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主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    30 June 2020, Volume 43 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia
    Experience of understanding pestilence from the perspective of five-circuit six-qi theory: Reading notes of two supplemented chapters in Suwen
    Wang Yongyan, Fan Yipin, Zhang Huamin, Bai Weiguo, Wang Yanping
    2020, 43 (6):  445-448.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.001
    Abstract ( 447 )   PDF (1248KB) ( 425 )   Save
    The theoretical statements on epidemic diseases in the two originally-lost later-supplemented chapters in Suwen (Plain Questions) suggest that the five-circuit six-qi theory is still of significant reference to the prevention and treatment of pestilence in modern times. Taking three major historical pandemics as example, i.e. encephalitis B in 1974, influenza in 2009 and COVID-19 in Wuhan in 2019, this paper advocates that the TCM community should take the history as a mirror while shouldering the responsibility of preventing and treating epidemic diseases. The circuit-qi theory of the traditional ancient Chinese civilization needs to be integrated with modern ecology, sociology and other diverse disciplines and perspectives to seek the underlying cause of the spreading of pestilence. This paper also summarizes the essential pattern elements and the priority of treatment. Integrated Chinese and Western medical approach is emphasized in the battle against pestilence. The original thinking of holistic manifestation, numbers and changes needs to be highlighted. Under the guidance of ancient Chinese studies, observing the xiang (manifestation) of the disease to discern the underlying dao (way) of treatment should be used to guide the clinical practice.
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    Exploration of characteristics of TCM formulae for novel coronavirus pneumonia based on association rules*
    Ding Xia, Li Yuan, Li Ping, Su Zeqi, Wu Fengzhi, Chu Fuhao, Gu Xiaohong
    2020, 43 (6):  449-456.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.002
    Abstract ( 456 )   PDF (1571KB) ( 164 )   Save
    Objective To analyze the prescription characteristics of consensus formulae for the prevention and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) also known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with traditional Chinese herbal medicine. Methods We collected the following formulae released from the start of NCP outbreak to February 6, 2020: foumulae in the “Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia (Trial)” (3rd to 5th ed.) issued jointly by the National Health Commission and the National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of PRC; the latest clinically-proven effective prescription Qingfei Paidu Tang (Lung-clearing and Toxin-expelling Decoction) (February 6, 2020 ed.); formulae in the “Prevention and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in Beijing” (1st and 2nd ed.) issued by the Beijing Municipal Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine; prescriptions approved and released by varied health commissions, traditional Chinese medicine administrations and hospitals at provincial and municipal levels; and prescriptions made public by various medical schools and several prestigious doctors for the prevention and treatment of NCP. The R software (V 3.6.1) was used to analyze the frequency of occurrence of herbs and association rules in formulae for preventive and therapeutic purposes respectively. Results 107 preventive formulae involving 121 herbs were identified. 11 herbs with frequency of occurrence over 20% were Gancao (Licorice Root, Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae), Huangqi (Astragalus Root, Radix Astragali), Jinyinhua (Honeysuckle Flower, Flos Lonicerae Japonicae), Jiegeng (Platycodon Root, Radix Platycodonis), Lianqiao (Weeping Forsythia Capsule, Fructus Forsythiae), Cangzhu (Atractylodes Rhizome, Rhizoma Atractylodis), Fangfeng (Siler, Radix Saposhnikoviae), Baizhu (White Atractylodes Rhizome, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae), Lugen (Reed Rhizome, Rhizoma Phragmitis), Guanghuoxiang (Cablin Patchouli, Herba Pogostemonis), and Sangye (Mulberry Leaf, Folium Mori). The core combinations of herbs included Huangqi, Gancao, Jinyinhua, Lianqiao, and Fangfeng according to association rules. There were 115 therapeutic prescriptions involving 203 herbs, of which the following 7 herbs were the most frequently used with frequency of occurrence over 20%: Gancao, Huangqin (Scutellaria Root, Radix Scutellariae), Shigao (Gypsum, Gypsum Fibrosum), Kuxingren (Bitter Apricot Kernel, Semen Armeniacae Amarum), Mahuang (Ephedra, Herba Ephedrae), Lianqiao, and Jinyinhua. The core combinations of herbs included Mahuang, Kuxingren, Shigao, and Gancao according to association rules. Conclusion For the prevention of NCP, the main method used seems to be boosting qi to consolidate the exterior, supplemented by clearing heat, resolving toxins and drying dampness. The commonly used formulae were Yupingfeng San (Jade Wind-Barrier Powder) and Yinqiao San (Lonicera and Forsythia Powder). For therapeutic purpose, clearing heat, resolving toxins, and drying dampness were the major methods adopted. The most frequently used prescription was Maxing Shigan Tang (Ephedra, Apricot Kernel, Gypsum and Licorice Decoction) plus Huangqin and Lianqiao. Treatment should vary according to the progression and stage of the disease with modifications based on complications.
