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主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    30 October 2019, Volume 42 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Qi Forum
    Essence is the qi that can transform*
    Jia Chunhua
    2019, 42 (10):  797-801.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.001
    Abstract ( 437 )   PDF (1215KB) ( 132 )   Save
    The prototype of the concept of essential qi should be the substance with the characteristics of either gas, liquid or even solidity. With the crucial instinct of transformation, generation and change, essential qi is regarded as the origin of all things by some schools of thought, and its form is constantly changing in such a cyclic sequence: gas→liquid→solidity→gas. In the context that everything is made of qi, essential qi can be shortened as “essence”. Ancient and modern scholars use the concept of essence at different levels to explain everything on earth, from the organic and inorganic worlds to the life sciences and human sciences. Such a natural philosophical thought is mapped to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in many propositions, such as “the essence of man is the origin of life”, “man is born from essence” and so on. Essence is the material basis of human life and its physical and mental growth, which depend largely on the change instinct of essence.
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    Theoreticao Studies
    Metaphysical and ontological trends in interpreting visceral manifestation of heart since Song Dynasty*
    Gu Jianjun
    2019, 42 (10):  802-807.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.002
    Abstract ( 418 )   PDF (1090KB) ( 158 )   Save
    With the rise of Neo-Confucianism in the Song and Ming Dynasties, medical theories tended to be philosophical, among which the concepts of zang-fu organs were gradually separated from the entity significance and presented conceptually and metaphysically. The heart in TCM has been discussed in the philosophical scope. After the Song Dynasty, the TCM heart has undergone a path of complete philosophization, mainly manifested in the following aspects: the heart function is metaphysically sumarized as monarch fire; the concept of heart is expanded as a unification of the monarch fire and the ministerial fire; the heart is changed to be ontological as tai chi; the heart is no longer viewed as a physical organ. A replacement for the heart’s physical function is constantly sought, so as to lift the heart out of the “matter” level and emphasize its ontological characteristics of “Tao”, thus completing the construction of a philosophical visceral manifestation theory model. These thoughts indicate that the focus of TCM theory is ultimately transforming to the metaphysical functions of the zang-fu organs, which leads to corresponding changes in clinical pattern identification and treatment.
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    In-depth interpretation of TCM holistic concept from the perspective of “harmonizing & integrating” thinking*
    Wang Xiaoping
    2019, 42 (10):  808-812.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.003
    Abstract ( 421 )   PDF (1138KB) ( 160 )   Save
    Holistic concept and its contents are in line with traditional Chinese culture, thus differentiating itself from the “holistic concept” of Western medicine with distinct characteristics and viewpoints. The “harmonizing & integrating” thinking is the humanistic spirit universally acknowledged by the Chinese people and the most distinctive cultural concept of ancient Chinese philosophy. “harmonizing & integrating” thinking has rich connotations such as integrity, coordination, spontaneity, dynamics, and generativeness. By interpreting and analyzing the holistic concept with such a thinking, more profound connotations of that concept are uncovered. It has the basic characteristics of the original holism, and emphasizes methodologically treating the part from the overall picture; it values the coordination and order among functions and relations, rather than the connection between anatomical structures and interaction of substantial particles; it stresses self-harmonization, and incorporates it into the therapeutic principle by advocating regulating and harmonizing instead of conflicting; by underlining the multidimensional connection of time, space, body and spirit, it promotes adapting to time and vitality transformation, which differs from anatomical structure chiefly based on space. Therefore, TCM holism is proven to be a unique and valuable concept.
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    Textual Research
    Establishment of evaluation model for bidirectional intervention of angiogenesis with quail chorioallantoic membrane*
    Cui Herong, Xiang Hongjun, Fang Kang, Wang Aoao, Wang Penglong, Lei Haimin
    2019, 42 (10):  813-818.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.004
    Abstract ( 385 )   PDF (1814KB) ( 101 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo construct a rapid, visual and quantifiable method for the screening and evaluation of compounds for bidirectional intervention of angiogenesis with quail chorioallantoic membrane (qCAM) as the carrier. Methods By comparing the results of gelatin sponge, molecular sieve, rice grain, macroporous resin, silica gel particles and methyl cellulose, the conventional drug carriers were determined; by observing the development of blood vessels on qCAM afterwindow opening test, the incubation time after administration was set; by comparing the development of microvasculature in different batches,the continuous stability of the model was tested. In the reliability test of the model, DG-15 and BA-12 were selected as model drugs, and the effects of different doses of these drugs on the macromorphology and vascular count of qCAM were analyzed evaluate to eudu ate the reliabity of tho model. Results The gelatin sponge was chosen as the drug delivery carrier as it could accurately locate the drug delivery point with exact quantityand little influence on the qCAM or the drug.36 hr after the window opening test was chosen as the best time for administration as the integrity of samples would be affected when qCAM began to gradually sink into the embryo to provide nutrition on the second day after the window opening test. By comparing the microvessel counts (grade 3 + grade 4)in qCAM in different months, the development of blood vessels in qCAM was basically stable.In the reliability test, the model could be adopted to preliminarily evaluate the activity of DG-15(20 μg) in promoting angiogenesis(P<0.05),and the activity of BA-12 (20 μg) in inhibiting angiogenesis (P< 0.05). Conclusion The method established in this study could possibly be used to evaluate the bidirectional intervention effect of drugs on angiogenesis with relative reliability, and provide a screening method and basis for the research and development of active compounds on angiogenesis.
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    Chinese Medicinal Pharmacology
    Protective and therapeutic effects of YiqiJiedu Decoction on reproductive damage induced by 1 Gy 60Co γ ray in mice*
    Shi Zhongyu, Wang An, Wang Yan, Lu Xi, Li Panfei, Li Jiuqiang, Li Wei, Zhang Xiaomeng, Chen Xiaoying, He Changhao, Hu Sumin
    2019, 42 (10):  819-824.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.005
    Abstract ( 372 )   PDF (1112KB) ( 149 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo study the effects of one exposure to the 1Gy60Co γ ray on the reproductive function of male mice and the possible protective and therapeutic functions of YiqiJiedu Decoction (qi-tonifying toxin-resolvingdecoction,YQJD) for such a condition. Methods 24male Balb/c mice were randomly divided into three groups: blank,model and YQJD group (n = 8 in each group). A one-time whole-body exposure to 1Gy 60Co γ ray was given to all groups except the blank group. In the YQJD group, mice were given the decoction for 7 days in succession before irradiation, and fromd 4 to d 35 after irradiation. Mice of the blank and model groups were given deionized water respectively. During the experiment, mice were weighed daily.On d 36 after irradiation, mice in each group were put in the same cage for mating with female Balb/c mice in the ratio of 1 male to 2 females for 4 weeks.Afterwards, the conception rate, litter size and the health conditions of newborn mice were recorded.The male mice were killed on d 70 after irradiation to measure their testicular index and sperm quality. Results Compared with the blank group, the body mass of the model group decreased significantly from d 1 to d 7 after irradiation(P< 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the YQJD group and the blank group. In the 1st, 2nd to 5th, 7th and 10th week after irradiation, the average body mass of the model group decreased significantly (P< 0.05 in the 5thand 10thweek, P< 0.001 in the others); while the body mass of the YQJD group only decreased significantly in the 4th week (P< 0.001). In the 1stto 5th, 7th, 8thand 10th week after irradiation, compared to the model group, the weekly average body mass of the YQJD group significantly increased(P< 0.01 in the5th and 10th week, P< 0.001 in the others). On d 70 after irradiation, there were no significant changes in testicular index, conception rate and the body mass of the newborn mice in model and YQJD groups compared with the blank group;the sperm concentration, ability rate, motility and litter size in the model group were all significantly lower than those in the blank group (P< 0.05); however, these indicators of sperm in the YQJD group were all restored to the level equal to those in the blank group, and there was no significant difference in litter size compared with that of the blank group. Conclusion 1Gy 60Co γ ray could cause damage to the reproductive function of Balb/c male mice to a degree, andthe YQJD Decoction might have certain protective and therapeutic effects on these injuries.
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    Protective effect and its mechanism of Naotaifang on rat cortical neurons injury induced by hemoglobin*
    Zeng Jinsong, Yu Jianbai, Liu Jian, Liao Jun, Luo Gang, Zhang Zhanwei, Huang Juan, Ge Jinwen
    2019, 42 (10):  825-832.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.006
    Abstract ( 359 )   PDF (2016KB) ( 147 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo investigate the protective effect and its mechanism of Naotaifang(Brain Blood-activating Formula, NTF)on rat cortical neurons injury induced by hemoglobin(Hb) in vitro. MethodsPrimarycortical neuronsfrom newborn SD rats were cultured and induced by Hb(10micmol/L)to simulate iron overload of neurons after ICH. The cultured neurons were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, blank serum group, 10% NTF gmedicated serum roup and deferoxamine(DFX) group. Neuron viability was detected by CCK8 assay. The content of iron in neurons was detected by Calcein-AM staining. The protein expressions of transferring(Tf), transferrin receptor (TfR) and divalent metal ion transporter (DMT1) in neurons were detected by immunofluorescent staining and high content analysis (HCA). The content of lipid ROS was detected by using ELISA assay. The expressions of mRNA,Tf, TfR and DMT1 were detected with real-time PCR. Results Compared with the normal group, in the model group the neuron viability was markedly decreased(P<0.01), the iron and lipid ROS levels were significantly increased (P<0.01), and the expression of mRNA,Tf, TfR and DMT-1 were srgnificantly up-regulated(P<0.01). Compared with model group,in DFX and NTF groups, the neuron viability was srgnificantly increased(P<0.01 or P<0.05); the levels of iron and lipid ROS were significantly decreased(P<0.01); moreover, the expression levels of Tf, TfR, DMT-1 and mRNA were markedly down-regulated(P<0.01 or P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between the DFX group and 10% NTF group (P>0.05). Conclusion NTF might alleviate the iron overload and lipid ROS accumulation of Hb by regulating the iron metabolism in induced rat cortical neurons injury, so as to improve the activity of neurons. Its effect seems to be consistent with that of ferroptosis inhibitor DFX, suggesting that NTF could possibly exert neuroprotective effect by inhibiting ferroptosis of neurons after ICH.
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    Mechanism of Qingxinyin ininhibiting endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells following CVB3 infection*
    Jin Xinyao, Yu Yan, Yang Lyuhong, Liu Qiang
    2019, 42 (10):  833-840.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.007
    Abstract ( 346 )   PDF (1838KB) ( 180 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo explore the effectivenss and mechanism of Qingxinyin(Heart-clearing Formula)-containing serum (QXY serum) in inhibiting the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMVECs) following CVB3 infection by regulating the Pyk2-PI3K-AKT signal pathway. Methods Stably cultured CMVECs were infected with 100TCID50CVB3, and intervened by 20% QXY serum(intervened by Pyk2 inhibitor-TAE226 and PI3K inhibitor-LY294002 in other groups).Edothelial cells marker-CD31, mesenchymal cells marker-α-SMA, and protein and gene expression of Pyk2, PI3K, AKT were tested by using immunofluorescence (IF), Western blot (WB) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Results Compared with the blank control group, the expressions of Pyk2, PI3K, AKT (P<0.05) and CD 31 were decreased(P<0.05),but that of α-SMA was increased (P<0.05) in the model group. Compared with the blank serum group, the expressions of Pyk2, PI3K, AKT (P<0.05) and CD 31 were increased(P<0.05), but that of α-SMA was decreased (P<0.05) in the QXY group. Moreover, compared with the QXY group, in the Pyk2 inhibited group, PI3K, AKT (P<0.05) and CD31 showed lower expression, and α-SMA showed higher expression (P<0.05); while in the PI3K inhibited group, AKT (P<0.05) and CD31 showed lower expression,α-SMA showed higher expression (P<0.05), while Pyk2 showed no significant change (P>0.05). Besides, the expression trends of Pyk2, PI3K, AKT and mRNA according to PCR were consistent with western blot. Conclusion 20% QXY-containing serum seems to inhibit the EndMT of CMVECs following CVB3 infection, and one of the possible mechanisms could be through the Pyk2-PI3K-AKT signaling pathway during that process.
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    Effect of Shen Shu Ning on HBV-induced transdifferentiation of renal tubular epithelial cells*
    YangXikai,XuBing,WangYaoguang
    2019, 42 (10):  841-846.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.008
    Abstract ( 385 )   PDF (1238KB) ( 148 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo explore the possible mechanism of Shen Shu Ning (Kidney-tonifying and Liver-soothing Formula, SSN)in the intervention of HBV-induced HK-2 transdifferentiation and delay of renal interstitial fibrosis. Methods The drug-containing serum was prepared by intragastric administration of 75 C57BL/6 mice and models were made by using lipofectamineto transfect HBV to HK-2. The cells were divided into: blank serum control group, empty plasmid group, HBV group, benazepril group, SSN low concentration group, SSN middle concentration group, and SSN high concentration group. The expressions of HBsAg, HBeAg, TGF-β1, pSmad2, pSmad3, Smad7, Col-III, Col IV and FN in HK-2 cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR and Western blot. Results ELISA detection indicated that expressions of HBsAg, HBeAg and TGF-β1 were significantly increased in HBV group compared with the empty plasmid group (P<0.01). Compared with the HBV group, the expression of TGF-β1 protein was significantly decreased in the benazepril group, SSN low concentration group,SSN middle concentration group, and SSN high concentration group(P<0.001).Compared with the benazepril group, the expression of TGF-β1 in the SSN low concentration group was relatively high (P< 0.05); qPCR detection showed that, compared with the HBV group, in the benapril group, and all SSN intervention groups the expressions of Col III, Col-IV and FN mRNA were significantly decreased (P<0.001). Western blot: Compared with the HBV group, the expressions of pSmad2 and pSmad3in the benazepril group and the SSN groups were significantly decreased (P<0.001). Conclusion SSN could possibly alleviate HBV-induced transdifferentiation of human renal tubular epithelial cells and reduce the deposition of extracellular matrix by interfering with TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, thereby delaying the progression of fibrosis.
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    Effect of Xiefei Decoction on the inflammatory factors and VEGF expression in rats with pulmonary fibrosis*
    Yan Chunlu, An Fangyu, Liu Yongqi, Luo Yali, Wu Zhiwei, Liu Xuesong, Li Yang, Shi Xufeng, Zhang Xue
    2019, 42 (10):  847-853.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.009
    Abstract ( 324 )   PDF (1781KB) ( 314 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo observe the effect of Xiefei Decoction (Lung Heat-clearing Decoction, XFT) on the inflammatory factors and the expression of VEGF in lung tissue of pulmonary fibrosis rats induced by bleomycin. Methods 84 SPF SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, XFT low, middle and high-dose XFT groups and prednisone group (n = 14 in each group). Apart from the normal group, a single dose of bleomycin was intratracheally injected into the SD rats to induce pulmonary fibrosis (PF). The normal group received the same amount of normal saline. After 24 hours, low, middle and high-dose XFT groups were given a gavage of 10 g/kg·d, 20 g/kg·d and 40 g/kg·d respectively; the prednisone group was given prednisone 1.8 mg/kg·d; and the normal group and model group were given equal volume of normal saline. All rats were sacrificad after 28 days. The pathomorphism changes of lung tissue were observed with HE; the contents of IL-6 and IL-10 in serum were evaluated with ELISA; expression of VEGF gene and caspase-3 gene in lung tissue were assessed by RT-PCR; and VEGF expression in lung tissue was assessed by Western blot. Results Compared with the blank control group, the pathological score, inflammatory cell count, serum IL-6 content, and the expression of caspase-3 and VEGF in lung tissue were significantly increased, but serum IL-10 was significantly decreased in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in all XFT groups, the expression of VEGF decreased significantly; and the pathological score, inflammatory cell count, serum IL-6 contents, the gene expression of caspase-3 and VEGF were decreased significantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, the serum IL-10 content was significantly increased in XFT mid-dose and high-dose groups compared with the model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion XFT seems to delay disease progression of pulmonary fibrosis, possibly through inhibition of inflammation, apoptosis and angiogenesis.
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    Science & Technology Theme
    Determination of phenolic parts in ThymusquinquecostatusCelak by HPLC and UV-Vis*
    Fan Shusheng, Sui Hong, Chen Xiaoyi, Wang Xiuhuan, Yan Xin, Wang Le, Wang Xiaoping, Li Xiao, Xu Xiao, Li Xiang, Sun Siqi, Shen Meng, She Gaimei
    2019, 42 (10):  854-861.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.010
    Abstract ( 363 )   PDF (1918KB) ( 218 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo establish methods for the determination of active components from phenolic parts of folk medicine Thymus quinquecostatus Celak by using HPLC and UV-Vis. Methods For HPLC, scutellarin and rosmarinic acid were used as references. The mobile phase A was acetonitrile while mobile B was 0.2% formic acid. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL/min and the column temperature was maintained at 25 ℃ . 10 μL sample solutions were injected into auto sampler and monitored at 280 nm. For UV-Vis, developer dosage of K3[Fe(CN)6]-FeCl3 were chosen, rosmarinic acid was used as reference, the dosage of reagent was 2 mL, the determination time was 60 min and the detection wavelength was 760 nm. Results The linear ranges of scutellarin and rosmarinic acid were 0.019~0.592 g/L (R2=0.999), 0.999~0.280 g/L (R2=1.000), respectively. The RSDs(n=6) of precision experiment were 0.21%, 0.56%, respectively. The RSDs(n=6) of stability experiment were 0.21%, 0.56%, respectitvely. The RSDs(n=6) of reproducibility experiment were 1.35%, 1.47%, respectively, while the average adding standard recoveries were 99.42%, 95.31%, 104.49% (RSD=1.48%, 1.46%, 0.35%) and 101.23%, 102.02%, 97.62%(RSD=0.29%, 1.38%, 2.05%). The linear ranges of total polyphenolsisl 1.10~2.05 mg/L (R2=0.999). The RSD(n=6) of precision experiment was 0.97%. The RSD(n=6) of stability experiment was 1.32%. The RSD(n=6) of reproducibility experiment was 0.89%, while the average adding standard recoveries was 100.88%(RSD=1.55%). The average content of scutellarin and rosmarinic acid in all three batchesphenolic parts was 8.40% and 8.23%, respectively, while the averagecontent of total polyphenols was 47.40%.
    Conclusion Both methods were simple, accurate, specific and sensitive, and can be foundations for the development and subsequent research of T. quinquecostatus Celak.
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    Chinese Medicinal Chemistry
    Identification method of ginger-processed Pinelliaternata based on infrared spectroscopy data fusion*
    Sun Fei, Chen Yu, Wang Kaiyang,Qiu Yunqi, Wang Shumei, Liang Shengwang
    2019, 42 (10):  862-868.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.011
    Abstract ( 374 )   PDF (2748KB) ( 155 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo establish a rapid identification method for differentiating the ginger-processed Pinelliaternata from the ginger-processed Pinellia Pedatisectaby data infusion with near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy techniques. Methods 22 batches of ginger-processed Pinelliaternata and 14 batches of ginger-processed Pinellia Pedatisecta were collected, and NIR and MIRspectral data of these samples were acquired. Discriminant modelsfor the individual data and the fused data were developed with the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) method, and were evaluated by the classification accuracy (ACC). Results The ACC of PLS-DA model for NIR data was 100% in the training set and 84.62% in the test set respectively. The ACC of PLS-DA model for MIR data was 100% in the training set and 92.41% in the test set respectively. By combining NIR and MIR spectroscopy data, the ACC of PLS-DA model was 100% in both the training set and test set; moreover, after data fusion, the samples presented obvious clustering phenomenon in the latent variable space of PLS-DA model. Conclusion Such a data fusion approach might significantly improve the accuracy of infrared spectrum identification of ginger-processed Pinelliaternata and possibly provides a new research idea for identifying the ginger-processed Pinelliaternata to ensure its safety and efficacy.
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    Clinical Studies
    Establishment of TCM intelligent pattern identification model of gastroesophageal reflux disease based on machine learning*
    Cao Yun, Lu Yi, Chen Jianxin, He Ying, Liu Kaiwen, Fu Xin, Huang Jiaqin, Ding xia, Fang Lihui, Li Zhihong
    2019, 42 (10):  869-874.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.10.012
    Abstract ( 453 )   PDF (1533KB) ( 201 )   Save
    ObjectiveTo establish a TCM intelligent pattern differentiation model of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) based on Machine Learning. Methods According to TCM pattern differentiation standards, a total of 98 samples were collected from the clinical cases of GERD Gnsitent with the diagneses of stagnated heat in liver and stomach pattern, and spleen-hypofunction and reverse qi pattern. 49 samples were collected for each pattern, forming two groups. Based on a 1:1 ratio between categories, 70% of all data were used as the training set and 30% as the test set. According to the “presence” and “absence” of the information, the value “1” and “0” were respectively assigned to establish the TCM clinical information database of GERD.Then a pattern differentiation model of GERD was establishedwith the Support Vector Machine (SVM), Neural Networks (NNs) and Automatic Encoder (Autoencoder) respectively.The accuracy of pattern prediction of the three methods was compared. Results There was a statistically significant difference in BMI between the two groups (P< 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in H. pylori infection or Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) (P> 0.05).With the same training and test sample data,the recognition accuracy of those two pattern with SVM,NNs and Autoencoder+NNswere78.3%, 79.2%and 79.2% respectively. Conclusion NNs and NNS+Autoencoder model seems to be effective in diagnosis and prediction of those two patterns. Methodologically, it might be feasible to establish a TCM intelligent pattern differentiation model of GERD based on machine learning.
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    Editorial Comments
    Editorial practice of standardized statistical methods in Journal of Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine*
    Zhang Chi, Li Yan, You Haiyan, Lu Guanglin, Liang Jichun, Luo Bin
    2019, 42 (10):  875-880.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.010.013
    Abstract ( 402 )   PDF (1106KB) ( 188 )   Save
    In line with Uniform Requirement for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals issued by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), The editorial department of Journal of Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine has taken the lead in standardizing the application of statistics in the field of periodicals of traditional Chinese medicine since 2008. After more than 10 years of editorial practice, standardization has been formed in the application and expression of statistical methods and the report of statistical results. Common t-test, one-way variance test, chi-square test and repeated test of the variance analysis of quantitative data and Kruskal-Wallis H rank sum test are illustrated with examples. The most common errors are corrected, which provides a standard for ensuring the scientific nature of papers and the editing quality of periodicals.
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