groups. Conclusion PTF combined with basic therapy of Western medicine can effectively reduce urine protein, protect kidney and alleviate micro-inflammation state in patients with phase IV DKD.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Administrative features of Chinese medicinals in treatment of diabetic macular edema*
    Hu Yuanchun, Jie Chuanhong, Wu Zhengzheng, Cai Wenjing, Wang Jianwei
    2018, 41 (5):  434-440.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2018.05.014
    Abstract ( 473 )   PDF (1534KB) ( 432 )   Save
    Objective To analyze the law of medicinals and discuss rules of clinical administration of Chinese medicinals and features of pattern differentiation and treatment in treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods The literature using TCM decoctions for treating DEM published at home and abroad were collected, analyzed and studied by applying modern computer data mining technology The core medicinals, core couplet medicinals and core medicinal combinations were analyzed, and the presicriptvons law was explored. Results A total of 54 articles were included in this study involving 99 kinds of medicinals with a total frequency of 540 counts. The top ten frequent single medicinals were Fuling (Indian Bread, Poria), Zexie (Oriental Waterplantain Rhizome, Rhizoma Alismatis), Huangqi (Milkvetch Root, Radix Astragali seu Hedysari), Danggui (Chinese Angelica, Radix Angelicae Sinensis), Chuanxiong (Sichuan Lovage Rhizome, Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong), Zhuling (Chuling, Polyporus), Shengdihuang (Unprocessed Rehmannia Root, Radix Rehmanniae Recens), Baizhu (White Atractylodes Rhizome, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), Danshen (Salvia Root, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), and Cheqianzi (Plantain Seed, Semen Plantaginis). There were 19 types of TCM patterns, which were divided into 3 categories: phlegm-stasis obstruction, spleen deficiency and water retention, and qi-blood and yin-yang deficiency. The top four couplet medicinals according to association rules were Fuling-Huangqi, Fuling-Zexie, Chuanxiong-Danggui, Fuling-Danggui. The top three-medicinal combinations according to association rules were Fuling-Chuanxiong-Danggui, Zexie-Danggui-Fuling, and Fuling-Zexie-Huangqi. The top three four-medicinal combinations according to association rules were Zexie-Chuanxiong-Danggui-Fuling, Chuanxiong-Danggui+Huangqi+Fuling, and Zexie-Danggui-Huangqi-Fuling. Conclusion DME was treated mainly with medicinals with effects of tonifying qi and inducing dieresis, and with medicinals with effects of activating blood and enriching blood to supplement. The TCM pathogenesis of DME is qi-blood and yin-yang deficiency leading to internal water retention, binding of phlegm-stasis and obstruction of ocular collaterals over the time.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics