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主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    30 November 2020, Volume 43 Issue 11 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Theoretical Studies
    Discussion on the TCM concept of pathogenic“wind”*
    He Juan
    2020, 43 (11):  885-891.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.001
    Abstract ( 314 )   PDF (1239KB) ( 163 )   Save
    In the TCM etiology theory,wind serves as the first of the six pathogenic factors.Based on the original sentences related to “wind” in Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic),later generations have endowed the “wind”,a climatic phenomenon with many attributes and characteristics.However,the concept of “wind” in Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor’s Inner Classic) is actually a mixture of multi-layer concepts,which not only could be interpreted in both broad and narrow senses,but also could be classified into being related to either qi transformation or climate.Frequently,“wind” is a general concept for external pathogenic factors,like “wind is the source and leading cause for all diseases”,and “wind is a yang pathogenic factor,thus damaging the upper part of the body first”.While in “if wind dominates,it’s manifested as shaking or tremoring of the body,or constant changing of the condition”,“wind” is a pathological concept indicating qi transformation in Yunqi Theory.In later generations,apart from the connotation of “wind” as one of the six pathogenic factors,the other layers of the concept have been mixed to enlarge the concept of pathogenic wind.It has led to the mystification of the concept,confusion of theory and disconnection from clinical practice.
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    On the connection in thoughts of health maintenance between Zhuangzi and Huangdi Neijing*
    Xi Chongcheng, Xie Ying, Tian Dong, Liu Zhenzhu, Zhang Ning, Liu Jintao, Huang Junwei, Wang Weiguang, Chen Zijie, Zhai Shuangqing
    2020, 43 (11):  892-896.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.002
    Abstract ( 206 )   PDF (1142KB) ( 146 )   Save
    As the health maintenance thoughts in Zhuangzi and Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic) are interlinked,this article compares such thoughts in these two books and summarizes their similarities and characteristics,so as to further reveal the view of life in Zhuangzi and the health maintenance thoughts in Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic),thus guiding the further development of TCM health maintenance.It’s found that in terms of the method of health maintenance,both books advocate nourishing the body through combination of dynamic and static status,and nurturing the shen (mind) with a tranquilized and non-active status,with focus on the latter.In terms of the principle of health preservation,both books support conforming to the natural law of life and death,the law of nature and the moderate way,which is regarded as the highest standard of health maintenance.In terms of the relation between the internal and external of the human body,both books maintain that the internal and external of the human body are equally important and should be nurtured and protected together.
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    Textual Research
    Differentiation and modern application of “Shigao” and its confusing varieties*
    Yang Shujia, Huang Zuozhen
    2020, 43 (11):  897-902.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.003
    Abstract ( 157 )   PDF (1158KB) ( 76 )   Save
    In ancient TCM classics,“Shigao” has been used to refer to various medicinals,and two kinds of “Shigao” are often mentioned:the soft and hard.Shigao (gypsum,Gypsum Fibrosum) and its confusing varieties are often confused as a result of similarity in alias,character and effect,as well as long-term confused use in previous dynasties.In this paper,the causes for the confusion among Shigao (gypsum,Gypsum Fibrosum) and its confusing varieties,including Lishi,Changshi,Fangjieshi,Ningshuishi and Hanshuishi,are analyzed through review of ancient literature;based on that,their relationships are teased out.Besides,the modern application of Hanshuishi and Shigao (gypsum,Gypsum Fibrosum) are explored with Fengyin Decoction as an example,so as to provide reference for interpretation of ancient books and clinical usage of Shigao (gypsum,Gypsum Fibrosum).Based on the analysis,it’s found that Lishi and Hanshuishi belong to the “soft” type,while Changshi and Fangjieshi belong to the hard type.Ningshuishi and Shigao (gypsum,Gypsum Fibrosum) share the same alias “Hanshuishi”,but they refer to different medicinals.When Zhang Zhongjing’s Fengyin Decoction is used in modern times,the ingredient “Shigao” should be Shigao (gypsum,Gypsum Fibrosum),while “Hanshuishi” can be replaced by Fangjieshi for better therapeutic effect.
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    Chinese Medicinal Pharmacology
    Mechanism of paeoniflorin on LPS-induced human chondrocyte inflammation and degeneration based on NF-kB signaling pathway*
    Chen Pu, Ruan Anmin, Zhou Jun, Zhang Xiaozhe, Ma Yufeng, Wang Qingfu
    2020, 43 (11):  903-909.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.004
    Abstract ( 187 )   PDF (1206KB) ( 88 )   Save
    Objective To observe the effects and explore the mechanism of paeoniflorin (PF) on the inflammation and degeneration of LPS-induced human chondrocytes.Methods Discarded cartilage tissues from primary knee osteoarthritis (KOA) patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty at The Third Affiliated Hospital of Beijing University of Chinese Medicine from April 2019 to October 2019 were collected and digested into chondrocytes using pancreatin and collagenase.The effect of different concentrations of PF on the viability of chondrocytes was detected using the CCK-8 assay,and appropriate concentrations were selected for subsequent experiments.Chondrocytes were randomly divided into five groups,namely the blank group,the model group,and the low,medium,and high concentration PF intervention groups.Except for the blank group,chondrocytes in the other four groups were induced by LPS to simulate an arthritis environment.In the low,medium,and high concentration PF intervention groups,10,20,and 50 μMol/L PF were given respectively.The expressions of IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α,MMP13 and ADAMTS5 in each group were detected by qPCR assay;and the expression levels of NF-kB p65,IKB and IkK were detected by Western-blot.Results The results of CCK-8 assay showed that 10,20,and 50 μMol/L PF could significantly increase the level of proliferation and viability of human chondrocyte;while excessively high concentration (200 μM) PF could inhibit chondrocyte viability.Further qPCR results showed that PF could significantly inhibit the expression levels of inflammatory factors IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α and cartilage degradation factors MMP13 and ADAMTS5 in human chondrocytes after LPS intervention,compared with the model group (P<0.05);WB results showed that PF could significantly inhibit NF-kB p65 and IkK expresion and promotes IkB expression (P<0.05).Conclusion Paeoniflorin seems to inhibit LPS-induced human chondrocyte inflammation and delay cartilage degeneration by inhibiting the activation of NF-kB signaling pathway.
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    Comparative study on the effects and mechanism of Modified Guomin Decoction and Yupingfeng Powder on PM2.5-induced lung injury by regulating Th17/Treg cell balance*
    Feng Feng, Meng Yufeng, Dai Zhong, Guo Fang, Feng Cuiling
    2020, 43 (11):  910-917.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.005
    Abstract ( 141 )   PDF (2266KB) ( 83 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of Modified Guomin Decoction (MGMD) and Yupingfeng Powder (YPFP) on lung injury caused by PM2.5 via regulating the balance of T helper 17 cells (Th17)/regulatory T cells (Treg).Methods 40 SPF male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group,PM2.5 model group,MGMD group and YPFP group (n=10).The PM2.5 animal model was established by intratracheal instilling of PM2.5 suspensions.In MGMD and YPFP groups,rats were administrated MGMD and YPFP via gavage every day respectively;in the other two groups,distilled water were gavaged.All rats were sacrificed after 28 days.At the end of the experiment,BALF and lung tissues were collected.The lung histopathological changes were observed by immunohistochemistry.The expression of IL-6 and TGF-β1 in serum and alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the content of IL-17 and IL-10 in BALF were detected by ELISA.The expression of RORγt and FoxP3 was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot.The mRNA expression in IL-17,IL-10,RORγt and FoxP3 was detected by real-time PCR.Results Compared with the control group,in the serum of PM2.5 model group the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 was significantly increased (P<0.05),the content of IL-17A in BALF was significantly increased (P<0.05),and the IL-10 mRNA in lung tissue was reduced while RORγt mRNA was significantly increased (P<0.01).Compared with the model group,in both MGMD group and YPFP group,the lung tissue injury wasmilder,the expression of IL-6 in serum and RORγt in lung tissue was decreased,the expression of FoxP3 and IL-10 mRNA was increased,and the content of IL-1β in serum and IL-17A in BALF was decreased in the YPFP group (P<0.05).Compared with the MGMD group,all indicator in the YPFP group were not statistically significant (P>0.05).Conclusion PM2.5 seems to induce lung injury by causing Th17/Treg imbalance,and MGMD and YPFP could possibly improve the pathological damage caused by PM2.5 in rats to a certain extent through restoring Th17/Treg balance.
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    Regulating effect and mechanism of Zuogui Jiangtang Jieyu Formulation on linkage damage of hippocampal neurovascular unit in rats with diabetes-related depression*
    Liu Jian, Liu Lin, Yang Hui, Han Yuanshan, Wang Yuhong
    2020, 43 (11):  918-926.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.006
    Abstract ( 126 )   PDF (2402KB) ( 55 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the regulating effect and mechanism of Zuogui Jiangtang Jieyu Formulation (ZGF) on linkage damage of hippocampal neurovascular unit (NVU) in diabetes-related depression.Methods Hippocampal neurons,astrocytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells from SD rats were primitively isolated,purified and cultured,and immunofluorescence staining was used to identify cells.The DD model of hippocampal NVU was established with high dose of glucose and cortisone after hippocampal NVU co-culture system was built by Transwell in vitro.The cultured cells were randomly divided into normal group,model group,blank serum group,and ZGF-containing serum group.After molding and administration for 18 hours,transendothelial electrical resistance(TEER)and leakage liquid height for 4h leakage test (LLH) were detected.The content of secretory protein LIF for Bm and TGF-β and GDNF for As was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The expression of structural protein claudin-1,occludin for Bm and GFAP,CX43 for As was detected by immunofluorescent staining and high content analysis.Cell survival rate and apoptosis of hippocampal neuron was detected by CCK-8 assay and Tunel staining respectively.Results Compared with the normal group,in both model group and blank serum group,the TEER value was significantly reduced,the LLH was significantly increased,the content of protein LIF,TGF-β and GDNF were significantly reduced,and the expression of structural proteins claudin-1,occludin,GFAP and CX43 was down-regulated,the survival rate of hippocampal neuron cells decreased,and cell apoptosis increased significantly.Compared with the model group,in the ZGF group,the TEER value was significantly increased,the LLH was significantly decreased,the expression of LIF,TGF-β,GDNF,claudin-1,occludin,GFAP and CX43 was obviously up-regulated,the survival rate of hippocampal neuron cells increased,and cell apoptosis decreased significantly.Conclusion ZGF seems to have a significant regulating effect on linkage damage of hippocampal NVU in diabetes-related depression,and its mechanism might be related to the improvement the barrier function,secretion function and basic structural protein of hippocampal NVU.
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    Effects of Liuwei Dihuang Decoction on the expression of HIF-1α, Twist and E-cadherin in renal tissue of 5/6 nephrectomized rats*
    Dong Xiang, Hu Shuang, Wang Xi, Yin Xin, Zhang Haiying, Tang Qun
    2020, 43 (11):  927-934.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.007
    Abstract ( 113 )   PDF (2825KB) ( 73 )   Save
    Objective To observe the effect of Liuwei Dihuang Decoction on the expression of HIF-1α,Twist and E-cadherin in 5/6 nephrectomy rats,and explore the molecular mechanism of Liuwei Dihuang Decoction in delaying renal fibrosis.Methods 60 male SD rats were randomly divided into the control group (n=10),sham operation group (n=10) and operation group (n=40).The model of 5/6 nephrectomy rats was established in the operation group.After successful modeling,the operation group (one dead) was randomly divided into model group,Liuwei Dihuang Decoction group,and enalapril group (n=13).The Liuwei Dihuang Decoction group and the enalapril group were gavaged with the decoction 6.75 g/kg and enalapril 10 mg/kg respectively.The control group,the sham operation group and the model group were gavaged with saline 10 g/kg.Eight weeks after the model was established,the renal function indexes of each group were measured.HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of kidney tissues.Masson staining was used to observe collagen deposition and measure the percentage of collagen area.Immunohistochemical method and qPCR method were used to detect the protein level and gene expression of HIF-1α,Twist and E-cadherin in renal tissue.Results 24 hours urinary protein,blood urea nitrogen and blood creatinine were significantly increased in the model group (P<0.05),and decreased in the Liuwei Dihuang Decoction group compared with the control group (P<0.05).A large amount of collagen fiber deposition and obvious fibrillation were observed in the model group,while only a small amount of collagen fiber deposition and decreased fibrillation were observed in the Liuwei Dihuang Decoction group and the enalapril group.Compared with the sham operation group,the HIF-1α and Twist protein levels and mRNA expression in the kidney tissue were significantly increased (P<0.05),and the E-cadherin protein and mRNA expression were significantly reduced in the model group (P<0.05).Compared with the model group,after 8 weeks’ treatment,in the Liuwei Dihuang Decoction group and the enalapril group,there were significantly lowered levels of HIF-1α,Twist protein and mRNA expression (P<0.05),and significantly increased E-cadherin protein levels And mRNA expression (P<0.05).Conclusion Liuwei Dihuang Decoction seems to reduce the expression of HIF-1α to reduce the expression of Twist and promote the expression of E-cadherin,thus delaying renal fibrillation.The mechanism might be related to the inhibition of renal tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transformation.
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    Effects of Shenfuhuang Formula on cognitive function and synaptic plasticity in septic mice*
    Wang Xuerui, Guo Yuhong, Zhao Jingxia, Xu Xiaolong, Liu Qingquan
    2020, 43 (11):  935-940.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.008
    Abstract ( 108 )   PDF (1100KB) ( 73 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the effect of Shenfuhuang Formula on spatial learning and memory,anxiety state,and hippocampal CA1 synaptic plasticity in sepsis mice.Methods C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group,model group and Shenfuhuang group.The sepsis model was established with cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) in the latter two groups.The Shenfuhuang group was gavaged with 2.5 g/kg Shenfuhuang Decoction,twice daily,with a total volume of 0.5 mL;the model group and the control group were given 0.5 mL normal saline twice daily.Morris water maze test was used to evaluate the spatial learning and memory ability.The open field test was used to evaluate the exploration ability and anxiety state.The long-term potentiation of hippocampal CA1 area was also recorded in vivo by neurophysiological technology.Results Compared with the control group,in model group the escape latency and the time spent in target quadrant of Morris water maze were significantly reduced (P<0.05);the number of crossing,rearing and center duration of the open field test were significantly reduced (P<0.05);and the slope of the field post-synaptic potential were significantly reduced (P<0.05).Compared with the model group,in Shenfuhuang group the escape latency and the time spent in target quadrant were significantly increased (P<0.05);the number of crossing,rearing and center duration of the open field test were significantly increased (P<0.05);and the slope of the field post-synaptic potential were significantly increased (P<0.05).Conclusion Shenfuhuang Formula seems to improve the cognitive impairment and behavioral ability of CLP mice to a certain degree,and its mechanism may be related to the improvement of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.
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    Effect of Erchen Decoction on protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in ovarian tissue of rats with polycystic ovary syndrome*
    Zhang Ping, Wang Weibin, Shao Yanfei, Chen Jinming, Yu Jie, Gao Bizhen
    2020, 43 (11):  941-950.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.009
    Abstract ( 147 )   PDF (3199KB) ( 125 )   Save
    Objective To observe the effect of Erchen Decoction on the expression of B lymphocyte-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) in ovarian tissue of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rats induced by DHEA,and explore the possible molecular mechanism of Erchen Decoction in the treatment of PCOS.Methods 36 female SPF SD rats were randomly divided into normal group (n=10) and model group (n=26).Rats in the normal group were injected subcutaneously with 0.2 mL of soybean oil every day.Rats in the model group were injected with the same amount of DHEA subcutaneously at the same site every day for 20 days.By observing the rats’vaginal exfoliated cells,sex hormone levels and ovarian morphology and structure,it was judged whether the model had been successfully established.The model rats were divided into model group,Erchen Decoction group (4.35 g·kg-1·d-1),metformin group (0.3 g·kg-1·d-1) (n=8 in each group).The Erchen Decoction group and metformin group were gavaged with the same dose of injection or decoction,while the model group and normal group were given with equal amount of sterilized drinking water.The administration volume for each group was 10 mL·kg-1·d-1,and the intervention continued for 4 weeks.After the last administration,serum and ovarian specimens of each group were collected.Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect hormone level of serum testosterone (T),luteinizing hormone (LH),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol (E2).Hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) was used to observe the morphological changes of ovaries in each group.Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP notch end labeling assay (TUNEL) was used to detect ovarian granulosa cell apoptotic index.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins.Results (1)On the 21st day of modeling,compared with the normal group,the weight of model rats and the levels of serum T,LH and E2 increased significantly (P<0.05),but with no significant changes in FSH level (P>0.05).Observed with the ovarian tissue microscope,the granulosa cells in the normal group were multi-layered and tightly arranged;while the granulosa cell layer of the model module became thinner,sparsely arranged,and the follicles expanded to be cystic.(2)After treatment with Erchen Decoction,compared with the model group,the serum T and LH levels of the rats in the Erchen Decoction group decreased significantly (P<0.05),and the levels of E2 and FSH increased significantly (P<0.05).The granulosa cell layer of the model group thickened and the number of cystic follicles decreased.The apoptotic index of ovarian granulosa cells decreased,but with no statistically significant difference.The expression level of ovarian tissue Bcl-2 protein increased (P<0.05) ,while the level of Bax protein decreased (P<0.05).Conclusion The effect of Erchen Decoction on PCOS may be achieved by promoting the expression of Bcl-2 protein in ovarian tissue and down-regulating the expression of Bax protein,thereby inhibiting the apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells.
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    Chinese Medicinal Chemistry
    Intestinal absorption of anti-inflammatory and analgesic active fraction of Dianbaizhu with everted gut sac technique in vitro*
    Li Xiao, Wang Xiuhuan, Zhao Yicheng, Yan Xin, Wang Le, Fan Shusheng, Wang Xiaoping, Xu Xiao, He Ting, She Gaimei
    2020, 43 (11):  951-958.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.010
    Abstract ( 101 )   PDF (1668KB) ( 49 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the intestinal absorption characteristics of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic active fraction (ARF) of Dianbaizhu (Gaultheria yunnanensis,Gaultheria leucocarpa var.yunnanensis).Methods An adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) animal model was established by injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant into the sole of the right hind foot of the rat.After successful modeling the model rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (high,medium,and low concentration of ARF) (n=3 in each group),and another 9 normal rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (high,medium,and low concentration of ARF) (n=3 in each group).Rats in all groups were fasted for 12 hours before the experiment.About 10 cm of the small intestines of the rats were collected.Subsequently,the everted gut sac technique in vitro was used to investigate the difference in intestinal absorption between normal rats and AIA model rats after administration of low,medium and high concentrations of ARF at different times.The contents of three methyl salicylate glycosides in intestinal absorption samples,including methyl benzoate-2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-2)[O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (MSTG-A),methyl benzoate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1-2)[O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (MSTG-B),and 2-[(6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]benzoic acid methyl ester (Gaultherin),were detected by HPLC.The accumulative absorption,absorption rate constants,and apparent permeability coefficients were calculated to compare the components in the intestinal absorption fluid of normal rats and AIA model rats.Results The three methyl salicylate glycosides of ARF were all linearly absorbed in normal rats and AIA pathological models (r>0.9),which accorded with zero-order absorption rate.The absorption rate constant of each component was related to the concentration of drug and the state of the body.Physiologically,it increased with the increase of ARF concentration under physiological conditions,indicating that the three indicators belonged to passive diffusion.While in pathological state,the absorption rate constant decreased first and then increased with the increase of concentration.All components were well absorbed under physiological and pathological conditions,with the apparent permeability coefficients all greater than 1×10-6 cm/s,and the absorption was stronger under pathological conditions than the physiological state.Conclusion The absorption of MSTG-A,MSTG-B and Gaultherin in the isolated small intestine of normal and AIA model rats possibly conforms to the zero-order kinetic process,and the pathological state seems to have an influence on the absorption of these components;The everted gut sac technique could possibly evaluate the intestinal absorption characteristics of the three methyl salicylate glycosides in ARF.
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    Molecular weight distribution of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and its relation with anti-inflammatory activity*
    Zhang Xin, Liu Yang, Cheng Yaru, Wang Jiaxin, Gong Yiting, Li Yanping, Yang Dongping, Li Tong, Dong Ling
    2020, 43 (11):  959-964.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.011
    Abstract ( 161 )   PDF (1772KB) ( 117 )   Save
    Objective To establish the molecular weight distribution characteristic map of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs),determine the molecular weight distribution of LBPs,and further explore the relation between the anti-inflammatory activity of LBPs and different molecular weight polysaccharides,by lipopolysaecharide induced RAW264.7 cell inflammation model,thus screening the molecular weight distribution of LBPs related to anti-inflammatory activity.Methods The molecular weight distribution of LBPs was determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography and evaporative light scattering detector (HPGPC-ELSD).No test kit was used to determine the inhibitory effect of LBPs on the release of inflammatory factor in RAW264.7 cell inflammation molde.Grey correlation analysis method was used to analyze the correlation between the characteristic peak area and anti-inflammatory activity of the sample.Results The similarity between the characteristic atlas and the control atlas was more than 0.891 in 16 batches of LBPs.Nine characteristic peaks of molecular weight were isolated.Seven fragments of molecular weight of LBPs were measured,and the molecular weight distribution was between 2-106 kDa.The results of gray correlation analysis showed that the peak 3 (molecular weight:34.6 kDa) had a strong correlation with anti-inflammatory activity.Conclusion The method established in this study seems to be stable and reliable,and it could be used to characterize the molecular weight distribution information of LBPs in a relatively accurate way.Peak 3 (molecular weight:34.6 kda) in the characteristic map potentially to be closely related to the anti-inflammatory activity
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    Clinical Studies
    Discussion on pathogenesis of “wind-induced” atherosclerosis*
    Han Wenbo, Sun Aijun, Li Hongmei, Wang Xian
    2020, 43 (11):  965-968.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.11.012
    Abstract ( 187 )   PDF (1071KB) ( 83 )   Save
    Qi deficiency and blood stasis is one of the key pathogeneses of atherosclerosis in the stable period.In the acute episode,atherosclerosis is often characterized by abrupt onset,rapid progress and multiple changes in clinical manifestations.It is similar to the wind pattern in TCM,which is difficult to be fully interpreted from the perspective of qi deficiency and blood stasis.Therefore,in this article the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis of “qi deficiency and blood stasis as the basis,and being further induced by wind” is put forward,which would possibly be the key pathogenesis affecting the progression and outcome of atherosclerosis.
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