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主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    28 February 2020, Volume 43 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Theoretical Studies
    Attribution of skeletal muscle to the five zang organs in TCM*
    Guo Chunxia, Zhang Qiming, Wang Yiguo, Zhang Jianxiong, XuYang, Zheng Tengfei, Feng Hui, Yuan Xiaohui, Li Xuan
    2020, 43 (2):  93-97.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.001
    Abstract ( 529 )   PDF (1288KB) ( 300 )   Save
    The function of “the spleen governing muscles” refers to the function of spleen to produce essence of grain and water to nourish muscles and other affiliated parts all over the whole body. However, the functions of skeletal muscles are not solely governed by the spleen.In this article,the distribution and functions of skeletal muscles in the whole body are observed according to anatomy,then these functions are compared with those of the five zang organs in TCM. The functions of skeletal muscles are supported by the physiological functions of the five organs, i.e. transportation, transformation and fixing and lifting tendency of the spleen (manifested as muscle), the respiratory function of the lung, water metabolism and reproductive function of the kidney, free flow of qi and emotions governed by the liver, and housing shen (mental activity) of the heart. To be more specific,the skeletal muscles involved in digestion corresponds with the spleen’s function of transportation and transformation.The skeletal muscles that produce muscular strength and muscular tension to maintain body movement and posture are in accordance with the spleen’s function of governing muscles in five body constituents. The fascial functions that produce tension to fix the organs and support the skin belong to the fixing and lifting function of the spleen. The skeletal muscles involved in breathing correspondto the lung’s function of governing respiration.The skeletal muscles related to urination and delivery are in accordance to the kidney’s function of governing water metabolism and reproduction.The skeletal muscles involved in the expression of emotions are related to the liver which controls free flow of qi and emotions. The skeletal muscles involved in the manifestation of spiritual activities correspond to the heart’s function of housing shen (mental activity).
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    Pathogenesis of “water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood” in Parkinson’s disease with depression*
    Chen Hongjing, Li Xiaoli, Liu Haipeng, Lin Liangyin, Diao Huaqiong, Ding Haiyue, Wei Dan
    2020, 43 (2):  98-102.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.002
    Abstract ( 584 )   PDF (1224KB) ( 290 )   Save
    “Water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood” refers to that kidney yang deficiency and cold coagulation in the kidney may lead to failune of the kidney to warm the liver and liver qi stagnation. This pathogenesis originated from the Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), and has been developed and applied to diseases of various systems by later physicians. Based on literature research, it is observed that this pathogenesis could possibly be applied in interpreting the mechanism of Parkinson’s disease with depression (PDD) from TCM perspective. For PDD, yang deficiency and cold coagulation of the kidney is the root of the attack, and liver qi stagnation appears in the initial stage. According to various clinical studies, the therapeutic method of warming the kidney yang to relieve liver qi stagnation is effective in treating PDD. Based on such findings, we have developed a formula (composed of Zhifuzi (prepared aconite root, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Praeparata), Bajitian (morinda root,Radix Morindae Officinalis), Chaihu (bupleurum, Radix Bupleuri)) with corresponding effects, which proves to be 70%effective. Pharmacological studies also show that certain traditional Chinese medicinals with the effect of warming the kidney or relieving the liver qi stagnation can show some effect in the treatment of PDD. These research results support the exploration of the pathogenesis of PDD from the perspective of “water cold resulting in inhibition of the wood”. This article has explored such a pathogenesis in PDD based on literature reviews of classical TCM literature, relevant theories and modern studies, in order to provide new ideas and references for the pathogenesis research and clinical treatment of PDD.
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    Textual Research
    Wang Niansun’s interpretation of medical terms in Guang Ya*
    Lyu Xiaoxue, Wang Yulin
    2020, 43 (2):  103-107.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.003
    Abstract ( 383 )   PDF (1342KB) ( 158 )   Save
    Some medical terms were included in Guang Ya edited by Zhang Yi in the Three Kingdom Period. Guang Ya Shu Zheng, written by Wang Niansun in the Qing Dynasty, is regarded as the best note of Guang Ya. Wang Niansun prioritized the use of phonetic correlation and cognate words in his interpretation of word meaning and interlingual relationships.This article uses the medical terms included in Guang Ya as the corpus, and explores the theories and methods used by Wang Niansun in interpretation in Guang Ya Shu Zheng, including identifying the phonetic loan characters, correlating with cognate words, and integrating commonly used words and medical terminology, etc. Besides, Wang Niansun’s collation methods used in identifying the errors in the text of Guang Ya such as clerical error, lipographyand redundant words, were also examined. Thus, this article has explored the possible interpretation methods that can be applied in the study of medical terms in ancient medical literatures.
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    Chinese Medicinal Pharmacology
    Anti-cancer effect of diosgenin through regulating miR-34a and its target genes in gastric cancer*
    Li Ya, Li Ruibai, Shi Fengqin, Chen Xinyi, Lyu Liyuan, Zhao Huan, Li Xiaojie, Hou Li
    2020, 43 (2):  108-114.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.004
    Abstract ( 345 )   PDF (1853KB) ( 107 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect and its possible mechanism of diosgenin on the proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of human gastric cancer cell (AGS). Methods The cell proliferation assay was used to detect the inhibition effect of diosgenin on AGS proliferation. The colony formation assay was performed to detect the effect of diosgenin on the colony formation efficiency of AGS cells. The wound healing test and transwell chamber assay were used to detect the effect of diosgenin on the migration and invasion of AGS. The MicroRNA(MiRNA) Target Prediction was used to predict the target genes of miR-34a. The Quantitative real-time PCR(qPCR) method was performed to observe the effect of diosgenin on the expression of miR-34a, E2F1, E2F3 and CCND1 in AGS cells, and analyze the correlation between their expression and the prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Results Diosgenin with different concentrations (24 μmol/L,30 μmol/L,36 μmol/L,42 μmol/L,48 μmol/L)could significantly inhibit the proliferation of AGS cells, and there was a positive correlation between the inhibiting effect and the dose and time. In different concentrations of diosgenin (24 μmol/L,30 μmol/L,36 μmol/L,42 μmol/L,48 μmol/L), the colony formation efficiency of AGS cells was significantly decreased (P<0.01), and the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells were significantly decreased (P<0.01), with the effect positively correlated with time and concentration.Diosgenin(36 μmol/L) significantly increased the expression of miR-34a in AGS cells and decreased the expression of E2F1, E2F3 and CCND1, which were target genes of miR-34a. The expression of E2F1, E2F3 and CCND1 genes was significantly negatively correlated with the prognosis of gastric cancer patients.Conclusion Diosgenin seems to inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of AGS cells partly by regulating miR-34a and down-regulating the expression of E2F1, E2F3 and CCND1 genes.
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    Buyang Huanwu Decoction’s protective effect on myocardium and influence on BMSCs migration in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion rats*
    Song Zhongyang, Wang Gongchen, Zhang Zhiming, Yong Wenxing, Liu Yongqi,Zhang Liying, Li Juan
    2020, 43 (2):  115-124.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.005
    Abstract ( 330 )   PDF (3447KB) ( 213 )   Save
    Objective To study the protective effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BHD) combined with bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats and the effect of BMSCs migration. Methods 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operated group, model group, BMSCs group and BHD plus BMSCs group The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was ligated to duplicate Miri rat model in all groups except for the sham operated group. The rats were gavaged with BHD and normal saline for 14 days respectively. The levels of cTnI, CK-MB, LDH,and MDA, the content of nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of SOD in serum were measured by biochemical method. The cardiac function was detected by echocardiography, the pathological morphology of myocardial tissue was detected by HE staining, the migration and distribution of GFP-labeled BMSCs were observed in vivo by Caliper IVIS Lumina II, and the content of myocardial BMSC was detected by immunofluorescence. Results Compared with the BMSCs group, in BHD plus BMSCs group, the LVIDd and LVIDs decreased significantly, while EF was increased (P<0.05); the levels of cTnI, LDH and CK-MB were significantly decresed (P<0.05); the activity of SOD and the content of NO were increased, while the content of MDA was decreased (P<0.05). According to HE staining, the muscle fibers were arranged in order; there was slight edema in the intercellular matrix and a little infiltration of inflammatory cells, but the cell boundary was clear. The Caliper IVIS Lumina II in vivo showed that there were no obvious migration and distribution of GFP-labeled BMSCs in the sham operation group and model group, but the expression intensity of GFP in the BHD plus BMSCs group was significantly higher than that in the BMSCs group, and the concentration of BMSCs in the heart was significantly higher than that in the BMSCs group (P<0.05). The results of immunofluorescence showed that the content of BMSCs in the BHD plus BMSCs group was significantly higher than that in the BMSCs group (P<0.05). Conclusions BHD could possibly reduce transplanted BMSCs after myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury in rats, reduce myocardial tissue pathological morphological changes, improve cardiac function. Through improving SOD activity in serum, increasing the NO content, and reducing the CK-MB, LDH, cTnI levels and MDA concentration in serum, it seems to reduce MIRI with the myocardial protective effect. Its mechanism might be related to the reduction of the membrane lipid peroxidation, and protection from the oxidative stress injury of myocardial cells in reperfusion period. It also indicates that BHD could possibly promote the migration of BMSCs into the myocardial tissue of MIRI model rats, increase the number of BMSCs migration, and improve the homing efficiency of BMSCs.
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    Bushen Antai Granule improves angiogenesis at maternal-fetal interface through regulating TGF-β1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in recurrent spontaneous abortion mice*
    Li Weili, Hao Lele, Jin Ya, Liu Mingmin, Wu Hua, Yu Xinhui
    2020, 43 (2):  125-132.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.006
    Abstract ( 333 )   PDF (3156KB) ( 77 )   Save
    Objective Objective To study the effect of BushenAntai(BSAT) Granule on Transforming Growth Factor β1(TGF-β1), Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3K)and serine/threonine(AKT)related proteins in decidua of mice with recurrent spontaneous abortion, and to explore its mechanism of reducing the rate of embryo abortion. Methods CBA/J × BALB/c mice were caged to establish normal pregnant mice model. The RSA mice model was established by using DBA/2 × CBA mice, which were randomly divided into model group, progesterone group, BushenAntai(BSAT) high dose group, BushenAntai(BSAT)medium-dose group and BushenAntai(BSAT)low-dose group. Each group was gavaged with the corresponding medicine daily.After 15 days of continuous intervention, mice were executed and samples were collected. in each group, the embryo loss was observed by naked eyes; Pathological changes of decidua were observed by hematoxylin eosinstaining. The contents of E2, P, TGF-β1, PI3K and Akt in serum of mice in each group were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of TGF-β1, PI3K and Akt in decidua was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Results Compared with the normal group, in the model group the rate of embryo loss was increased (P<0.01), the contents of E2, P, TGF-β1, PI3K and Akt in serum were decreased (P<0.01), the expression levels of TGF-β1, PI3K and Akt in decidua were decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, after drug intervention, the rate of embryo loss was decreased (P<0.01), the contents of E2, P, TGF-β1, PI3K and Akt in serum were increased (P<0.01), and the expression levels of TGF-β1, PI3K and Akt in decidua were all increased (P<0.01), all of which were most significant in the BSAT high-dose group. Conclusion BSAT Granule is likely to reduce the rate of embryo loss in mice with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Its mechanism may be that through up-regulating TGF-β1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, it could promote the formation of blood vessels at the maternal fetal interface of mice with recurrent spontaneous abortion, so as to achieve the purpose of embryo protection.
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    Intervention of Compound Uncaria Tablets on myocardial differential protein in spontaneously hypertensive rats based on iTRAQ technology*
    Wang Jianzhang, Yu Yunfeng, Zhou Manli, Feng Yu, Guo Zhihua, Jian Weixiong
    2020, 43 (2):  133-140.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.007
    Abstract ( 309 )   PDF (1521KB) ( 154 )   Save
    Objective To study the protein changes in the intervention of the Compound Uncaria Tablets in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) and the potential mechanism of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension. Methods 16SHRs were divided into two groups. The treatment group was gavaged with the Compound Uncaria Tablets, and the control group was gavaged with distilled water. After 12 weeks of intervention, the myocardial tissue protein was taken and tested by iTRAQ assay analysis. By analyzing the enrichment of pathways, the differential proteins and pathways were obtained, and furtherly mapped using the STRING database. Results The pathway enrichment analysis of the differential protein indicated that there were 11 pathways. The iTRAQ analysis of the differential protein indicated that there were 6 up-regulated proteins: transgelatin, carbonic anhydrase 3, S-phase kinase-associated protein 1, C-reactive protein, fibrin 5, and C-1-tetrahydrofolate synthetase; and there were 12 down-regulated proteins: glutathione S-transferase, Ighg3, histidine trinucleotide binding protein 2, 60S ribosomal protein L4, 40S ribosomal protein S6, 60S ribosomal protein L13, 14-3-3 protein, protein LOC100911337, glutathione peroxidase 1, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, protein kinase B, and ubiquitin -40S ribosomal protein S27A.In the relational network drawn by string: 60S ribosomal protein L4, 40S ribosomal protein S6, 60S ribosomal protein L13, and ubiquitin-40S ribosomal protein S27A are most closely related. Conclusion The intervention of Compound Uncaria Tablets on hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy is possibly mainly related to improving blood supply, optimizing energy metabolism, inhibiting abnormal growth of cardiomyocytes and increasing fibrin of blood vessels and heart. The occurrence of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy may be related to ribosomal proteins.
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    Effect and mechanism of Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule on diabetic angiogenesis through regulatingVEGF signaling pathway*
    Ni Yingqun, Fang Zhaohui, Shi Hui
    2020, 43 (2):  141-147.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.008
    Abstract ( 529 )   PDF (1293KB) ( 110 )   Save
    Objective To study the effect and mechanism of Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule (DZC) on angiogenesis based on VEGF-mediated signaling pathway in diabetic rats. Methods 10 SD rats were selected as the blank group, 50 GK rats were used to establish the model of lower limb ischemia in diabetes, and were randomly divided into the model group, the Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule high-dose group (H-DZC group), the Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule medium-dose group (M-DZC group), the Danzhi Jiangtang Capsule low-dose group (L-DZC group), and the pioglitazone hydrochloride group. In each group, the GK rats were gavaged correspondingly for 30 days.Then the density of new vessels in blood and vascular tissue of lower limbs was detected under the microscope; the contents of VEGF, Ang1, Ang2, Tie2, NO and NOS inserum were detected by ELISA; Ang1, Ang2 and Tie2 in gastrocnemius muscle were detected by Western Blot. Results The VEGF/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway was inhibited in diabetic rats with lower limb ischemia. After the treatment, serum levels of VEGF, eNOS and NO in the H-DZC, M-DZC and L-DZC groups and pioglitazone group were all significantly increased (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Similar results were also observed in the gastrocnemius muscle. The expression of p-Akt and P-eNOS in H-DZC group and pioglitazone hydrochloride group were most significantly increased(P<0.01).Among the three DZC groups, the expression of p-Akt and P-eNOS was most significantly increased in the high-dose group (P<0.05).In addition,compared with the model group, Ang-2 levels in serum and tissues in all treatment groups were significantly reduced (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the decrease was more significant in H-DZC group (P<0.01). After the treatment, the expression of Ang-1 and Tie-2 in serum and gastrocnemius muscle tissues of rats in all treatment groups were increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the increase was more significant in H-DZC group (P<0.01). Conclusion DZC seems to activate the inhibited VEGF/Akt/eNOS and Ang/Tie2 signaling pathways in diabetic vascular lesions and promote the dissociation of vascular basement membrane, so as to prepare for and promote the initiation of angiogenesis of vessels in lower limbs.
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    Chinese Medicinal Chemistry
    Quality evaluation of Perillae folium based on representation model of effective characteristic spectrum of reference*
    Lu Dongbo, Kong Jing, Li Sitong, Fan Yuanyuan, Huang Yujuan, Sun Rendi, Huang Guangwei, Liu Lulu, Chen Siyu, Gao Yuanyuan, Jiang Yanyan, Shi Renbing
    2020, 43 (2):  148-162.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.009
    Abstract ( 318 )   PDF (5387KB) ( 90 )   Save
    Objective To establish the quality representation model, analysis method and quality evaluation based on the effective characteristic spectrum of reference of perillae folium, so as to evaluate the quality of perillae folium effectively and accurately. Methods To determine the perillae folium which has the effect of regulating blood lipid as the standard reference pieces. Taking effective characteristic index component as quality reference point. Using HPLC-PDA method to establish effective characteristic spectrum of reference, and obtained quality characterization information was used as the standard to evaluate the quality of perillae folium, and to prove the accuracy. Results Scutellarin, as the reference point, (retention time: 30.342 min; content: 0.573 4%; concentration: 0.057 34 g/L ), represented the quality information of characteristic spectrum of benchmark (S1) which was effective:14 characteristic peak retention time, peak area, relative retention time, relative peak area, six characteristic index components content, relative content and content conversion coefficient (caffeicacid,luteolin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, scutellarin, rosmarinic acid, oleanolic acid), which covers phenolic acids, flavonoids and triterpenoids. And reference substance of scutellarin, as the simulative datum point (rretention time: 29.759 min; concentration: 0.057 3 g/L), represented the quality information. The two results were consistent, and verified the feasibility of the test method and the accuracy of the test results.14 characteristic peaks appeared on the chromatograms of 14 batches of perillae folium and the conversion content of six characteristic index components was consistent with the measured content. Using the effective quality representation of reference information to evaluate the quality of 14 batches of perillae folium, and the quality of S8,S7,S12,S9,S13 were judged to be better. Conclusion The established quality representation model and analysis method based on the effective characteristic spectrum of reference of perillae folium can be used represent the quality of perillae folium simply, accurately and integrally. The established quality analysis model can be used to analyze the quality of perillae folium.
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    Acupuncture & Moxibustion
    Electroacupuncture at PC 6 (nei guan) regulates cell autophagy in rats with myocardial ischemia and reperfusion*
    Han Yongli, Chen Song, Zhang Yanlin, Chen Ziqin
    2020, 43 (2):  163-170.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.010
    Abstract ( 333 )   PDF (3474KB) ( 128 )   Save
    Objective To observe the effect of pretreatment with electroacupuncture at PC 6 (nei guan) on cell autophagy in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) rats, and to clarify its underlying mechanism. Methods 50 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: sham operated group, model group, electroacupuncture pretreatment group (EA group), inhibitor pretreatment group (inhibitor group), and electroacupuncture + inhibitor pretreatment group (EA + inhibitor group) (n=10 in each group). The rats in the sham operated group were directly exposed after thoracotomy without other treatments. The rats in the model group underwent in-vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Rats in the EA group received electroacupuncture treatment on PC 6 (nei guan) 7 days prior to model establishment. Rats in the inhibitor group were injected with wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor) a week before the model was established, and received myocardial ischemia-reperfusion on the 8th day. Rats in the EA + inhibitor group received both forms of pretreatment. All rats were killed after treatment. The serum CK-MB, iNOS, and T-AOC expressions were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The expression and localization of ATG13, mTOR, and PI3K in myocardial cells were detected by immunofluorescence on paraffin sections. The pathological changes caused by cardiomyocyte autophagy in the control group were observed by HE staining experiments. Ultrastructural changes of cardiomyocytes in the control group were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Results Compared with the sham operated group, the serum CK-MB and the iNOS concentration was significantly increased, T-AOC concentrations were significantly reduced in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, in the three pretreatment groups, the CK-MB and the iNOS concentration was decreased, T-AOC concentrations were increased (P<0.05); among them, the effect in the EA group was the most significant. Compared with the sham operated group, the expressions of mTOR, ATG13 and PI3K in cardiomyocytes in the other four groups were all increased Compared with the model group, in the three pretreatment groups, the expression of mTOR, ATG13, and PI3K in myocardial tissues was decreased. HE staining results showed that compared with the sham operated group, in the model group, myocardial muscle fibers showed lytic rupture or even necrosis, and obvious swelling. In the three pretreatment groups, the myocardial fiber space was slightly widened, the necrotic lesions were reduced, and the myocardial cells were slightly swollen; among them the EA group showed the most obvious changes. The transmission electron microscope observation results showed that compared with the sham operated group, in the model group, the myocardial muscle fibers showed lytic rupture or even necrosis, and there were irregular and missing mitochondria. While in the three pretreatment groups, the myocardial muscle fiber gaps were slightly widened, and the nucleus and mitochondrial structure were basically complete. Among them, there was most significant change in the EA group. Conclusion Electroacupuncture pretreatment could possibly reduce myocardial I/R damage and reduce the formation of autophagosomes by promoting autophagy. While wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor) seems to reverse such a protective effect.
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    Clinical Studies
    Designing of evaluation scale for Gastrointestinal Heat Retention Syndrome in children*
    Ma Xueyan, Yu He,Wu Liqun,Mei Chencheng, Li Zhuo, Huang Ling, Cui Lijun, Liu Shaoyang, Xu Jingnan, Liu Tiegang, Gu Xiaohong
    2020, 43 (2):  171-176.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.02.011
    Abstract ( 309 )   PDF (1150KB) ( 115 )   Save
    Objective To develop the evaluation scale for Gastrointestinal Heat Retention Syndrome(GHRS) in children. Methods 453 children were enrolled and 38 symptoms and signs of the subjects were collected by medical professionals. Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory were used to select items. Items were selected through five statistical methods including classical test theory of discrete trends analysis, correlation coefficient analysis, Cronbach’s αcoefficient analysis and factor analysis, as well as item response theory. The items which were tested to be acceptable according to 4 or 5 methods would be kept and enlisted in the evaluation scale under the guidance of professional knowledge. Results The evaluation scale consisted of 26 items, including red complexion, red lips, pharyngeal redness and swelling, red tongue, yellow tongue fur, feverish feeling in palms and soles, rapid pulse, slippery pulse, aversion to heat, halitosis, hot mouth and nasal breath, thirst with preference for cold drinks, abnormal appetite, abdominal pain, smelly flatus,reduced frequency of defecation, dry stool, difficult defecation, smelly stool, yellow urine, sweating at night, restless sleep at night, vexation and irascibility,nasal crust, susceptibility to respiratory tract infection, and symptoms worsened after improper diet. There were 11 binary variables and 15 quadruple variables graded by frequency or severity degree. Conclusion The evaluation scale for GHRS in children is developed, which can be used in the study of GHRS and GHRS-related diseases in children.
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