主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    28 February 2019, Volume 42 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Theoretical Studies
    The metaphor analysis of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” in TCM formula based on the concept of “a prescription being a state”
    Ma Sisi, Jia Chunhua, Guo Jin
    2019, 42 (2):  93-98.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.001
    Abstract ( 506 )   PDF (1942KB) ( 306 )   Save
    Objective To explore the metaphorical nature of the “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” theory in TCM formula. Methods In this paper, we use the method of metaphorical cognition to explore the cognitive process and application of the theory of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” in TCM Formula. Results It is found that from the perspective of official system, “monarch-minister-assistant-envoy” composition is a three-level structure characterized “monarch-minister-assistant”. The core of the “monarch-minister-assistant-envoy” formula is the relationship between monarch and minister. There are different levels of spatial metaphor in the concept of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy”. Firstly, the effect of medicinals on the main pattern is a three-level gradient spatial metaphor; Secondly, the importance of disease and manifestations is another three-level gradient spatial metaphor. There is no way to apply the “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” theory without analyzing the importance of the disease and its manifestations. Medicinal gradient is based on the recognition of symptom gradient. Conclusion It is concluded that the essence of “monarch, minister, assistant and envoy” metaphor is the mapping of human conceptual thinking from the field of social system to the field of formula based on spatial metaphor. The essence of metaphor is pathway-sharing and chaos-sorting. Therefore, the theoretical system of TCM based on metaphor can guide the clinical practice of “taking unblockage as harmony” and “taking balance as the goal”.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Study on identification and intervention of composite constitutions
    Sun Pengcheng, Wang Ji, Yang Peiying, Wang Qi
    2019, 42 (2):  99-102.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.002
    Abstract ( 492 )   PDF (1230KB) ( 215 )   Save
    Composite constitution is prevalent among people. Its complexity makes it difficult to identify or intervene; therefore, this is one of the most difficult problems in today’s TCM constitution study. This article proposes the idea of further analyzing composite constitution with the help of auxiliary analysis scale, finding out the dominant constitution, and classifying it into nine basic constitution types. For particular composite constitution, this article puts forward corresponding methods to intervene. For constitutions that don’t contradict each other, they should be intervened equally; while for contradictory constitutions, the dominant constitution should get more intervention. Another important rule is that, during the whole intervention, the vital qi should be supported gradually. This proposal could serve as a reference for new approaches to the identification and intervention of composite constitution.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Textual Research
    Study on Shen Tong and his book Shigu
    Yan Minmin, Huang Zuozhen
    2019, 42 (2):  103-108.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.003
    Abstract ( 484 )   PDF (1379KB) ( 355 )   Save
    Shen Tong is a scholar of Qing Dynasty in classics study and textual criticism. He kept close contacts with masters of classics such as Hui Dong and Fang Bao. Xu Lingtai, a famous doctor in the Qing Dynasty, was his fellow townsman. He had lived in Xu’s hospital for a period of time, during which an acupuncturist asked him some questions about acupoint. Since he was ashamed of his ignorance of the structure of human body and worried about the erroneous exposition that had been circulated since the Tang Dynasty, he decided to write the book later known as Shigu. Shigu (Explaining bones) is a TCM anatomy book on bones. The main contents in this book included the names, locations and appearances of bones in all parts of body which had been mentioned in Huangdi’s Internal Classics and AB Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. The exegesis and styles of this book are characterized by the statement that ”to confirm the word by classics, and explain classics with the word”. Although short in length, it had a profound influence. It was first published in Sixteenth years of Emperor Qianlong in Qing Dynasty (1751), and spread to Japan soon after its publication, becoming an important reference book for acupuncture and moxibustion as well as the explanation of Huangdi’s Internal Classics. It is of great significance in the history of TCM anatomy.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Textual research of the Chinese character bi in clause 32 of Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases
    Yang Xingliang, Yang Dongfang, Wang Cuicui
    2019, 42 (2):  109-112.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.004
    Abstract ( 479 )   PDF (1226KB) ( 209 )   Save
    Since ancient times, TCM scholars have had different interpretation of the Chinese character bi (必) in clause 32 of Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases (Shanghan Lun) of Song Dynasty Edition. Most of these explanations defined it as “must”. Some however argued that bi meant “if” and represented a hypothetical relationship. This paper used textual criticism and annotation through using exegesis method and documentation records, and arrived at the conclusion that the meaning of bi should be “if”. This conclusion had practical significance in the understanding of the text.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Science & Technology Theme
    Comparative study on the biological indicators of chronic heart failure with different patterns based on neural network modeling
    Wang Juan, Zhao Huihui, Chen Jianxin, Luo Liangtao, Fu Bangze, Zhu Bin, Wang Wei
    2019, 42 (2):  113-119.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.005
    Abstract ( 393 )   PDF (3795KB) ( 125 )   Save
    Objective To explore the combined model of physicochemical index information of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with different patterns and its biological significance, CytoScape software and neural network mining methods were used to construct the diagnostic model of multiple systematic physicochemical index information of yin-deficiency-pattern and yang-deficiency-pattern CHF. Methods 100 CHF patients’ four diagnostic information and biological samples were collected for the detection of multiple systematic physicochemical indexes. On the basis of the analysis of the differential indicators, the correlation analysis and data modeling were carried out with CytoScape software and data mining method of neural network to form a diagnosis model of multiple systematic physical and chemical indicators for patients with different syndromes of CHF. Results The physical and chemical indexes with statistical significance of yin deficiency and yang deficiency were screened out with the above methods; the neural network data mining and modeling were conducted accordingly. Conclusion The neural network data mining method can not only be used for the modeling and analysis of clinical physicochemical index information of CHF patients, but also can deeply explore and reveal the multi-system physicochemical index information related to different patterns of CHF, providing references for the in-depth exploration of the biological basis of different TCM patterns of CHF.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Analysis of the pile-work-training-induced self-balancing effect by biomechanical information
    Chen Yue, Wei Zeren, Guo Yu, Hu Qingchuan, Zhang Jialei, Yan Jian, Zhang Lin, Wang Ying, Guo Jiamei, Cho Bumsak, Huo Cheol, Wei Yulong
    2019, 42 (2):  120-125.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.006
    Abstract ( 359 )   PDF (1350KB) ( 180 )   Save
    Objective To Analyze and explore the biomechanical characteristics of pile-work-training-induced self-balancing effects. Methods Sixty college students were recruited as volunteers, and their basic information were similar. They were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group received three-circle standing qigong group training intervention for 12 weeks, five times a week, 30 minutes every time. The control group did not experience any treatment, and their living environment was identical to the experimental group. Total lengths of body center movement trajectory and 90 percent change in the elliptical area of two groups were measured and compared with plantar pressure measurement instrument before and after performing three-circle standing Qigong training.Results Standing with both eyes open state: Total Traveled Way (TTW) in the intervention group after training was significantly higher than that before training, and Ellipse Area (EA) figure was significantly lower than that before training, as there was no significant difference between before and after training in the Total Traveled Way (TTW) and Ellipse Area (EA) figure for the control group. Standing with both eyes closed state: The intervention group’s Total Traveled Way (TTW) value after training was clearly higher compared with before training, and Ellipse Area (EA) figure was lower than before training. furthermore, the controlled group did not show any variations in Total Traveled Way (TTW) and Ellipse Area (EA) figure from the training. However, the controlled group’s Ellipse Area (EA) figure increased significantly from the statistical aspect. Conclusion Three-circle standing qigong has characteristics of right and left, front and back symmetry, which can improve and strengthen the individual’s consciousness “body care”, and adjust the spinal balance ability by improving the back and lower limb muscle.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Chinese Medicinal Pharmacology
    Protective effects of sagittaria sagittifolin polysaccharide on isoniazid/rifampicin-induced apoptosis of mouse liver cells
    Han Yue, Wang Jing, Zhang Yuanyuan, Ke Xiuhui, Zhang Cong, Wang Yichen, Li Menghui, Liao Yan
    2019, 42 (2):  126-130.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.007
    Abstract ( 363 )   PDF (1993KB) ( 123 )   Save
