主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    30 September 2019, Volume 42 Issue 9 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Qi Forum
    Exploration of primordial qi in TCM*
    Li Zhihui, Wang Xiaoping
    2019, 42 (9):  709-712.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.001
    Abstract ( 594 )   PDF (1265KB) ( 405 )   Save
    The article puts forward that primordial qi refers to prenatal qi and original qi denotes both prenatal qi and postnatal qi. It expounds the connotation of the primordial qi in TCM and its relationship with the original qi. Firstly, the article argues that it is necessary to propose the concept of primordial qi in view of the ambiguity of the concept of the original qi. Secondly, it analyzes that primordial qi means the prenatal qi of the life gate and that it is the prenatal source, primordial driving force and the essence of healthy qi. Finally, it differentiates the primordial qi from the original qi in terms of their connotations, their prenatal and postnatal attributes, their yin and yang attributes, and treatments for their diseases.
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    Theoretical Studies
    Clarification of the original and extended meaning of Zhang Zhongjing’s original text——Taking “chuang jia” as an example*
    Dou Dou, Zhong Xianggen
    2019, 42 (9):  713-719.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.002
    Abstract ( 435 )   PDF (1240KB) ( 343 )   Save
    By analyzing relevant ancient literature, this article has proved that the original meaning of “疮” (chuang) is “wounded”, and the original meaning of “家” (jia) is “patient” in the sentence “疮家,虽身疼痛,不可发汗,汗出则痉” from Essentials from the Golden Cabinet. The original meaning of the whole sentence is “when wounded patients feel painful in the body, they should not take herbs of diaphoretic property, because sweating can cause convulsion.” The paper has collected the annotations of this sentence from historical literature by annotators in the Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties and the Republic of China, and analyzed the change in the annotations in different times and its relation with the times. It can be seen from this example that the interpretation of Zhang Zhongjing’s original text has changed in different times. It is necessary to analyze the original meaning of the sentence and its various annotations in different times by referring to the original linguistic and social contexts. This article also puts forward the method and significance of clarifying the original meaning by Zhang Zhongjing.
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    Discussion of the connotation of “zi hua yuan” in the chapter “Liuyuan Zhengji Dalun” in Suwen from the perspective of generation and restriction relationships among the five zang-organs*
    Shi Yuqi, Liu Jin, Zhang Xi, Zhu Bo, Zhang Shaoqiang, Li Xiaofeng, Wang Xiaofei, Du Wuxun
    2019, 42 (9):  720-724.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.003
    Abstract ( 803 )   PDF (1213KB) ( 319 )   Save
    The concept “zi hua yuan” mentioned in the chapter “Liuyuan Zhengji Dalun” (Major Discussion on the Progress of the Six Climatic Changes) in Suwen(Simple Conversation), had different meanings according to different TCM physicians in history.Some believed that it means enriching the restricted one in “si tian” (celestial control) and “zai quan” (terrestrial effect) of the year, some believed that it means enriching the mother-phase qi of the constrained zang-organ, and other scholars believed that it means enriching the source of transformation of organs like spleen and kidney.Based on an analysis of understanding and development of concept by various TCM physicians,this paper explores the connotation of “zi hua yuan” from the perspective of the relationships of generation and restriction among the five zang-organs. To interpret the connotation of “zi hua yuan” from such perspective provides a brand new way of understanding not only because the appropriate month is selected for enriching the source of transformation according to the five-element attributes of “si tian”and “zai quan” of the year, but also an overall balance among the five zang-organs is maintained based on the relationship among them.
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    A preliminary study on academic thoughts of reproduction in Zhulinsi Nvke Zhengzhi*
    Zhang Zuoliang, Wu Quansheng, Liang Li, Zhang Ruifang, Li Minglan
    2019, 42 (9):  725-729.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.004
    Abstract ( 408 )   PDF (1145KB) ( 253 )   Save
    As an embodiment of Buddhist medicine and Zhejiang school of TCM gynecology, Zhulinsi Nvke Zhengzhi (Bamboo Forest Temple’s Book on Gynecology Pattern and Treatment) enjoys a high academic status in the field of TCM gynecology and even the whole field of Chinese medicine with its long history and far-reaching influence. Based on a research into and understanding of the complete and unique system of the academic thoughts on reproduction in the collection, this paper summarizes the ideas in the following five points, i.e. treating man first, taking tonics, timing fertilization, taking medicine and eating food with caution, and preventing miscarriage. In addition, the paper analyzes the etiology and pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, pattern differentiation and treatment, and medicinals, formulas and their modifications of 14 types of male infertility and 11 types of female infertility discussed in the collection. An overview of the collection is also given concerning such academic thoughts as treating man first, advocating abstinence, and regulating mood, which play an important role in the process of reproduction. Such ancient ideas are still relevant to contemporary clinical treatment of infertility, and thus further clinical research, teaching, and practice are warranted.
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    Textual Research
    A study on acupoint selection for supplementation/drainage needling in the chapter “Zhongshi” in Lingshu*
    Yao Xin, Liu Zhenguo, Huang Zuozhen
    2019, 42 (9):  730-733.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.005
    Abstract ( 420 )   PDF (1207KB) ( 291 )   Save
    This paper analyzes literature on acupoint selection for supplementation/drainage needling in the chapter “Zongshi” (Beginning and Ending) in Lingshu (Spiritual Pivot), and explores the actual meaning of texts related to the location of acupoints for supplementation/drainage needling, the way of acupoint selection, and the specific manipulation. According to the results of literature analysis, it is believed that the positions for supplementation/drainage needling are the starting acupoints of the meridians, i.e. the benshu (original acupoints), rather than the meridians based on conventional understanding. For example, “foot shaoyang” in “draining foot shaoyang and supplementing foot jueyin” refers to the original acupoint of the foot shaoyang gallbladder meridian rather than the meridian itself. The specific needling manipulation “two drainage and one supplementation” means draining the original acupoint of the yang meridian twice and supplementing the original acupoint of the yin meridian once; “two supplementation and one drainage” means supplementing the original acupoint of the yang meridian twice and draining the original acupoint of the yin meridian once. In addition, the original acupoint in this context denotes only one acupoint (the starting acupoint) according to its original meaning, rather than the five transport points, a prevalent explanation at that time. The locations of the original acupoints in the meridians are specified in the chapter “Weiqi” (Defense Qi) in Lingshu. It is hoped that the paper has helped to clarify the actual needling manipulation in “Zhongshi”.
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    Exploration and analysis of an ancient Japanese classic on materia medica Bencao Gangmu Junheng*
    Sun Qingwei, Xiao Yongzhi
    2019, 42 (9):  734-737.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.006
    Abstract ( 349 )   PDF (1210KB) ( 179 )   Save
    Bencao Gangmu Junheng (Evaluation of The Grand Compendium of Materia Medica) is an ancient classic on materia medica compiled by Japanese physician Motohide Mukai in the Edo period (1603-1868). He conducted detailed textual research, interpretation and correction of 247 Chinese medicinal herbs in 14 categories taken from Li Shizhen’s Bencao Gangmu (The Grand Compendium of Materia Medica) published in 1590 in China. He believed that there were some mistakes in Bencao Gangmu, so he conducted an extensive textual research mainly based on Chongxiu Zhenghe Jingshi Zhenglei Beiyong Bencao (The Revised Zhenghe Classified Materia Medica from Historical Classics for Emergency) in order to evaluate Bencao Gangmu, correct its errors and make up for its omissions. The present research summarizes his main arguments as follows. The major problems with Bencao Gangmu were wrong omissions that caused misunderstanding, confusing elaborations that are biased, wrong citations that are against the original meaning, and inadequate textual research that led to inconsistency. Based on that, the paper analyzes the methods, characteristics and achievements of textual research done by Motohide Mukai.
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    A study on the volume of zhan in decoction preparation in the Song Dynasty*
    Yuan Zhen, Ma Ran, Zhang Lin
    2019, 42 (9):  738-741.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.007
    Abstract ( 530 )   PDF (1142KB) ( 490 )   Save
    This article explores the unit of volume measurement zhan (盏) used to explain decoction preparation based on relevant records in literature in the Song Dynasty in combination with the actual historical relic zhan. The conversion between two units of volume measurement sheng (升) and zhan is described in detail. It is found that there is a difference between the two units in the Song Dynasty. The present research discovers that sheng in the sentence “To use a large zhan of water means to use about one sheng of water” taken from medical books complied by the government in the Song Dynasty is a unique unit of measurement specific to the Song Dynasty, which is different from the general ancient unit sheng as some scholars believe. One sheng in the Song Dynasty equals about 702 milliliters in modern terms, and one zhan about 350 milliliters.
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    Chinese Medicinal Pharmacology
    Effects of Zishui Qinggan Lichong Granule on neurotransmitter disorder in EMs mice induced by GnRHa*
    Ma Xiaona, Xie Miao, Li Bingbing, Gheng Fafeng, Wang Xueqian, Guo Yanan, Liu Yanfeng
    2019, 42 (9):  742-752.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.008
    Abstract ( 387 )   PDF (4985KB) ( 147 )   Save
    Objective To observe the effects of Zishui Qinggan Lichong Granule (ZQLG) (Water-nourishing, Liver-heat-clearing and Chong mai-regulating Granule) on monoamine neurotransmitter in brain tissue of mice with endometriosis (EMs) induced by gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and to verify its safety by monitoring the immunological factors in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues. Methods BALB/c mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, GnRHa group, high-dose ZQLG group, mid-dose ZQLG group and low-dose ZQLG group. Except for the normal group, endometrial fragments of donated mice were injected intraperitoneally into the abdominal cavity of mice in other groups to establish the mouse model of endometriosis. Except for the normal group and the model group, GnRHa (1.4 mg/kg) was injected once subcutaneously to the other groups since the 21st day after the model establishment. From the day of subcutaneous injection of GnRHa, the high-, mid- and low-dose ZQLG groups began to receive Zishui Qinggan Lichong Granule by gavage [48, 24, 12 g/kg] for 30 days, and the normal group, model group and GnRHa group were given the same volume of saline by gavage. After the intervention, the content of 5-HT, NE and DA in brain tissue of mice in each group was detected by ELISA, and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results The contents of 5-HT, NE and DA in brain tissue after GnRHa injection were lower than those in the model group. The contents of 5-HT in brain tissue increased after ZQLG intervention in the low-, mid- and high-dose ZQLG groups(P<0.05). The contents of NE and DA in brain tissue increased in the mid- and high-dose ZQLG groups(P<0.05). Compared with model group, the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1 and MMP-2 in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues decreased and expression of TIMP-2 increased after GnRHa injection. There was no increase in TNF-α, IL-1, MMP-2 expressions or decrease in TIMP-2 expressions in any ZQLG group after intervention. Conclusion GnRHat led to a decline in the contents of such monoamine neurotransmitters as 5-HT, NE, and DA in mice brain tissue. However, Zishui Qinggan Lichong Granule can effectively increase the levels of such monoamine neurotransmitters in mice brain tissue and relieve perimenopausal neurotransmitter disorders caused by GnRHa. At the same time, it does not cause immune dysfunction in endometriosisits, delivering satisfying safety.
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    Effects of Jingui Shenqi Decoction on hypoxia due to renal fibrosis in rats and its mechanism*
    Liu Chunyan, Liang Chengqian, Gu Yihong, Yi Chun, Tang Qun
    2019, 42 (9):  753-759.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.009
    Abstract ( 436 )   PDF (3765KB) ( 122 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the effect of Jingui Shenqi (Golden Cabinet’s Kidney Qi) Decoction on hypoxia in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) rats and its mechanism. Methods 24 male SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham operated group, UUO model group, Jingui Shenqi Decoction (JSD) treatment group, and enalapril (ENP) treatment group with 6 rats in each group. The models were established by left ureter ligation. From the first day after UUO, the JSD group and ENP group were given intragastrically JSD (1.8 g/kg) and enalapril (10 mg/kg) respectively once a day. After intervention for 21 days, the rats were executed. The obstructed kidney tissues were taken and stained with HE and Masson to observe pathological changes. The expressions of Tomato Lectin, Hypoxyprobe-1 and HIF-1α were detected by immunofluorescent analysis. The protein expressions of TGF-β1, BMP-7 and HIF-1α in renal tissue were detected with Western blot. Results Compared with UUO model group, after treatment with JSD, HE and Mason staining showed that obstructive pyelomegaly was reduced, renal parenchyma became thicker, and interstitial collagen positive area was reduced. Western Blot assay showed that the protein expression of TGF-β1 decreased and that of BMP-7 increased in obstructed kidney tissues (P< 0.05). Immunofluorescence assay showed that vascular density increased, hypoxia improved, and HIF-1α expression decreased in obstructed kidney tissue (P< 0.05). Conclusion JSD can alleviate renal fibrosis in UUO rats, which may be related to its effect of ameliorating renal interstitial hypoxia.
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    Science & Technology Theme
    A study on mitophagy and AMPK/ULK1 pathway changes in quadriceps femoris in rats with spleen qi deficiency*
    Liu Wenjun, Li Zhenyu, Xu Xinzhu, Leng Xue, Chen Wenna, Mu Jingzhou, Shan Dehong
    2019, 42 (9):  760-765.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.010
    Abstract ( 364 )   PDF (2057KB) ( 133 )   Save
    Objective To investigate changes in mitophagy and Amp-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/UNC-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) pathways in quadriceps femoris in rats with spleen qi deficiency and to explore the pathogenesis of “disuse of the four limbs due to spleen qi deficiency” from the perspective of mitochondria. Methods Rats were randomly divided into the control group and spleen qi deficiency group (model group). The models were established by irregular diet and exertion and then quadriceps femoris were taken out. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content was detected by colorimetry and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by JC-1. The expressions of light chain 3-B(LC3 B), selective autophagy adaptor protein (p62) and their co-localization with mitochondria were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Finally, the expressions of AMPKα/ULK1 pathway proteins were detected by Western blot. Results Compared with the control group, ATP and MMP levels of quadriceps femoris were decreased in the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). LC3B-II protein expression and its co-localization with mitochondria were increased (all P<0.01) but p62 and its co-localization with mitochondria were decreased (all P<0.01). Both p-AMPKα/AMPKα and p-ULK1/ULK1 ratios were increased (all P<0.01). Conclusion “Limb disuse due to spleen qi deficiency” might be related to the insufficient increase in mitochondrial autophagy induced by the activation of AMPK/ULK1 pathway.
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    Chinese Medicinal Chemistry
    High-speed countercurrent chromatography based on screening of new solvent systems in separation of polyphenols compounds from olive leaves*
    Wang Yu, Xia Pengfei, Yang Xue, Duan Wenda, Quan Kaijun, Huang Xinyi, Di Duolong, Zhao Lei
    2019, 42 (9):  766-772.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.011
    Abstract ( 323 )   PDF (2761KB) ( 129 )   Save
    Objective A novel 9×9 map-based solvent selection strategy for a system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (HEMW) was applied to high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) separation of polyphenols oleuropein, luteolin-4'-O-β-D-glucoside and hydroxytyrosol from olive leaf extracts. Methods The sweet solvent system HEMW (1.2∶8.8∶1.7∶8.3,V/V) was selected by determining the distribution coefficient K values of the target compounds in four different solvent systems and establishing linear relationships between the Log K values and the number of solvent systems. The sweet solvent system HEMW (1.2∶8.8∶1.7∶8.3, V/V) was then used to separate olive leaf extracts by HSCCC, and the parameters of flow rate, rotational speed and injection volume were optimized. Results 45.8 mg oleuropein, 17.7 mg luteolin-4'-O-β-D-glucoside and 6.8 mg hydroxytyrosol were obtained from 500 mg olive leaf extracts by using the sweet solvent system HEMW (1.2∶8.8∶1.7∶8.3, V/V) with flow rate at 1.5 mL/min, rotation speed at 950 r/min and injection concentration at 20 g/L, and the purity of each of the three compounds obtained was more than 90%. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of 9×9 map-based solvent selection strategy in the field of HSCCC separation of natural products, and provides technical support for rapid screening of HSCCC solvent system and improving the efficiency of HSCCC separation and preparation of target compounds in complex systems.
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    Clinical Studies
    Relationship between pathogenesis of spleen deficiency in depression and mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder*
    Liu Shuhan, Guo Rongjuan, Yu Yao, Ren Feifei, Li Yang
    2019, 42 (9):  773-777.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.012
    Abstract ( 532 )   PDF (1151KB) ( 191 )   Save
    Depression is a syndrome characterized by low spirit, mental retardation and decreased volitional activity. As a common TCM clinical pattern related to depression, spleen deficiency is an important pathogenesis of depression. Mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder often exists in the pathophysiological process of depression. The pathogenesis of spleen deficiency is closely related to mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder. Spleen-fortifying qi-boosting medicinals have obvious effects on depression and mitochondrial damage.
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    A study on effects of different preparations of tripterygium wilfordii on antioxidant and immuno-inflammatory parameters in RA patients based on a random coefficient model*
    Guo Jinchen, Liu Jian, Wang Jian, Zhang Xiaojun, Xin Ling, Huang Dan, Zhou Qiao
    2019, 42 (9):  778-786.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.013
    Abstract ( 421 )   PDF (1256KB) ( 177 )   Save
    Objective To observe the effects of different preparations of tripterygium wilfordii on antioxidant and immuno-inflammatory parameters in patients with rheumatoid arthritis(RA). Methods The case records were collected of RA inpatients treated with compound tripterygium wilfordii (Xinfeng Capsule) and single tripterygium wilfordii (Tripterygium Wilfordii Polyglycoside Tablet) from May 2012 to December 2018 in Rheumatology Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui University of Chinese Medicine. SPSS 22.0 was used to analyze the changes in antioxidant and immuno-inflammatory parameters and other parameters of the two groups of RA patients. SPSS Clementine 14.2 software Apriori module and ORACLE 10g were used to identify associations and random walk model was used to evaluate the associations. Results The IgA, IgM, CCP-AB, Hs-CRP and ESR were all decreased after treatment compared with before treatment of the two groups of RA patients (P<0.01). Both Xinfeng Capsule and Tripterygium Wilfordii Polyglycoside Tablet have obvious correlation with the improvement of immuno-inflammatory parameters and other parameters. The correlation confidence of Xinfeng Capsule and the improvement of parameters like SOD, IgA, IgG, IgM, RF, CCP-AB, Hs-CRP, and ESR is significantly higher than that of Tripterygium Wilfordii Polyglycoside Tablet, and the correlation confidence of Xinfeng Capsule used in combination with such Chinese medicinal herbs as astragalus, polyporus, and alismatis and the improvement of parameters like SOD, IgM, and CCP-AB is significantly higher than that of Tripterygium Wilfordii Polyglycoside Tablet used in combination with those herbs. Random walk model analysis: The comprehensive improvement rates of SOD, IgM, Hs-CRP and CCP-AB in the compound tripterygium wilfordii group were 35.10%, 5.37%, 27.72% and 17.97% respectively for each forward step. Corresponding improvement rates in the single tripterygium wilfordii group were 15.10%, 2.10%, 31.90% and 22.61% respectively. Conclusion Different preparations of tripterygium wilfordii can effectively improve the antioxidant immuno-inflammatory parameters of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and there is a significant correlation between oral administration of some other herbs and parameter improvement. There is a long-term correlation between the comprehensive evaluation parameters of the two groups of patients and the intervention. The comprehensive evaluation improvement of SOD and IgM in compound tripterygium wilfordii group is better than that in single tripterygium wilfordii group, and the safety is better too.
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    Comparative study on distribution of pattern elements and results of different methods of pattern differentiation in cases of non-small cell lung cancer*
    He Zuomei, Huang Huiyong, Gao Wenhui, Xu Yun, Li Liang, Shao Feng,Zeng Puhua
    2019, 42 (9):  787-792.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.09.014
    Abstract ( 381 )   PDF (1157KB) ( 149 )   Save
    Objective To explore case records of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through data mining to obtain laws of TCM pattern differentiation of NSCLC, which provide reference for clinical pattern differentiation and treatment of NSCLC. Methods This study excavated information obtained by four diagnostic methods of 7435 non-small cell lung cancer cases, and conducted pattern element differentiation through the “Wenfeng-III Chinese Medicine (Assisted) Diagnosis and Treatment System”. It also analyzed pattern elements from case records by clinicians. The distribution of pattern elements in non-small cell lung cancer was identified, and clinician pattern differentiation and “Wenfeng-III Chinese Medicine (Assisted) Diagnosis and Treatment System” pattern differentiation were compared to analyze the differences. Results An analysis of doctors’ pattern differentiation in case records showed that the elements concerning the location of the disease were mainly spleen (1910 times), and lung (1608). The elements related to the nature of the disease included mainly qi deficiency (6751), blood stasis (6572), fire (heat, toxin) (6331), yin deficiency (5657), and phlegm (1242). An analysis of pattern differentiation results obtained by “Wenfeng-III Chinese Medicine (Assisted) Diagnosis and Treatment System” showed that the elements concerning the location of the disease were mainly lung (7371), chest (1837), kidney (1417), heart (1358), and stomach (1074). The elements related to the nature of the disease included mainly yin deficiency (3507), qi deficiency (3323), phlegm (3204), blood stasis (2542), and fire (heat, toxin) (1622). Conclusion The element concerning the location of the lung cancer was primarily lung and the elements related to the nature of the disease included mainly yin deficiency, qi deficiency, phlegm, blood stasis, and fire (heat, toxin). The pattern differentiation results by “Wenfeng-III Chinese Medicine (Assisted) Diagnosis and Treatment System” are more in line with the distribution of clinical prescriptions.
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