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    Diagnosis and treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia with traditional Chinese medicine based on clinical observation of 111 cases*
    Huang Donghui, Feng Cuiling, Cai Junxiang, Wang Kaiyuan, Xie Dongping, Feng Feng, Song Lin, Wen Minyong, Wang Tonghan, Zhang Zhongde
    2020, 43 (6):  457-462.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.003
    Abstract ( 329 )   PDF (1520KB) ( 153 )   Save
    Objective To report the clinical effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) and explore the TCM understanding of this disease including its etiology, pathogenesis and treatment approaches. Methods 111 patients diagnosed with NCP from January 29 to February 11, 2020 were enrolled at Hubei Provincial Hospital of Integrated Chinese & Western Medicine in the city of Wuhan and treated by Guangdong TCM medical team with Chinese medicine decoction or granule on the basis of conventional supportive therapy. TCM treatment was individualized based on patient categories of mild, moderate, severe and critical conditions under the guidance of pattern differentiation principle. Global improvement and symptom relief were evaluated after treatment. Results Among the 111 patients, 37 patients were recovered and discharged. 62 patients were improving. Disease conditions of 3 cases remained unchanged. One patient deteriorated and was transferred to ICU, and 8 cases died (among which, 4 cases died within 12 hours since the Guangdong medical team took them over on January 29). Symptoms of patients with mild and moderate conditions were 100% gone. For severe and critical cases, their symptoms like fever, cough, diarrhea, constipation, nausea and vomiting were significantly relieved. Conclusion NCP falls into the category of epidemic diseases in TCM. Epidemic dampness toxin seemed to be the main etiological factor. Pathogenic dampness encumbering the spleen and epidemic toxin blocking the lung are the core pathogenesis while pathogenic dampness is persistent throughout the disease and may easily transform into heat, dryness and occasionally cold during disease progression. TCM therapies based on pattern differentiation should be offered alongside standard care of modern medicine throughout the course of disease as favorable clinical outcomes are now observed with this integrative approach.
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    Analysis of membrane-source and clinical indications of Dayuan Yin*
    Ma Jiaju, Wang Yuguang
    2020, 43 (6):  463-468.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.004
    Abstract ( 344 )   PDF (1193KB) ( 222 )   Save
    Membrane-source (pleurodiaphragmatic interspace) is an important location for the onset of epidemic disease in the body, and Dayuan Yin (Membrane-source Decoction, DYY) a typical formula indicated for the disease. However, the clinical application of the formula is limited by its acrid-warm and drying nature. Based on original texts from Wenyi Lun (Treatise on Warm-Heat Pestilence) published in the Ming Dynasty, as well as understanding by physicians in later generations, this article discusses the essence of membrane-source and proposes that DYY is indicated for critical condition caused by pattern of dampness trapping hidden deep-lying heat in the middle energizer. As epidemic disease is highly infectious with sudden onset and high mortality rate, first priority in its treatment should be dispelling pathogens hidden inside the human body. Owing to its acrid-warm and drying property, DYY can soothe and drain the membrane-source and transform the dampness-heat pattern into pure heat pattern, which corresponds to the idea of defeating the pathogen by transmitting and changing it proposed by Wu Youke, a famous Chinese epidemiologist and the author of Wenyi Lun. Such practice is still in line with the therapeutic principle of dispersing and purging pathogens through different channels separately in the treatment of dampness-heat pattern. Meanwhile, it is also proposed that the treatment of warm epidemic disease should always center on the pathogens. Besides, the indications of DDY are summarized. Finally, the theoretical significance of membrane-source and DDY is discussed in the current fight against the novel coronavirus pneumonia, also known as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
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    Qi Forum
    Analysis of the concept of “Zhengqi” in Huangdi Neijing*
    Shi Lingsheng, He Juan
    2020, 43 (6):  469-474.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.005
    Abstract ( 361 )   PDF (1254KB) ( 293 )   Save
    In modern Chinese medicine, “Zhengqi”, often juxtaposed with “Xieqi”,is an important concept in the theory of pathogenesis based on exuberance and debilitation of Xieqi (pathogenic factors) and Zhengqi (healthy qi).However,in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), “Zhengqi” originally meant “Zhengfeng” (right wind), essentially referring to wind in the right direction in the right season. Therefore, it was also an external pathogenic factor in modern sense because of its potential capacity to cause diseases. It was in the Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern dynasties (220 AD-589 AD) when “Zhengqi” began to acquire its physiological sense. Later, it gradually became clear that the term referred to healthy qi.Its connotation of “Zhengfeng” was formally replaced with “healthy qi” in the sentence “when there is sufficient Zhengqi inside the body,Xie (pathogen) cannot invade the body” in the chapter “Discussion on Acupuncture Methods”, the original contents of which were lost in history and the present contents were added by scholars in the Song Dynasty to Suwen (Plain Conversation). Since then, it was thoroughly established that “Zhengqi” denoted antipathogenic physiological factors,providing significant theoretical basis for the modern concept of “Zhengqi”.
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    Theoretical Studies
    Analysis of the origin of the belief that “the heart governs the mind” from the perspective of phylogeny*
    Qi Yuanling, Zhang Qingxiang
    2020, 43 (6):  475-481.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.006
    Abstract ( 351 )   PDF (1266KB) ( 124 )   Save
    “The heart governs the mind”originates from the chapter of Discussion on Six-Plus-Six System and the Manifestations of the Viscera in the Plain Conversation:“The Heart is an organ, the function of which is like that of a monarch, which is responsible for the mind(shén míng, 神明, referring to the higher nervous activities that are governed by the heart including spirit, consciousness, and thinking.”Hence, that the heart governs the mind is a summary of the physiological function of the heart. When exploring the phylogenetic explanation of the origin of the statement, we discovered that the connotation of the mind evolved from the mind (law) of the nature to the mind of the human. Drawing upon the essence of the mind (law) of the nature and the feudal bureaucracy on the basis of“being authorized by the heaven (nature)”,and incorporating ancient Chinese philosophy, Chinese physicians in the ancient times formed the concept that the heart houses the mind, meaning the mind of the heart governs and manifests life, and is also home to spirit, consciousness and emotion. Based on relevant anatomic findings, the formation of the belief that the heart governs the mind also integrated knowledge of the nature and humanity. It resulted from the application of the holistic concept of traditional Chinese medicine in the formation of the zang-fu theory. To explore the phylogenesis of the idea that “the heart governs the mind” is of great significance for the inheritance of traditional Chinese medicine theory, clinical diagnosis and treatment, and clarification of conceptual confusion in the later generations.
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    Review of pattern and treatment of “cold cough”*
    Miao Qing, Fan Yiling, Ma Chong, Cao Qing, Wang Ning
    2020, 43 (6):  482-486.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.007
    Abstract ( 385 )   PDF (1187KB) ( 190 )   Save
    As a commonly encountered clinical symptom, cough may easily develop into chronic cough if treated in an inappropriate way. Pathogenic cold is one of the important causes of cough as is well summarized in the quote “the invasion of cold into the body and drinking cold water impair the lung” from Nanjing (The Classic of Difficult Issues). Descriptions of the pattern and treatment of “cold cough” have been scattered in classics of traditional Chinese medicine and records of clinical practice, but a systematic review is lacking. Therefore, we put forward the following ideas and framework of treating cold cough from the perspective of triple energizer and zang-fu organs. (1)When cold pathogen attacks the lung, Zhisou San (Cough-Stopping Powder), Jinfeicao San (Inula Powder), Mahuang Tang (Ephedra Decoction) and relevant modified formulas should be used according to the severity of the cold pathogen. As for cough caused by cold with fluid retention, Xiaoqinglong Tang (Minor Green Dragon Decoction) and Linggui Zhugan Tang (Poria, Cinnamon Twig, Atractylodes Macrocephala and Licorice Decoction) are preferred. (2)If cold pathogen invades the spleen or stomach in the middle energizer, treatment should be tailored to the spleen, stomach and gallbladder respectively. For cough as a result of attack on the spleen from cold, Lizhong Tang (Center-Regulating Decoction) and similar formulas are suitable. For cough resulting from attack on the stomach by cold, Xiaobanxia Jia Fuling Tang (Minor Pinellia Decoction Plus Poria), Banxia Xiexin Tang (Pinellia Heart-Draining Decoction) and relevant modified formulas should be adopted. For cough with gallbladder heat and spleen cold, we could choose Chaihu Guizhi Ganjiang Tang (Bupleurum, Cinnamon Twig and Dried Ginger Decoction). (3)As for cough due to cold attack on the kidney in the lower energizer, it is key to warm the kidney and dissipate cold with effective formulas such as Erxian Tang (Two Immortals Decoction), Zhenwu Tang (True Warrior Decoction) and Jinshui Liujun Jian (Gold Water Six Gentlemen Decoction). In conclusion, when treating cold cough, we should choose formulas and medicinals based on careful pattern differentiation according to the severity and location of the disease and the affected zang-fu organs.
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    Exploration of relationship between the “simultaneous lung and large intestine pattern” and mucosal immunity based on the “interior-exterior relationship between the lung and large intestine”*
    Zheng Rong, Xu Ruoying, Ke Minhui, Tang Shuihua, Huang Minghan
    2020, 43 (6):  487-491.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.008
    Abstract ( 342 )   PDF (1184KB) ( 105 )   Save
    Based on the theory of the “interior-exterior relationship between the lung and large intestine” in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and drawing on the research progress in mucosal immunology of modern medicine, the present paper summarizes the pathophysiological relationship between simultaneous lung and large intestine pattern and the function of lung and intestine as well as mucosal immunity. As lung qi disperses and descends, it makes defensive qi flow around the body surface. As large intestine transports and transforms waste substances from the body, the five zang-organs are in peace and stability. While the normal physiological function of the lung and large intestine is the foundation for body defenses against external pathogenic factors, their abnormal functioning will lead to the lung and large intestine pattern. According to modern medicine, such disease is closely related to mucosal immunity. It is believed that immunoglobulins and cytokines in the mucosal immune system might play a role in affecting both the lung and large intestine at the same time, and the selective homing mechanism could explain the transmission of the disease between the two. The present research hopes to shed some light on the clinical treatment of the lung and large intestine pattern by exploring the relationship between the disease and mucosal immunity from the perspective of the TCM theory of the “interior-exterior relationship between the lung and large intestine”.
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    Chinese Medicinal Pharmacology
    Effects of Huoxue Xiaoyi Fang on ultrastructure of ovarian granulosa cells in rats with endometriosis*
    Shi Guang, Liu Yong, Sun Weiwei, Dong Xiaoying, Han Qian, Bao Meiru, Zhao Ruihua
    2020, 43 (6):  492-497.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.009
    Abstract ( 313 )   PDF (2766KB) ( 88 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the effects of Huoxue Xiaoyi Fang (Blood-moving and Endometriosis-removing Formula, HXXYF) on the ultrastructure of ovarian granulosa cells in rats with endometriosis. Methods Rats were randomly divided into blank group, sham-operated group, model group, and HXXYF group. The latter two groups were formed in the following way. First, rat models with endometriosis were established by allogeneic endometrial transplantation from donors to recipients and recipients were then randomly divided into model group and HXXYF group. After model establishment, while blank group, sham-operated group, and model groupwere given distilled water, HXXYF group was given HXXYF by gavage for 15 consecutive days. Then ovarian tissues of rats in different groups were taken for HE staining to observe follicular development, FSHR polyclonal antibody immunohistochemical staining to locate ovarian granulosa cells, and transmission electron microscopy to observe ultrastructure of ovarian granulosa cells. Results In model group, the numbers of primordial follicles, primary follicles, secondary follicles, and mature follicles were decreased, the numbers of corpus luteum were increased significantly, and granulosa cells were poorly arranged. In addition, ultrastructure of ovarian granulosa cells was severely damaged, and even demonstrated irreversible organelle damage, such as nucleus chromatin margination, mitochondrial vacuolation, and endoplasmic reticulum degranulation.In blank group, sham-operated group and HXXYF group, follicles were all developed at different levels, ovarian granulosa cells were arranged in a regular way, and organelle structure was complete. Conclusion Endometriosis causes serious damage to organelles of ovarian granulosa cells in rats like mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum, and affects follicular development. HXXYF can improve follicular development by reducing ultrastructural damage to granulosa cells in rats with endometriosis.
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    Clinical Studies
    Analysis of distribution characteristics of TCM body constitution types in Chinese population based on data of 108 015 cases*
    Bai Minghua, Wang Ji, Zheng Yanfei, Li Yingshuai, Hou Shujuan, Li Lingru, Zhang Yan, Wang Qi
    2020, 43 (6):  498-507.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.010
    Abstract ( 349 )   PDF (1235KB) ( 242 )   Save
    Objective To collect data of TCM body constitution of Chinese population aged 15 and above, and to analyze and describe the distribution characteristics of their TCM body constitution types. Methods Data of 108 015 cases were collected using Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (for Adults) and Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (for the Elderly) via the internet and terminal equipment, and distribution characteristics of body constitution types were analyzed from such perspectives as the whole sample population, gender, age and region. In addition, the representativeness and distribution of data were analyzed with χ2 test. Results There was statistically significant difference in sex ratio but not in age structure between the sample population and the whole population of China in 2015. In the sample population on the whole, the proportion of people with gentleness (balanced) constitution type was 28.98%, and those with 8 imbalanced constitution types accounted for 71.02%, the top three types being yang-deficiency type (16.41%), qi-deficiency type (13.18%) and wetness-heat (damp-heat) type (10.23%). In the 15-64 age group, those with gentleness constitution type made up 28.80%, and those with 8 imbalanced constitution types 71.20%, the top three types being yang-deficiency type (16.75%), qi-deficiency type (13.57%) and wetness-heat type (11.30%). In the group aged above 64, people with gentleness constitution type added up to 30.25%, and those with 8 imbalanced types 69.75%, the top three types being yin-deficiency type (14.04%), yang-deficiency type (13.97%), and phlegm-wetness (phlegm-damp) type (10.70%), followed by qi-deficiency type (10.39%). There were significant differences in body constitution type distribution between different gender, age and region groups. Conclusion The age structure of the sample population is consistent with that of the whole population of China in 2015, meaning the former is representative of the latter from this perspective. The proportion of people with gentleness constitution type in each age group was smaller than 1/3 of the whole group and smaller than that 10 years ago, while the proportion of those with imbalanced constitution types increased. The top 3 imbalanced types in the whole sample population were yang-deficiency type, qi-deficiency type and wetness-heat type, the sequence of which was different from that 10 years ago. Constitution distribution patterns were different for different gender, age and region groups.
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    Clinical study on TCM pattern differentiation and treatment of brain function change in patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging*
    Yu Lu, Yu Zhihua, Tang Weijun, Huang Pinxian, Dong Ying, Wang Jian, Lin Shuimiao
    2020, 43 (6):  508-515.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.011
    Abstract ( 297 )   PDF (1981KB) ( 132 )   Save
    Objective To explore the effects of TCM pattern differentiation and treatment on brain function of patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods According to the internationally recognized NINCDS-ADRDA Alzheimer’s Criteria, fifty patients with severe AD were enrolled in the study and were randomly divided into Chinese medicine group (CMG) (n=25) and Western medicine group (WMG) (n=25). Patients in the CMG were given TCM treatment based on pattern differentiation: patients with heart-qi deficiency received Tiaoxin Fang (Heart-regulating Formula), patients with kidney-essence insufficiency Bushen Fang (Kidney-supplementing Formula) and patients with patterns complicated by phlegm and blood stasis were additionally given Mengshi Guntan Wan (Chlorite Phlegm-Removing Pill) and Xuefu Zhuyu Jiaonang (Blood Mansion Stasis-Expelling Capsule) respectively. Patients in the WMG were treated with donepezil 5 mg once daily. The course of treatment lasted 48 weeks for both groups. Therapeutic effects were observed and compared using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Changes in brain function of the AD patients before and after treatment were also examined and compared with resting-state fMRI. Results After 48 weeks of treatment, 45.00% and 38.89% patients scored higher in MMSE and 30.00% and 22.22% scored higher in CDR in the CMG and the WMG respectively. The results of fMRI demonstrated better connectivity between posterior cingulate gyrus and other brain regions in both groups of patients. In CMG, the improved regions involved primarily the left frontal and parietal lobes, left temporal lobe and occipital lobe, while in WMG, the improved regions included primarily the right hippocampus, the left frontal lobe and the temporal lobes. Conclusion The heart-regulating and kidney-supplementing TCM treatment based on pattern differentiation is effective in improving cognitive function and reducing disease severity of patients with severe AD and enhancing their brain function by increasing connectivity between posterior cingulate gyrus and specific regions in the brain.
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    Preliminary study on diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome in terms of pattern elements based on latent variable analysis*
    Xing Yu, Lu Qiudan, Shen Lingyu, Liu Haitao, Tong Qing, Huang Haitao, Yang Yan, Zheng Lingqi, Li Hongbo, Xiao Shuangshuang, Xiao Hui, Sun Junjian, Liu Yanxia
    2020, 43 (6):  516-521.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.012
    Abstract ( 288 )   PDF (1200KB) ( 70 )   Save
    Objective To explore the criteria for identifying pattern elements of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to provide evidence for setting TCM clinical pattern differentiation criteria for PCOS. Methods Clinical data of 518 PCOS patients were collected. Latent variable analysis was made to establish TCM diagnostic criterion model of PCOS based on pattern element, after which, diagnoses made using the model were compared with clinical diagnoses made by TCM physicians. Results Both goodness of fit index (GFI) and GFI adjusted for degrees of freedom (AGFI) were close to 1, suggesting that the model was well-fitting. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) was 0.063 7, which is≤0.08, indicating that the model was acceptable. The results of consistency test were as follows. TCM diagnosis of the pattern element of disease location or affected zang-fu organ (i.e. kidney, liver, and spleen) could be made when just one symptom in the model manifests itself (i.e. lumbosacral pain, frequent urination at night, and tinnitus for kidney; depression, impatience and irascibility, and frequent or excessive sighing for liver; and poor appetite and digestion, abdominal distention after eating, and diarrhea for spleen, respectively). The rates of consistency between the model diagnosis of disease location and pattern differentiation made by TCM physicians were 71.6%, 88%, and 77% for kidney, liver and spleen, respectively. TCM diagnosis of the pattern element of disease nature (i.e. qi deficiency, qi stagnation, and phlegm-damp) could be made when just two symptoms in one category in the model manifest themselves (i.e. mental fatigue, lack of strength, and spontaneous sweating for qi deficiency; chest tightness, chest and rib-side distending pain, and distending pain of the breasts for qi stagnation; and somnolence, heaviness sensation in the head or dizziness as if the head is wrapped up, and expectoration of phlegm for phlegm-damp, respectively). The rates of consistency between the model diagnosis of disease nature and pattern differentiation made by TCM physicians were 86.3%, 83.2%, and 80.5% for qi deficiency, qi stagnation, and phlegm-damp, respectively. Conclusion The preliminary diagnostic criteria for PCOS based on pattern elements have been set. After meeting basic diagnostic criteria for PCOS, disease locations such as kidney, liver, and spleen can be diagnosed based on just one symptom in the model, and disease nature like qi deficiency, qi stagnation, and phlegm-damp can be diagnosed based on just two symptoms in one category in the model.
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    Acupuncture & Moxibustion
    Effects of electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) on AMPK-mitochondria pathway in cardiac cells of rats with spleen deficiency*
    Dong Jiazi, Xue Ya’nan, Wei Yuntao, Zhang Yu, Xu Huanyu, Zhang Lide
    2020, 43 (6):  522-528.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.06.013
    Abstract ( 276 )   PDF (2417KB) ( 81 )   Save
    Objective To observe the interventional effects of electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) on myocardial mitochondrial energy metabolism and mitophagy of rats with spleen deficiency. Methods Forty-eight SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group, model group, ST36 group and non-acupoint group with twelve rats in each group. Rat models with spleen deficiency were established by means of trifactor method lasting 14 days. The rats in ST36 group were treated with electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) for 10 days, and the rats in non-acupoint group received electroacupuncture at non-acupoint on bilateral iliac crest for 10 days. The contents of myocardial ATP, ADP and AMP of the rats were determined with HPLC. The expressions of myocardial AMPK, p-AMPK and microtubule-associated protein 1 LC3-I and LC3-II of the rats were detected by Western blotting. Ultrastructure of myocardial mitochondria and mitochondrial autophagosome of rats was observed using transmission electron microscope. Results Compared with normal control group, myocardial AMP/ATP and LC3-II/LC3-I ratios of rats in model group, ST36 group and non-acupoint group all significantly increased (P﹤0.01), myocardial p-AMPK/AMPK ratios of rats in model group increased (P﹤0.05) and myocardial p-AMPK/AMPK ratios of rats in ST36 group significantly increased (P﹤0.01). Compared with model group, myocardial LC3-II/LC3-I ratios of rats in ST36 group significantly increased (P﹤0.01). While rats in model group suffered obvious mitochondrial damage, those in ST36 group experienced some improvement with the emergence of a large number of mitochondrial autophagosomes. Conclusion Electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) may be effective in treating rats with spleen deficiency pattern by activating their myocardial AMPK and regulating their myocardial mitochondrial energy metabolism and mitophagy.
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