    Objective To explore the effects of sagittaria sagittifolin polysaccharide (SSP) on the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in isoniazid (INH)/rifampicin (RfP)-induced hepatic injury liver cells in mice. Methods Models of live injured mice were induced with INH/RFP. Liver tissues pathology was observed by using HE staining to determine the optimal SSP dose. RT-PCR and Western-blot assay were used to measure the levels of mRNA and protein of Bax and Bcl-2. Results Compared with the control group, liver tissues of mice from the model group presented with significant changes. The expression of Bcl-2 significantly increased in mice, and Bcl-2/Bax decreased (P<0.05). Compared with model group, pathological changes of liver tissues were alleviated in all SSP treated groups, especially in high-dose group. Expression of Bax decreased, expression of Bcl-2 significantly increased and Bcl-2/Bax increased in mouse liver cells (P<0.05). Conclusion SSP may protect liver cells against INH/RFP induced apoptosis by inhibiting the expression of Bax as well as increasing the expression of Bcl-2.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Effects and mechanism of flavonoid of semen cuscutae on proliferation and differentiation of sertoli cell in young rats
    Hu Suqin, Guo Jian, Jian Guoxuejiao, Liu Sijia, Li Chunrui
    2019, 42 (2):  131-137.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.008
    Abstract ( 354 )   PDF (1992KB) ( 116 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the effects and mechanism of flavonoid of semen cuscutae (FSC) on proliferation and differentiation of Sertoli cells in young rats. Methods Sertoli cell were cultured in vitro after separated from testes of 20 days SD rats. And they were randomly divided into four groups: control group, low-dose (200 mg/L) FSC group, mid-dose (400 mg/L) FSC group, and high-dose (800 mg/L) FSC group. MTT assay was used to observe cell proliferation rate. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the positive signals of Ki67. The protein level of p-Akt, Akt, androgen receptor (AR) and CK18 was measured by using Western Blot assay. Results Compared with the control group, the proliferation rate of low-dose, mid-dose and high-dose groups significant manner increased (P<0.01). The positive signals of Ki67,the protein level of AR and p-Akt/Akt in FSC groups significantly increased (P<0.01) while the level of CK-18 significantly decreased (P<0.01) in dose-dependent manner(P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion FSC may promote proliferation and differentiation of sertoli cells in young rats by regulating the level of AR, activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and increasing the phosphorylation of Akt.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    A co-immunoprecipitation based exploration of the interaction between SOCS1 and IRAKs and regulatory effects of Ditan Zhuyu Decoction on hepatic stress injury in rats with acute intracerebral hemorrhage
    Ma Di, Wang Wei, Xu Xiaoying, Zhang Xiujing, Wang Shuai, Zhao Haibin
    2019, 42 (2):  138-142.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.009
    Abstract ( 345 )   PDF (1757KB) ( 113 )   Save
    Objective To study the interaction between suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) and the regulatory effects of Ditan Tongyu (phlegm-eliminating stasis-removing, DTTY) Decoction. Methods SD rats were randomly divided into cerebral hemorrhage group, DTTY group and normal group. To establish the model of rats with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (AICH), co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) assay was used to detect interaction between SOCS1 and IRAK-1, IRAK-2, IRAK-4 and IRAK-M; pathological staining of liver tissue in each group at different time phase was observed. Results SOCS1 interacted with IRAK-1, IRAK-2, IRAK-4 and IRAK-M, which played a protective role in AICH rats with hepatic stress injury. Meanwhile, Ditan Zhuyu Decoction appeared to affect SOCS1-IRAKs interaction. Conclusion SOCS1 can interact with IRAK-2, IRAK-4 and IRAK-M, which may inhibit the inflammatory cascade reaction in Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) cells and play a key role in liver damage protection. Ditan Tongyu Decoction can effectively improve the histopathological structure of liver tissue, which is an important way to prevent and treat the stress liver injury with cerebral hemorrhage.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Exploring yang-warming mechanism of aconite based on network pharmacology
    Zhang Xuqing, Li Sai, Peng Lan, Wang Zhiqi, Zeng Rong, Ren Weiqiong, Deng Kaiwen
    2019, 42 (2):  143-148.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.010
    Abstract ( 405 )   PDF (2479KB) ( 189 )   Save
    Objective To explore the possible mechanism of aconite for the warming yang effect by using network pharmacology method. Methods With heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis as disease models, the TCMSP database was used to select the aconite active ingredients and the corresponding targets by bioavailability (OB) and drug similarity (DL). At the same time, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis diseases targets were searched by using the HPO (The Human Phenotype Ontology) database. And then “aconite component-potential target-heart failure” and “aconite component-potential target-rheumatoid arthritis” networks were constructed through STRING database. The above networks were visualized by using Cytoscape software. According to the parameters of the node degree, the closeness and link degree of node, the key nodes of the two disease networks were obtained. Finally, the key nodes were analyzed by using the GATHER database platform for KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) gene function enrichment analysis. Results The network of “aconite component-potential target-heart failure” included 146 nodes and 53 key nodes. The network of“aconite component-potential target-rheumatoid arthritis” contained 26 nodes and 10 key nodes. Two KEGG pathways were related to heart failure and three KEGG pathways were related to rheumatoid arthritis. The prostaglandin (PGs) and leukotriene (PGs) metabolic pathways were the same pathways of two diseases. Conclusion According to the results of network pharmacology research, the yang-warming mechanism of aconite may be related to the PGs and LTs metabolic pathways.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Drug Evaluation
    Causes of drug-induced liver injury (including Chinese medicinals)
    Jiang Miao, Fang zhonghong, Liu Yujuan, Jiang Linghai, Ren Weifang
    2019, 42 (2):  149-159.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.011
    Abstract ( 374 )   PDF (1575KB) ( 206 )   Save
    Objective To summarize the causes and characteristics of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and thus propose the principles for DILI reports, esp., of Chinese herbs based on comprehensive investigation of drug administration data. Methods From January 2012 to December 2015, we exhaustively investigated the complete medication data of 60 DILI inpatients one by one, and the culprit-drugs of DILI were identified. The medication data before hospitalization and the data of liver function and liver chemistries tested were sorted, analyzed and summarized. In this way the factors for DILI, and its characterization were reported. The DILI drugs was determined by the time relationship between incident of DILI and the time of culprit-drug administration: the elevation of liver enzymes or worsening of liver function, and abnormal symptoms following drug administration; and liver enzymes lowered and abnormal symptoms relieved after discontinuation of the drugs.Results The average age of DILI patients was 63.1 years old. After excluding DILI itself, 60 (100%) patients had ≥1 diseases, 56 (93.3%) patients had ≥2 diseases. The average number of diseases per patient was 3.3. The average number of drugs administered per patient was 5.7. In the major causes of DILI, there were 27 cases due to NSAIDs, accounting for 45.0%, as the first cause of DILI; and there were 2 cases due to Chinese herbal monotherapy, accounting for 3.3%. In all DILI patients, there were 55, accounting for 91.7% with albumin below the average normal level; there were 58, accounting for 96.7% with prealbumin below the average normal level; there were 30, accounting for 50% with fibrinogen below the average normal level; and there were 53, accounting for 88.3% with hemoglobin below the average normal level. Antithrombin activity was tested in 45 patients, there were 30, accounting for 66.7% with antithrombin activity below the average normal level. Conclusion NSAIDs are the first cause of DILI. DILI patients were mostly the elderly population with multiple diseases and had a long-term administration of multiple drugs, and had asymptomatic potential liver injury. The majority were with chronic liver injury presented by lowered albumin level, and with recent liver injury by lowered prealbumin level. In view of background complexity and the multi-drug use history in DILI patients, the surveying, analysis and attribution of DILI causes must be cautious to confirm the real causative drugs. We propose to strengthen the normative of DILI reports. DILI. It is necessary to provide the exact information of pharmaceuticals: the usage of the pharmaceuticals, the formal manufacturer and the batch numbers, and etc. The results of this study suggest that in reporting DILI, we must be careful in drug source checking, surveying, and attribution, especially for Traditional Chinese Medicine. If it is for the toxicity of medicinal plants, sufficient professional identification information, or the source of the Chinese herbs must be presented for verification.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Acupuncture & Moxibustion
    Effects of meridian ligation on the rat visceral morphology and coefficient
    Ye Fengyao, Wang Yanping, Zhang Weibo, She Ruiping, Liu Tianlong, Jia Shuyong, Wang Guangjun, Song Xiaojing, Li Hongyan, Huang Yan, Gu Xin
    2019, 42 (2):  160-166.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.012
    Abstract ( 329 )   PDF (2386KB) ( 115 )   Save
    Objective To explore the method of blocking the low flow hydraulic resistance channel along meridians with ligation in rats and to make blocked-menidian model observe the effects on the morphology and organ coefficients in rats. Methods 31 male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (Control group[CG] =10, Ligation on The Stomach Meridian group[LSTMG] =10, Ligation on The Kidney Meridian group[LKIMG] =11). A pathological situation of blocked meridian was made by ligation of the low hydraulic resistance channels along stomach meridian and kidney meridian. The viscera coefficient and the situation of dissection were observed in the seventh week after channel blocked. Results Compared with CG, the cardiac and renal coefficient of the STMG were increased significantly (P<0.05) and the adrenal coefficient of the KIMG was also increased significantly(P<0.01). The epididymis coefficient of the KIMG was decreased significantly(P<0.01) and prostate coefficient showed the same changes (P<0.05). In the gross anatomy observation, the shape and size of heart, kidney and testicles presented abnormal, abdominal hematoma was discovered in the STMG. A rat in the KIMG presented abnormal structure of the main viscera while other rats mainly changed in the seminal vesicle, epididymis and caecum. Conclusion The pathological model of blocked meridian established by ligating has an effect on the main organs of rats. This finding further validates the relationship between meridians and viscera.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Influence of Erbu Zhuyu Tang on endometrial ultrasound indexes in patients with repeated failures of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer
    Shen Mengmeng, Liu Yanfeng, Liang Jialing, Pan Xue, Xu Xiuli
    2019, 42 (2):  167-170.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.013
    Abstract ( 335 )   PDF (1270KB) ( 130 )   Save
    Objective To observe the influence of Erbu Zhuyu Tang (Double Tonifying Medicinals for Helping Pregnancy Decoction, EZT) on endometrial ultrasound indexes in patients with repeated failures of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), and discuss the improvement effect of EZT on endometrial receptivity. Methods The patients (n=32) with repeated IVF-ET failures (2 times or more), except of factor of embryo quality, were chosen by using self-control test, and they were diagnosed as pattern of kidney deficiency and blood stasis with pattern differentiation of Chinese medicine. The changes of endometrial ultrasound indexes and pregnant outcomes after once again IVF were observed in the patients before and after treatment with EZT. Results Among 32 patients, one lost to follow-up and one was excluded because of non-adherence treatment, and finally 30 patients were included into statistical analysis. The endometrial thickness increased (P<0.001), and numbers of patients with type A endometrium and blood flow under the endometrium increased (P<0.001) after treatment. Salle scorse increased significantly after treatment (P<0.001). The pulse index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of bilateral uterine artery, and S/D ratio of left uterine artery decreased significantly (P<0.05, P<0.001) after treatment. The rate of again IVF-ET was 40% and clinical pregnancy rate was 33.33%. Conclusion EZT can improve blood flow of uterine artery, and endometrial receptivity in aspects of endometrial thickness, types and blood supply, which is conducive to improvement of embryo implantation and success rate of again IVF-ET.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Clinical Studies
    Association between tongue color, sublingual microcirculation and prognoses in patients with septic shock
    Gao Wei, Cao Peng, Ni Haibin, Zhang Jialiu, Zhou Dandan, Yin Liping, Zhang Feng, Zhu Qiyong
    2019, 42 (2):  171-176.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.02.014
    Abstract ( 384 )   PDF (1516KB) ( 103 )   Save
    Objective To study the sublingual microcirculation in patients suffering from septic shock with different tongue colors, and explore the relationship between tongue colors and prognoses. Methods A prospective observational study was carried out. Patients with septic shock admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine affiliated to Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine from May 2017 to May 2018 with completed medical records were selected. The patients were divided into two groups (red-tongue group and purple-tongue group) based on tongue colors at 6h after initial resuscitation. Total vessel density (TVD), perfused vessel density (PVD), proportion of perfused vessel (PPV), and microvascular flow index (MFI) were detected with sublingual sidestream dark-field (SDF) technology. Sublingual microcirculatory and prognoses in two group groups were compared according to above parameters. Results There were 59 patients in two groups, red tongue color group (RTC, n =34), and purple tongue color group (PTC, n =25). Compared with RTC group, APACHE II score, SOFA score and arterial lactate in PTC group were significantly higher; PTC group had a significantly higher 28-day mortality rate. Compared with RTC group, TVD, PVD, PPV, and MFI were significantly lower in PTC group. Purple tongue color and arterial lactate level had close relationship with mortality according to multivariate logistic analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated survival rate of 28-day in the PTC was significantly lower than that in RTC (P<0.001). Conclusion Tongue color may correlate with sublingual microcirculation and prognoses. It can be used to estimate survival rate in 28 days of patients with septic shock.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics