主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    30 April 2020, Volume 43 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Qi Forum
    On the formation of the genuine qi root theory in Huangdi Neijing
    Shi Lingsheng, He Juan
    2020, 43 (4):  269-274.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.001
    Abstract ( 464 )   PDF (970KB) ( 194 )   Save
    Genuine qi (Zhen qi) is the core concept of qi root theory in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic). It has unique philosophical connotations in the root theory and historical origins in ancient China. The original denotation of “zhen” refers to the process that pearls gradually accumulate and form in the oysters. This Chinese character had been used to refer to “the uncarved and innocent nature”. Daode Jing and Zhuangzi, the representative books of Taoism in the Warring States Period, were the first ones to use the word “Zhen” when discussing the root philosophical thoughts, which was considered as the origin of the philosophical origin of genuine qi. And under the influence of ideological trend of “Tao and Qi as one” at the late stage of the Warring States Period, the philosophical connotation of “Zhen” and qi theory was integrated theoretically. The earliest extant compound word “Zhen qi” was first found in Huangdi Neijing, which inherited the Taoist Root thoughts about “Zhen”, and supplemented the concrete embodiment of genuine qi in all aspects of life activities, and thus established an ontological view of genuine qi theory.
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    Theoretical Studies
    Analysis of the compatibility of ephedra and gypsum in classical prescription using geometry*
    Hu Zixin, Yu Fuhuan, Yu He
    2020, 43 (4):  275-279.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.002
    Abstract ( 766 )   PDF (1088KB) ( 150 )   Save
    Zhang Zhongjing’s formulae have been complimented for its rigorous ingredient combination and structure. Ephedra and gypsum, used by Zhongjing as one main paired herbs, have been widely used by later generations. In this study, six classic formulae and another two extended prescriptions containing both ephedra and gypsum have been selected. Graphics were used to interpret the compatibility by visualizing the nature, flavor, meridian tropism, action, and the principles of the composition of prescriptions, etc. The fundamental structure is mainly composed of pungent-warm ephedra to regulate qi and pungent-cool gypsum to clear heat. Different compatibility proportion of ephedra and gypsum match with bitter-warm almond, developing a triangle fundamental structure to present clearing, dispersing and descending to balance the circulation of the lung qi, thus to restore the functions of the respiratory and regulating the respiratoy metaboism. Proportion of ephedra and gypsumcan be determined by weighing the balance of clearing heat and regulating qi movement. In addition, points, lines and surfaces would be used to modify the structures of the prescriptions according to the complicated pathogenesis to make flexible use of the prescriptions.
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    Facial diagnosis in the que section in Huangdi Neijing*
    Jiang Shiqian, Li Hua, Liu Wanghua, Li Yuxiang, Chen Yanyan
    2020, 43 (4):  280-283.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.003
    Abstract ( 491 )   PDF (692KB) ( 75 )   Save
    According to the original text of the Huangdi's Internal Classic (Huangdi Neijing)and the related statements of the later generations, this paper discusses the main contents of facial diagnosis in the que section from four aspects: evaluating the physique, identifying wind or blockage, viscera, and five colors. Firstly, wide and bulging glabella usually means strong physique. Secondly, wind means exogenous pathogenic factors attacking on the skin, hair and lung, while blockage refers to the blockage of meridians, qi and blood. Thirdly, the attribution for viscera can be lung, heart or liver. Lastly, five colors in the que Section can be divided into two modes: Yin-Yang and five elements. Commonly-seen five color diseases are also listed to provide new ideas for the theoretical research of Neijing and divisional facial diagnosis, and provide reference for the clinical application of the theory of Neijing and divisional facial diagnosis.
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    Textual Research
    Historical compilation and inheritance of Sun Simiao’s Version of Shang Han Lun*
    Fu Peng, Wang Yulin, Zhou Liqun
    2020, 43 (4):  284-288.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.004
    Abstract ( 487 )   PDF (1528KB) ( 68 )   Save
    Sun Simiao’s Version of Treatise on Cold Damage Diseases(Shang Han Lun, SHL) in the Tang dynasty is an important text different from the Song dynasty version. It is often referred to as Tang Dynasty SHL version.This paper expounds the academic background of Sun Simiao's SHL Version and studies its major versions available in later generations. Then it explores the textual changes throughout the history and analyzes the relations between different versions and corresponding academic thoughts. These changes, especially the occurrence and development of the Sun Simiao’s SHL separatum, represent two opposing schools of act in compiling and inheriting ancient classics in the Ming and Qing dynasties: respecting the classics by maintaining faithful to the ancient text versus revising and renewing textual errors.The compilation and inheritance history has contributed to the abundant academic exchange and literature.
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    Chinese Medicinal Pharmacology
    Effects of kidney-supplementing cold-dispelling Zhi Wang Tang decoction on inflammation, bone erosion and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in rats with collagen-induced arthritis*
    Xu Yuan, Yan Xiaoping, Xiao Cheng, Ma Ru, Chen Guangyao, Tao Qingwen
    2020, 43 (4):  289-295.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.005
    Abstract ( 363 )   PDF (1675KB) ( 64 )   Save
    Objective To investigatethe effects of kidney-supplementing cold-dispelling Zhi Wang Tang(ZWT)decoction on relieving inflammation and bone erosion and modulating TNF-α, MMP13, β-catenin in rats of collagen-induced arthritis(CIA) models. Methods SD rats were injected at the tails with emulsion (0.1 mL) containing bovine type Ⅱ collagen (200 μg) after 1-2 weeks of orientation feeding to simulate the development of arthritis except those in the blank group.Rats were divided into the following four groups: blank group (n=6),model group(n=7), ZWT group (25 g/kg, oral, once a day, n=7), MTX group (methotrexate, 3 mg/kg, oral, once every three days, n=7).Intervention was administered for 6 continuous weeks starting in the week after immunization. Arthritis indexes (AI) were recorded.All rats were then sacrificed at week 7.Knee joint samples were taken for HE staining. Levels of TNF-a, MMP13 and β-catenin were evaluated with immunohistochemistry, Western blot and qPCR assays. Results At week 6 of intervention, AI scores in the ZWT group were lower than those of model group (P<0.05); HE staining result indicated that bone erosion changes in the ZWT group were also significantly relieved compared to the model group. Expressions of β-catenin, pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and MMP13 were all reduced (P<0.05) compared to the model group. Conclusion ZWT seemed to relieve inflammation and bone erosion in CIA rats;its mechanism maybe associated with modulating Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and inhibiting the expression TNF-α and MMP13.
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    Mechanism of Compound Qishao Jiangya tablets in the treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats based on AKT/mTOR signal pathway*
    Li Hong, Liu Yeqian, Gong Shan, Liu Lin, Zeng Yong, Cai Xiao, Wang Yuhong, Ren Weiqiong
    2020, 43 (4):  296-303.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.006
    Abstract ( 372 )   PDF (2662KB) ( 70 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the effects of compound Qishao Jiangya tablet on blood pressure, inflammation factors and expression of aortic autophagy related proteins in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats by regulating protein kinase B(AKT)/rapamicin target protein (mTOR) signaling pathway. Methods Thirty male SHR rats were randomly divided into model group, irbesartan group (27 mg/kg), and compound Qishao Jiangya tablet group (1.73 g/kg). Another 10 male WKY rats were used as normal control group (saline). All intervention was administered for 6 continuous weeks. The blood pressure of tail artery was measured by using noninvasive sphygmomanometer before treatment and at each week (W1-6) after treatment; Ultrastructure and autophagy of thoracic aorta was observed under electron microscope. Serum IL-1β and IL-6 levels was measured with ELISA. Beclin-1, Bcl-2, AKT, and mTOR protein expression in the thoracic aorta were evaluated by using immunohistochemical method while Beclin-1, Bcl-2 protein expression was measured with Weston Blot Assay. Results Compared with normal group, in the model group, serum IL-1β and IL-6 levels increased (P<0.01); the expression of Bcl-2, AKT, mTOR protein in thoracic aorta increased (P<0.01 or P<0.05), while the expression of Beclin-1 protein decreased (P<0.05). There was no apparent autophagosome structure. Compared with model group, the blood pressure of rats in the compound Qishao Jiangya tablet group decreased at every week (P<0.01). Serum IL-1β and IL-6 levels decreased (P<0.05). the expression of AKT and mTOR protein in the thoracic aorta decreased (P<0.05) while the expression of Beclin-1 protein increased (P<0.05). Autophagosome structure was present. Conclusion Compound Qishao Jiangya tablet can reduce blood pressure in SHR rats, and its mechanism may be related to inhibiting the expression of autophagy related signaling pathway protein AKT, mTOR in the thoracic aorta, promoting vascular autophagy and improving inflammatory response.
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    Effects and mechanism of Qufeng Xuanfei formula on neurogenic inflammation in guinea pigs with cough hypersensitivity*
    Wang Ying, Shi Liqing, Ma Jianling, Ji Kun, Li Niuniu, Wang Liyun, Dong Shangjuan, Wen Shaohui, Luo Jingyue
    2020, 43 (4):  304-309.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.007
    Abstract ( 370 )   PDF (1246KB) ( 71 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the effects of Qufeng Xuanfei (Wind-expelling Lung-dispersing, QFXF) formula on neurogenic inflammation in guinea pigs with cough hypersensitivity. Methods 48 guinea pigs were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, capsazepine (intraperitoneal injection, 1 μmol/kg ) group and QFXF formula (5 g/kg) group (n=12 in each group). After treated with cyclophosphamide, ovalbumin and aluminium hydroxide to establish the model of cough hypersensitivity, the guinea pigs were orally given saline in the normal group and model group for 7 days. Then the number of cough was counted immediately after using atomized capsaicine stimulation; the airway resistance was measured with spirometer under different concentrations of acetylcholine chloride. Lung pathology was evaluated by using HE staining. The mRNA expression of lung TRPV1, SP, and CGRP was measured by using real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results The number of cough, the airway resistance and the mRNA expression of lung TRPV1, SP, and CGRP increased significantly in the model group compared with the normal group (P<0.05), and decreased significantly in the treatment groups compared with the model group (P<0.05). The mRNA expression of TRPV1, SP, and CGRP decreased significantly in the QFXF formula group compared with capsazepine group (P<0.05); The lung tissue in the model group showed apparent structure destruction and tissue inflammation compared with the normal group and the level of the destruction and inflammation was lower in the treatment groups compared with the model group. Conclusion Qufeng Xuanfei formula could reduce the level of the airway sensitivity in guinea pig models with cough hypersensitivity, and the mechanism may be related to relieving the airway neurogenic inflammation by inhibiting TRPV1 channel.
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    Science & Technology
    Intestinal-renal uric acid excretion mediated by oxidative stress in hyperuricemic rats*
    Wang Yu, Lin Zhijian, Qu Congcong, Zou Lina, Zhang Bing
    2020, 43 (4):  310-316.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.008
    Abstract ( 351 )   PDF (836KB) ( 54 )   Save
    Objective To observe the intestinal and renal uric acid excretion and oxidative stress condition in hyperuricemia from the organismic level in animals. Methods Hyperuricemic rat model was induced by 10% fructose drinking. The levels of serum uric acid (SUA), serum reactive oxygen species (SROS), serum malondialdehyde (SMDA), serum superoxide dismutase (SSOD), serum glutathion peroxidase (SGSH-PX), serum catalase (SCAT), serum total antioxidant capacity (ST-AOC) and fecal uric acid (FUA), urinary uric acid (UUA) were detected every ten days. The correlation among SUA, FUS, UUA and SROS was analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. Tissues of the kidney and the intestinal were homogenated for measurement of renal/intestinal malondialdehyde and renal/intestinal superoxide dismutase. Results From the 10th to the 30th days, levels of SUA, SROS, SMDA in the model group was higher than that in normal group, whereas ST-AOC level was decreased significantly in the model group. A positive correlation between SUA and SROS was observed. From the 20th to the 30th days, levels of FUA, SSOD, and SGSH-PX were significantly decreased in the model group. The level of UUA was significantly decreased in the model group at the 30th day. There was no difference of SCAT levels between the two groups. The negative correlation between FUA and SROS as well as UUA and SROS were also observed. In addition, levels of IMDA and RMDA were obviously increased in the model group, whereas levels of ISOD and RSOD were significantly decreased. Conclusion Decreased urate excretion of intestinal-renal axis was mediated by the enhanced oxidative stress reaction in hyperuricemia induced by 10% fructose drinking.
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    Chinese Medicinal Chemistry
    Quality standard of Polygonum Multiflorum processed with black bean juice*
    Yu Yi, Xie Jing, Liu Ying, Xu Yudi, Zhang Jing, Li Li, Wang Guangzhong, Xiao Yongqing
    2020, 43 (4):  317-326.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.009
    Abstract ( 314 )   PDF (1799KB) ( 50 )   Save
    Objective To establish the quality standard for Polygonum Multiflorum stewed with black bean juice. Methods TLC method was used for qualitative identification. The characteristic chromatograms and the contents of stilbene glucoside and anthraquinones were determined with HPLC. The content of polysaccharide was determined by using UV spectrophotometry, and the contents of D-fructose,D-glucose anhydrous and sucrose were determined by using HPLC-ELSD. Results The thin-layer spot of Polygonum Multiflorum stewed with black bean juice were clear and showed 4 color bands. The characteristic map detected 9 relatively stable chromatographic peaks as the indicator peak for qualitative identification. The content of stilbene glycoside should not be less than 0.70%. The total amount of emodin and emodin methyl ether should be no lower than 0.15%. The total contents of emodin-8-O-β-D-glucoside and emodin methyl ether-8-O-β-D-glucoside should not be below 0.01%. The content of polysaccharide was no less than 20%. The total amount of monosaccharide and disaccharides which were measured by D-fructose, D-glucose anhydrous and sucrose should not be less than 15%. Conclusion The quality standard of Polygonum Multiflorum stewed with Black Bean Juice is scientific and reasonable, which can be used for quality control of it.
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    Acupuncture & Moxibustion
    Effect of electroacupuncture on GFAP in hippocampal dentate gyrus(DG) of rats with hyperlipidemia and middle cerebral ischemia*
    Xue Naying, Ren Xiujun
    2020, 43 (4):  327-333.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.010
    Abstract ( 300 )   PDF (2754KB) ( 69 )   Save
    Objective To observe the effect of electroacupuncture on GFAP in hippocampal dentate gyrus(DG) of rats with hyperlipidemia and middle cerebral artery thrombus. Methods Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, sham-operation group, electroacupuncture 1 (EA1) group and electroacupuncture 2 (EA2) group. Hyperlipidemia stage: Rats in model and EA group were fed with high-fat diet for 42 days, while rats in EA1 group were needled at ST40 once a day for 7 days. Cerebral ischemia stage: Rats in model group and EA groups were induced by 50% FeCl3 to establish hyperlipidemia with cerebral ischemia. After operation, the EA groups needled at ST40 and GV20 once a day for 14 days. All rats were scored for neurological function. The levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in serum were detected on the 1st, 7th and 14th days. The morphological changes of neuron cells were observed by using Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in DG and ischemic cerebral region. Results Compared with normal group, TC, TG and LDL in the model group increased (P<0.05), TG and LDL in the EA group decreased (P<0.01). In the model group, the neurological function score (NDS) was increased. HE staining showed obvious nuclear consolidation and contraction, scattered tissue arrangement. The expression of GFAP increased in the DG and ischemic cerebral regions (P<0.01). In EA group, NDS decreased. HE staining showed the appearance of neurons was improved. GFAP expressions in the DG and ischemic cerabral regions decreased at day 1, increased at day 7 and decreased again at day 14 after operation. Conclusion EA intervention in hyperlipidemia stage can reduce blood lipid level, improve neurological function, regulate activation of astrocytes and promote neurorepair after hyperlipidemia-ischemia injury.
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    Clinical Studies
    Correlation between tongue coating flora and serum inflammatory metabolism in gastric cancer patients of qi and yin deficiency syndrome*
    Qin Yuanyuan, Xu Shuo, Xiang Chunjie, Wu Juan, Wang Ruiping, Wu Zhenfeng, Zhan Zhen, Zhang Junfeng
    2020, 43 (4):  334-342.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.011
    Abstract ( 293 )   PDF (3101KB) ( 46 )   Save
    Objective To explore the association between the inflammatory metabolic mechanism and tongue coating flora among the gastric cancer patients of qi and yin deficiency syndrome. Methods A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. 13 gastric cancer (GC) patients with Qi and Yin deficiency syndrome (QYDS) were selected as cases and 23 healthy subjects matched as controls. The tongue coating flora was measured by using high-throughput sequencing. The levels of 20 serum inflammatory factors were detected by using electro chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was used to detect the serum metabolomics. Results Compared with the control group, the Shannon index of bacterial diversity of tongue coating in GC patients with QYDS was lower (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the alpha diversity of the tongue coating fungi (P>0.05). Based on LDA analysis, 3 bacterial genera (Caulobacter, Megamonas, Woodsholea) and 1 fungal genus (Schizothecium) seemed to be the marker flora of QYDS of GC. Levels of 15 metabolic molecules including serum glutamate, L-histidine and creatine were significantly higher in GC patients with QYDS. Compared with the control group, 8 serum inflammatory factors including IL-17α, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher in GC patients with QYDS. Association analysis indicated IL-17α, IL-6, and TNF-α were inversely correlated with Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas (r<-0.4, P<0.05), Fusobacterium and Peptostreptococcus had significant negative correlation with serum glutamate metabolism (r<-0.4, P<0.05). Conclusions The structural difference of the tongue coating flora in GC patients with QYDS was related to serum inflammatory factors and metabolism, which could be used to explore the formation mechanism of qi and yin deficiency syndrome.
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    Effects of spleen-fortifying qi-tonifying blood-securing formula on immune thrombocytopenia and its mechanism*
    Zhang Ling, Chen Ke, Zhang Yayue, Wang Chong, Zhang Jianuo, Ma Wei, Chen Xinyi
    2020, 43 (4):  343-352.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.04.012
    Abstract ( 367 )   PDF (1184KB) ( 86 )   Save
    Objective To explore the effect and mechanism of action of Jianpi Yiqi Shexue therapy (spleen-fortifying qi-tonifying blood-securing formula, or JYS formula) in treating immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Methods A central, randomized, controlled, multi-center clinical trial design was used, and 272 ITP patients with spleen failing to contain blood were enrolled. Among them, 104 cases were treated with the investigational product, JYS formula, 103 cases received combination treatment of JYS formula and prednisone (combination group) and 65 cases were treated with prednisone only. The treatment lasted 21 days with 1 visit per week. Hemostasis, platelet count and TCM pattern (single symptom) efficacy; peripheral blood count, coagulation, immunity-retated blood neurotransmitters, platelet activation and NK cell molecular marker expression ratio of all subjects were evaluated and analyzed.Results Aftertreatment, the degree of bleeding was reduced in all groups, and the efficacy of the TCM experiment group and the combination group was earlier than that of the prednisone group. After treatment, the degree of thrombocytopenia in all groups decreased, and the efficacy in the combination group was greater than the other two mono-treatment groups. The total efficacy of TCM pattern in the JYS formula group and the combination group were better than prednisone group (P<0.05). Symptom relief in all three groups was observed compared with before treatment. On the score of abdominal bloating after eating, the curative effect of the JYS formula group and the combination group was earlier than that of predniso group. The average prothrombin time in prednisone group was shorter than that in the JYS formula group. Platelet count increased in all groups, and the counts in combination group and in prednisone group were higher than that in JYS formula group. β-endorphins were increased after treatment in both JYS formula group and combination group. All of the three groups showed different degrees of decline in vasoactive intestinal peptide after treatment. Conclusion Jianpi Yiqi Shexue formula could effectively relieve the bleeding symptoms of ITP patients due to “spleen failing to contain blood” and elevate the peripheral platelet count. Jianpi Yiqi Shexue formula can effectively improve TCM patterns and single symptoms in ITP patients. The therapeutic mechanism may be related to the regulating effect on peptide neurotransmitter in brain-gut axis.
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