主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    30 December 2019, Volume 42 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Theoretical Studies
    Study of the relationship between membrane system and defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification in traditional Chinese medicine*
    Jiang Xin, Gu Xiaohong, Liu Tiegang, Yu He, Yang Guannan
    2019, 42 (12):  973-976.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.001
    Abstract ( 480 )   PDF (1172KB) ( 283 )   Save
    Defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification,initiated by Ye Tianshi, an expert of warm disease at the end of the Ming Dynasty,was a cornerstone of the theory of warm disease. Based on years of clinical experience, it is found that the membrane system and collateral system, which are extensively distributed in the human body, are the defense-qi-nutrient-bloodcarrier and channel, replenishing and nourishing the whole body and ensuring the defense-qi-nutrient-blood physiological functions. At the same time, the membrane system is also the place where warm pathogens attack, transmit and change.In addition, the struggle between healthy qi and pathogenic factors in the membrane system determines the location, depth, urgency and pathological changes of disease.Therefore, this article explores the relationship between the membrane system and defense-qi-nutrient-blood pattern identification in terms of their connotation, physiology, pathology and treatment to provide theoretical reference for clinical practice and scientific research.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination: Decoding nutrient-defense circulation in Huangdi Neijing*
    Xing Yurui
    2019, 42 (12):  977-982.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.002
    Abstract ( 430 )   PDF (1186KB) ( 255 )   Save
    Both the point that the nutrient qi and defense qi circulate within human body fifty times during one day-night cycle and the stipulation that the duration of one session of pulse-taking should be as long as fifty pulse beats in The Spiritual Pivot probably originated from the statement in The Book of Changes that the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination is fifty. This statement, which may derive from the Number for Heaven and Earth,provided the cosmological basis for the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination and exerted profound influence on calendar and mathematics in later ages. From the perspective of the correspondence between human and universe, the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination, as the basis for denominating the timing sequence of nature, becomes the number used to regulate life activities. Therefore, the fifty times of nutrient-defense circulation and the fifty pulse beats during pulse diagnosis are probably pre-determined by the Number for the Great Expansion Method of Divination, which is fifty. Through mathematical deduction, it is calculated that the length of the 28 meridians in human body is 16.2 zhang (about 170.7 feet), the distance qi travels per breath (one inhalation and one exhalation) 6 cun (about 7.559 inches), and the number of breaths during one day-night cycle 13,500. However, such calculation may inevitably cause some theoretical contradictions and those numbers disagree with reality since they are influenced by Chinese numerology.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    On significance of ancient astronomical coordinate systems for research into doctrine of five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences*
    Meng Qingyan, Zhang Qicheng, Zhang Qingxiang, Liu Yuanyuan
    2019, 42 (12):  983-987.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.003
    Abstract ( 437 )   PDF (2006KB) ( 403 )   Save
    As an important part of TCM theory, the doctrine of the five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences involves the pattern of changes in nature based on human’s observation and life experience.The doctrine emerged when astronomy in ancient China had reached a high level of precision.Thus, this paper analyzes the characteristics of three ancient astronomical coordinate systems,which may provide some reference for current study of the doctrine.It probes into the doctrine of the five circuit phases and six atmospheric influences and corrects some mistakes in the present research on the doctrine by analyzing it in the specific context where it emerged and developed. It also deepens the connotation of the doctrine by revealing the major, essential and inevitable factors in its formation, which provides reference for the learning and theoretical study of the doctrine.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Supplement to pulse differentiation in terms of yin and yang
    Hu Nannan, Zhang Jiuliang
    2019, 42 (12):  988-992.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.004
    Abstract ( 380 )   PDF (1414KB) ( 132 )   Save
    One of the essential principles of pulse diagnosis is to differentiate the pulse in terms of yin and yang. Apart from what has been known, differentiation of pulse in terms of yin and yang also involves the following four aspects. First, rapid pulse wave at any of the three positions of radial pulse pertains to yang, while slow pulse wave pertains to yin. Second, in one pulse wave, the rising part known as “arrival” pertains to yang, while the falling part known as “departure” pertains to yin. Third, a pulse wave, including a rising part and a falling part, known as a “move”, pertains to yang, and the quiescent period between two moves known as “stillness” pertains to yin. Fourth, radial pulse at the right hand pertains to yang, while that at the left hand pertains to yin. Rapid and slow pulse waves indicate the location of the disease. Arrival and departure, and move and stillness of pulse waves can show whether yin and yang are in balance. Radial pulse at the left and right hand can tell whether qi and blood, and yin and yang are in balance or not.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research Methodology
    Reconstructing theoretical framework of Chinese medicine according to Qian Xuesen’s academic idea*
    Meng Kaitao, Zhang Zhiqiang
    2019, 42 (12):  993-997.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.005
    Abstract ( 415 )   PDF (1488KB) ( 100 )   Save
    The systems theory proposed by Mr. Qian Xuesen,different from holism and reductionism, is the dialectical unity of holism and reductionism, which not only highlights the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine, but also makes up for its shortcomings. In this sense, it points out the right development path for Chinese medicine. Mr. Qian Xuesen’s vision that the science and technology system includes four level, i.e. philosophy, basic theory, applied theory and practical technology, is perfectly applicable to Chinese medicine. In addition, philosophical science embodies new wisdom based on the 12 laws of the universe, combining philosophical speculation with logical reasoning. Through logical reasoning, we can get rid of the irrational elements of philosophical speculation and the influence of human factors (especially ideology and concepts), and reach conclusions that are completely in line with the Objective laws of development of things. Philosophical science, slightly superior to philosophical speculation, is thus indispensable for Chinese medicine. Therefore, with the guidance of Qian Xuesen’s academic idea and philosophical science, it is possible to construct an ideal theoretical framework for Chinese medicine.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Textual Research
    Digitalization of ancient books of traditional Chinese medicine with corrections and annotations*
    Wen Yongyi, Li Yajun, Wang Zhimei
    2019, 42 (12):  998-1005.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.006
    Abstract ( 362 )   PDF (1192KB) ( 152 )   Save
    As digitalization is the prerequisite for the application of big data analysis methodology, it is necessary for us to transform ancient books of Traditional Chinese Medicine with Corrections and Annotations (TCMCA) into various data types if we intend to attract more readers to use TCMCA and to encourage more research projects to be based on TCMCA. Thereby, this paper mainly discusses possible approaches to digitalize TCMCA, including corrected texts, types of source-target substitution and target texts, paving the way for analyzing ancient books with big bate.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Chinese Medicinal Pharmacology
    Prediction of toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang based on network pharmacology and with molecular docking*
    Zhang Dan, Dong Yizhu, Lyu Jintao, Zhang Xiaomeng, Lin Zhijian, Zhang Bing
    2019, 42 (12):  1006-1015.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.007
    Abstract ( 628 )   PDF (3667KB) ( 244 )   Save
    Objective To explore the potential toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang(Tripterygium Hypoglaucum Toot, Radix Tripterygium Hypoglaucum) with Methods of network pharmacology and molecular docking. Methods Literature on Kunming shanhaitang was first comprehensively searched to identify and collect its active ingredients and adverse drug reactions (ADRs), respectively. Targets of the active ingredients were then predicted with TCMSP, Swiss, and STITCH databases. Moreover, targets of ADRs were gathered through CTD database. Next, the common genes shared by the above two types of targets were submitted to STRING to obtain protein-protein interaction. In addition, GO biological function process and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were conducted on DAVID platform. Finally, molecular docking was carried out between characteristic ingredients of the herb and its key toxicity targets with systemsDock Web Site. Results A total of 21 ingredient candidates of Kunming shanhaitang involving 47 toxicity targets were identified by establishing toxic protein-protein interaction(PPI) network. PPI network enrichment analysis of the toxicity targets showed that such targets were probably closely associated with the p53 signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and some other pathways. According to the Results of molecular docking, the majority of the active ingredients in the medicinal herb enjoyed good binding activities with the toxicity targets. Conclusion This research verified preliminarily the toxicity mechanism of Kunming shanhaitang, providing new ideas and Methods for further research on the toxicity mechanism of ADRs of Chinese medicinal herbs with toxicity.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    1H-NMR-based metabolomics investigation into intervention with Chinese herbs and conventional pharmaceuticals of copper-overload-induced liver injury in rats with Wilson’s disease*
    Zhang Juan, Xie Daojun, Bao Yuancheng, Xu Jingjing, Shen Guiping, Han Hui, Dong Ting, Huang Xiaofeng
    2019, 42 (12):  1016-1023.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.008
    Abstract ( 302 )   PDF (5006KB) ( 134 )   Save
    Objective To explore the intervention mechanism of Chinese medicinal herbs and conventional pharmaceuticals on copper-overload-induced liver injury in rats with Wilson’s disease(WD). Methods 105 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups (15 in each group), including control group, model group,Gandouling(GDL)group, penicillamine group, glutathione group, model+SB203580 group,and GDL+SB203580 group.Rat models with copper overload were firstly established in 12 weeks according to relevant literature.Since the 7th week, all intervention groups were given intragastrically corresponding medicinals respectively in equivalent dose. Meanwhile, the control group and the model group were given the same volume of saline intragastrically until the models were established.Then 1HNMR metabonomics technology was used in combination with multivariate statistic analysis to elucidate the changes in liver metabolic profile caused by liver injury in rats with WD and to analyze the intervention effects of different treatments on its biomarkers. Results Obvious fibrosis was detected in copper-laden rats with WD, and liver fibrosis could be alleviated in different degrees with intervention in all treatment groups. There were an increase in metabolic content of ketones and a decrease in creatine content in the liver of the rat models.After intervention with penicillamine,there were increases in contents of glutathion, aspartic acid, creatine, amino acid, valine, tyrosine, histidine,pyrimidine and purine;with GDL and SB203580, increases in creatine and decreases in methylamine; and with glutathione and SB203580,increases in the contents of glutathione,valine, histidine, pyrimidine and purine. Conclusion Different interventions with Chinese medicinal herbs and conventional pharmaceuticals regulated metabolic disorders of such small molecules as glutathion, creatine, ketosome, amino acid, pyrimidine and purine in liver tissue of copper-laden rats with WD and hence can repair to some extent the copper-overload-induced liver injury in rats with WD.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Effect of Inula britannica flower total flavonoids on autophagy of aging L929 cells*
    Guo Zongyu, Liu Lu, Kuang Jie, Zhou Maoqiang, Guo Lei
    2019, 42 (12):  1024-1029.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.009
    Abstract ( 339 )   PDF (2091KB) ( 79 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the effect of Inula britannica flower total flavonoids (IBFTF) on autophagy of aging L929 cells by detecting the levels of autophagy in the process of senescence of L929 cells for better development of the medicinal value of IBFTF. Methods Cell senescence models were established by using D-galactose (D-gal) solutions (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L) on L929 cells to find out the most appropriate concentration of D-gal for inducing senescence in L929 cells. IBFTF solutions (25, 50, 100 mg/L) were applied to aging L929 cells to investigate the effect of IBFTF on L929 cell senescence and autophagy. The effect of D-gal on the viability of L929 cells was detected with MTT. β-galactosidase staining was used to detect the effect of D-gal at different concentrations on the senescence process of L929 cells. Fluorescence microscopy was used to detect the effect of IBFTF on ROS production in senescent L929 cells. The effects of IBFTF on the number of lysosomes and the expression of LC3 protein in senescent L929 cells were examined with acridine orange staining and immunofluorescence. The levels of autophagy-related proteins were detected with Western-Blot. Results IBFTF delayed the senescence process of aging L929 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the autophagy level of L929 cells also increased in a dose-dependent manner during the aging delay process. Conclusion IBFTF delayed the senescence of D-gal-induced senescent cells, which may be related to the elevated levels of autophagy.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Science & Technology Theme
    Study of medicinal herbs in tranquilizing heyi formulas in Mongolian medicine*
    Chen Chaoguang, Tong Haiying, Chen Luyao, Wu Xiaodan, Bao Wuye, HU Rilebagen, WU Lanqiqige, Huang Xianju, Cui Jingwen
    2019, 42 (12):  1030-1037.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.010
    Abstract ( 363 )   PDF (1145KB) ( 246 )   Save
    Objective To explore the pattern of the use of medicinal herbs in tranquilizing heyi (transliteration of the formula name in Mongolian, meaning regulating qi movement) formulas in Mongolian medicine. Methods Tranquilizing heyi formulas were collected, sorted out and screened from Chinese Medical Encyclopedia: Mongolian Medicine, Traditional Mongolian Materia Medica and Formulas, Pharmaceutical Standards of the Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China:Mongolian Materia Medica,Standards for Mongolian Patent Medicine in Inner Mongolia, and Medical Formulas (Mongolian medicine textbook, in Mongolian language). Frequency data were analyzed in terms of the frequency of use of particular herbs, herb classification, medicinal properties, six medicinal flavors, medicinal effects and correlation analysis to explore the pattern of the use of medicinal herbs in such formulas. Results Herbs used at high frequency in tranquilizing heyi formulas were Roudoukou(Nutmeg, Semen Myristicae), Biba(Long Pepper Fruit,Fructus Piperis Longi), Baidoukou(Round Cardamon,Fructus Amomi Kravanh), Chenxiang(Aquilaria Wood, Lignum Aquilariae Resinatum) and Muxiang(Common Aucklandia Root, Radix Aucklandiae).Tranquilizing heyi medicinals were the main type of herbs in terms of herb classification, accounting for 32.52%, medicinal herbs warm in property the main type in terms of medicinalproperty,making up 47.36%, herbs pungent in flavor the main type in terms of medicinal flavor, constituting 54.67%, cloying herbal medicinals the main type in terms of effect, comprising 51.63%.Among 20 herb pairs used at high frequency, 18 pairs contained tranquilizing heyi medicinals. Of the 23 core herb combinations, 21 involved tranquilizing heyi medicinals and 17 included Roudoukou (Nutmeg, Semen Myristicae). Conclusion Tranquilizing heyi formulas of Mongolian medicine are mainly composed of tranquilizing heyi medicinals, which regulate the three elements in Mongolian medicine (corresponding roughly to qi, fire/gallbladder, and earth/water in Chinese medicine). Herbs pungent, warm and cloying are commonlyused. Tranquilizing heyi medicinals are often used in herb pairs and three-herb groups with Roudoukou (Nutmeg, Semen Myristicae) as the core herb. With reference to qi-regulating formulas in Chinese medicine, tranquilizing heyi medicinals can adopt some liver-soothing medicinals.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Clinical Studies
    Research on progression in TCM pattern of Alzheimer’s disease based on cognitive levels*
    Shi Jing, Teng Yu’ou, Wei Mingqing, Li Ting, Ni Jingnian, Zhang Xuekai, Li Chenmeng, Zhou Mengling, Huang Qiang, Wang Xu, Tian Jinzhou
    2019, 42 (12):  1038-1042.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.011
    Abstract ( 391 )   PDF (1126KB) ( 151 )   Save
    Objective To explore the way of progression in terms of pattern in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) based on different cognitive levels. Methods A total of 5410 subjects from the Third Department of Neurology of Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine were assigned into normal control group (NC) (n=1664), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) group (n=928), mild AD group (MMSE score 21~26, n=223), moderate AD group (MMSE score 11~20, n=447) and severe AD group (MMSE score 0~10, n=299) based on their neuropsychological assessments, case histories, and neuro-imaging and laboratory tests. Patterns in TCM of the patients were then classified, and the way of progression in terms of TCM pattern of the five groups were explored. Results The prevalence of liver-deficiency pattern and spleen-deficiency pattern in the NC group was significantly higher than that in MCI group, which, in turn, was higher than that in the AD groups (all P<0.01). The percentage of kidney-deficiency pattern in the NC group was significantly lower than that in the MCI and mild AD groups (all P<0.01). The occurrence rate of phlegm-turbidity pattern, fire-heat pattern and blood-stasis pattern in the moderate AD group was significantly higher than that in the mild AD group (all P<0.01) and severe AD group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with the other groups, the rate of extreme-deficiency pattern and excess-toxin pattern in the severe AD group was the highest (all P<0.01). Conclusion Kidney-deficiency pattern existed in all stages of AD. Kidney-deficiency pattern and spleen-deficiency pattern were the main characteristic patterns of patients with mild AD. Phlegm-turbidity pattern, fire-heat pattern and blood-stasis pattern were the common patterns of patients with moderate AD. In severe AD patients, excess-toxin pattern and extreme-deficiency pattern were the prominent patterns. The Results proved that the progression of AD in terms of TCM pattern “begins with kidney deficiency, progresses to fire due to phlegm and stasis, and worsens with extreme deficiency and toxin excess”.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Investigation of differences between cold and heat syndromes of bronchial asthma based on biomarker of small molecular metabolites*
    Liu Shigang, Li Meng, Zhang Jiuqing, Zhang Xia, Liu Li, Li Hui
    2019, 42 (12):  1043-1048.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.012
    Abstract ( 346 )   PDF (2299KB) ( 103 )   Save
    Objective To explore the difference in small molecular metabolites between deficiency cold syndrome and deficiency heat syndrome of chronic bronchial asthma and the correlation between the clinical syndromes and the metabolites to identity potential biomarkers that could differentiate asthma syndromes based on the metabonomics. Methods Thirty subjects (ten of deficiency cold syndrome, ten of deficiency heat syndrome, and ten healthy volunteers) were recruited in the study. With informed consent from the subjects, 2 mL of blood was collected containing anticoagulant and kept in a static and anticoagulant condition, and then serum was separated by centrifugation and stored at -80 ℃ in refrigerator. It was analyzed with GC-MS and multidimensional analysis (O) PLS-DA and one-dimensional analysis (t test) were made to identify different metabolites between the groups (VIP>1, P<0.05). Then enrichment analysis of pathways of differential metabolites was done with MBRole and KEGG. Results Forty different metabolites were found between chronic asthma patients and healthy controls, and eighteen such metabolites between patients of cold and heat deficiency syndromes. Among them, four small molecular metabolites can tell both asthma patients from healthy controls and deficiency cold syndrome from deficiency heat syndrome, i.e. tetracosane, 4-aminobutyric acid, benzoylformic acid, and allo-Inositol. MBRole and KEGG pathway analysis of the metabolites of the deficiency cold syndrome group and deficiency heat syndrome group found disturbances of pathways of beta-alanine metabolism. Conclusion The small molecular metabolites are significantly different between chronic bronchial asthma patients and healthy controls, and between patient of cold deficiency syndrome and those of heat deficiency syndrome. 4-aminobutyric acid might be the potential biomarkers to differentiate deficiency cold syndrome from deficiency heat syndrome of chronic bronchial asthma patients, and beta-alanine metabolic pathway disturbance was found between deficiency cold syndrome group and deficiency heat syndrome group.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Journal Development
    Citation analysis of articles in Journal of Beijing University of TCM cited by SCIE journals*
    Wang Limin, Yan Juntang, Huang Yinghua, You Haiyan, Zhang Hui, Hao Sumei, Zou Huiqin, Xu Rongting, Lu Guanglin, Liang Jichun, Luo Bin, Zhang Chi
    2019, 42 (12):  1049-1056.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2019.12.013
    Abstract ( 383 )   PDF (1191KB) ( 313 )   Save
    Objective To provide reference for the development of Journal of Beijing University of TCM (JBUTCM) based on quantitative analysis of all the articles in the journals in SCIE database, which cited papers published in JBUTCM. Methods Through search on Web of Science Core Collection: Cited Reference Search, articles in the journals in SCIE database that cited papers in JBUTCM were analyzed in this paper. Results From 1995 to 2018, a total number of 556 articles were cited in SCIE database journals and the accumulative citation frequency was 879, both of which exhibited parabolic trends. The number of citing articles was 773 with annual increases. The first author’s institutional affiliation of the cited articles was mainly Beijing University of Chinese Medicine. Among all the papers published with research funding, those funded by the national funding were the majority. There were ten articles with cited frequency higher than five, five of which were published in the Science & Technology Theme column, four in the Theoretical Studies column, and the other one was in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Experimental Research column. The journals that carried the papers that cited articles in JBUTCM ranked at the middle level in the world. The citing articles were mostly in such areas as integrative and complementary medicine, pharmacology and pharmacy, and chemistry. Conclusion The percentage of cited articles accounted for only 8.7% of the total number of articles published in JBUTCM. While the journal exerted relatively large influence at home, its international influence was comparatively small. The articles in columns Science & Technology Theme and Theoretical Studies attracted more attention than those in other columns, and therefore, the two columns should be preserved and strengthened. In addition, JBUTCM should publish more and better research papers related to integrative and complementary medicine, pharmacology and pharmacy, and chemistry to improve its academic influence.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics