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主 办:北 京 中 医 药 大 学
ISSN 1006-2157 CN 11-3574/R

Table of Content

    30 December 2020, Volume 43 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Expert Opinion
    Challenges and solutions in the establishment of rat models of gastritis deteriorating into gastric carcinoma*
    Ding Xia, Su Zeqi, Shen Hong, Zhang Ping
    2020, 43 (12):  973-979.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.001
    Abstract ( 175 )   PDF (1483KB) ( 73 )   Save
    Since “deterioration of chronic gastritis into gastric cancer” is the main cause of gastric cancer, active prevention and treatment of such deterioration is of great significance for reducing the incidence of gastric cancer. However, many bottlenecks in model establishment have restricted the development of basic research and application in this field, e.g. the selection of model factors, model preparation methods, model evaluation at different pathological stages, the way of combining WM disease and TCM pattern in model establishment, and model pattern determination. Based on the research findings of the present team in the last 5 years as well as global research progress, problems in the establishment of the animal models of gastritis deteriorating into gastric carcinoma with consideration of both WM disease and TCM pattern were analyzed one by one and possible solutions were proposed. We simulated the clinical features of the multifactorial disease and provided two rat models with MNNG as the main factor. Compared with the existing models, they are proved more in line with clinical characteristics of the disease and yield higher success rates for model establishment and better stability by multiple experiments. They may become powerful tools for animal research in this field.
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    Theoretical Studies
    On formation of ontological concept of life gate and reconstruction of relationship among five elements in Ming and Qing dynasties*
    Gu Jianjun
    2020, 43 (12):  980-984.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.002
    Abstract ( 152 )   PDF (686KB) ( 72 )   Save
    The philosophical orientation of medical theory after the Song Dynasty was mainly embodied in the construction of the ontological system of mingmen (life gate) tai chi theory. Mingmen, which is innate, governs the true water (kidney yin) and the true fire (kidney yang), while the zang-fu organs and body constitution of human beings are postnatal. In this sense, the connotations of the five elements were expanded, forming two systems of five-element relationship and restructuring the original relationship among the five zang organs in terms of five elements. As a result, new relationships such as the true fire generates the spleen-earth, the qian-metal (original qi; qian is one of the Eight Diagrams) generates the true water, and the innate water and fire are from the same source and in harmony. Postnatal major diseases and critical conditions are differentiated and treated from the innate perspective. Treatment principles are put forward such as “mild diseases are treated from the perspectives of qi and blood and major diseases water and fire”.
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    Inspiration by heart wind in Huangdi Neijing for the treatment of mental disorders*
    Jin Jue, Chen Xiao
    2020, 43 (12):  985-990.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.003
    Abstract ( 157 )   PDF (842KB) ( 77 )   Save
    In modern concept, heart wind is often equivalent to depressive psychosis. The term, originating from Huangdi Neijing (Huangdi’s Internal Classic), referred to a wind disease of zang-fu organs. The disease was believed to be caused by deficiency in zang organs and exposure to pathogenic wind. Its main symptoms included mental and emotional changes such as anger, retardation in speech, etc. In later development, the connotation of heart wind changed and it fell more into the category of mental illness. Based on the characteristics of heart wind as a mental disorder and the development of its understanding in the later generations, Yuanzhi Tang (Thin-leaf Milkwort Root Decoction) is recommended to be the basic formula for its treatment. Through the above research, the following conclusions are reached. Firstly, heart-wind disease is not a wind disease caused by contraction of external pathogenic wind in its general sense, but a zang-fu disease caused by a combination of internal and external pathogenic factors. Secondly, it falls into the category of mental health disorders because of its internal basis. Thirdly, the pattern differentiation and treatment of heart wind may inspire modern treatment of mental and emotional disorders from the perspective of wind.
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    Textual Research
    Analysis of “metal can be extended in length and breadth”*
    Lu Hongrong, Yu Zhimin
    2020, 43 (12):  991-994.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.004
    Abstract ( 154 )   PDF (585KB) ( 56 )   Save
    There has been much controversy since the ancient until the modern times over the term “金曰从革” (meaning metal characterized by change) originating in the chapter Hongfan (lieterally, Great Plan) of the book Shangshu (Book of Documents). This article examines the controversy from the perspectives of the form of Chinese characters, syntax, medical theory, and ways of thinking based on reasonable inferences, and arrives at the conclusion that “金曰从革” is probably a typo of “金曰纵横” (meaning metal can be extended in length and breadth when forged), which is justifiable in view of the function of the lungs in TCM theory. If “金曰纵横” is indeed the right term, then all the related concepts can be explained systematically with ease such as the characteristics of “metal”, lung’s functions of governing dispersion, depuration, descent, qi, management and regulation, all meridians and vessels converging in the lung, lung being closely related to the skin and hair, and lung corresponding to the pungent flavor.
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    Chinese Medicinal Pharmocology
    Transcriptomics-based research on mechanism of Qishen Granule's regulatory effects on spleen ALOX15/STAT3 pathway to inhibit monocyte release and prevent heart failure*
    Sun Xiaoqian, Ma Lin, Li Yanqin, Lu Xiangyu, Li Xuan, He Hao, Li Chun, Wang Yong
    2020, 43 (12):  995-1002.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.005
    Abstract ( 171 )   PDF (3090KB) ( 49 )   Save
    Objective To explore the expressions of the spleen monocyte mobilization-related proteins and pathways in heart failure based on transcriptomic data, and the mechanism of the regulatory effects of Qishen (Astragalus Root and Ginseng) Granule on such pathways. Methods Left anterior descending coronary artery ligation was used to establish the rat models of heart failure after myocardial infarction. The rats were randomly divided into the model group, the Qishen Granule (QSG) group, and the heart failure + spleen excision (splenectomy) group, and the sham operation group (SHAM). Rats in the QSG group were given Qishen Granule (235.2 mg/kg) by gavage for 21 days while the remaining groups were given the same volume of saline. Echocardiographic analysis was made on the rats in different groups to evaluate their cardiac function. RNA-seq technology at transcriptomic level and GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were used to explore the expressions of genes in the spleen. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect the distribution of splenic monocytes and the key proteins ALOX15, STAT3 and CCR2. Results Compared with the sham operation group, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and short axis fractional shortening (LVFS) were significantly decreased (P<0.01), and the left ventricular diastolic internal diameters (LVID;d) and left ventricular systolic internal diameters (LVID;s) of the model group were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the LVEF value of the splenectomy group was significantly increased (P<0.01), and the LVEF value of the QSG group was also significantly increased (P<0.05). Transcriptomic results identified 34 differential genes that QSG could regulate. The enrichment analysis of GO and KEGG pathways showed that the above genes were mainly enriched in such biological processes as immune regulation of spleen, leukocyte migration, and antigen processing and presentation. The expressions of CD163 and CD68 of the model group were significantly lower than those of the sham operation group (P<0.01); the expressions of CD163 and CD68 in the QSG group were significantly higher than those of the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the sham operation group, the expressions of STAT3 and CCR2 proteins increased and those of ALOX15 proteins decreased in the model group, and the expressions of STAT3 and CCR2 proteins decreased while those of ALOX15 proteins increased in the QSG group (P<0.01). Conclusion QSG can improve heart function and prevent and treat heart failure by regulating ALOX15/STAT3 pathway-mediated mobilization and release of splenic monocytes.
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    Effects of Yi'nao Jieyu Fufang on hippocampal JAK/STAT signaling pathway in post-stroke depression rats with kidney deficiency and liver depression pattern*
    Chen Lin, Tang Qisheng, Liu Haipeng, Lin Liangyin, Chen Hongjing, Diao Huaqiong, Ding Haiyue, Wei Dan, Zhang Shujing, Gao Yushan, Li Xiaoli
    2020, 43 (12):  1003-1010.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.006
    Abstract ( 115 )   PDF (1882KB) ( 42 )   Save
    Objective To explore the potential mechanism of Yinao Jieyu Fufang (Brain-tonifying Depression-relieving Compound, YNJYFF) in treating post-stroke depression. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into blank group, sham operation group, stroke group, post-stroke depression group, Fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) group (2.33 mg/kg·d)and Yinao Jieyu Fufang (YNJYFF) group (9.92 mg/kg·d). Middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed to establish stroke models. After a week, chronic restraint stress combined single-cage feeding was used to build post-stroke depression models. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the protein expression levels of JAK/STAT signaling pathway molecules p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of different groups of rats. Western Blot method was used to detect the left hippocampus p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 protein expression levels. Real-time quantitative PCR technology was used to detect JAK2 and STAT3 gene expression levels in the left hippocampus. Results On 14 d, 28 d and 56 d, the positive areas of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 protein in hippocampal dentate gyrus, and the levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3 protein and gene expression in hippocampus of the post-stroke depression group significantly increased (P<0.01 or P<0.05). On 14 d, the positive areas of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 proteins in hippocampal dentate gyrus of the YNJYFF group decreased (P<0.01). On 28 d and 56 d, the positive area scores of p-JAK2 and p-STAT3 protein in hippocampal dentate gyrus and the levels of p-JAK2, p-STAT3 protein and gene expression in hippocampus of the YNJYFF group were significantly reduced (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion YNJYFF may relieve depression of PSD rats by down-regulating the expressions of JAK2 and STAT3 genes and proteins in JAK and STAT pathways. The target area may be the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The best outcome of YNJYFF may appear on the 28th, day in the treatment course.
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    Effects of Tongluo Zhitong Ningjiao on synovial membrane inflammation severity of KOA rabbit model at different stages*
    Chen Pu, Ruan Anmin, Zhou Jun, Zhang Xiaozhe, Peng Haoxuan, Yang Tongjie, Yang Yi, Cai Gaokai, Wang Qingfu
    2020, 43 (12):  1011-1017.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.007
    Abstract ( 121 )   PDF (975KB) ( 33 )   Save
    Objective To observe the effects of Tongluo Zhitong Ningjiao (Collateral-unblocking and Pain-relieving Gel, TLZTNJ) on the synovial membrane inflammation severity in rabbit models of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) at different stages, and explore its mechanism in the treatment of KOA. Methods 56 rabbits were randomly divided into 8 groups: normal group, sham operation group, mild KOA group, moderate KOA group, severe KOA group, mild KOA group treated with TLZTNJ, moderate KOA group treated with TLZTNJ, and severe KOA group treated with TLZTNJ. Except for the normal group and the sham operation group, KOA models in the other groups were established with the Hulth method. The mild KOA group, the moderate KOA group, and the severe KOA group were executed in the 4th, , 8th, and 16th, week respectively after the models were established. The mild, moderate, and severe KOA groups treated with TLZTNJ were treated with the gel for 3 weeks after the mild, moderate, and severe KOA groups were executed and were executed too. The degree of synovial inflammation was observed by HE staining. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 in serum were detected by ELISA. The mRNA and protein expressions of IL-1β, TNF-α and MMP-13 in synovial tissue were detected by qPCR and WB. Results The synovial layer of rabbits in the mild, moderate, and severe KOA groups significantly thickened, and the inflammatory infiltration increased. After the intervention with TLZTNJ, the severity of synovial inflammation in the mild, moderate, and severe KOA rabbit groups treated with TLZTNJ were significantly reduced. TLZTNJ lowered the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and PGE2 in the serum (P<0.05, P<0.01) and inhibited the expression levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and MMP-13 (P<0.05, P<0.01) of the rabbits with mild, moderate, and severe KOA. Conclusion TLZTNJ can significantly inhibit synovial membrane inflammation and reduce the expression of inflammatory factors in rabbit KOA models at different stages.
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    Mechanism of Qinma Fang inhibiting non-small cell lung cancer via regulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells*
    Zhu Yangzhuangzhuang, Hou Yifei, Zhang Fei, Jiao Xiaoning, Su Lin, Chen Xiao, Zhu Shiguo, Wei Luyao, Wang Wantao, Wang Jie, Zhu Xiandan, Zou Chunpu, Xu Zihang
    2020, 43 (12):  1018-1026.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.008
    Abstract ( 107 )   PDF (4042KB) ( 39 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the antitumor effect of Qinma Fang (Scutellaria Root and Ephedra Herb Formula, QMF) on orthotopic lung cancer mice and explore its potential mechanism. Methods Mouse models of orthotopic lung cancer were established through intrapulmonary injection with LLC-luc cells. All mice were randomly divided into four groups: blank control group, cisplatin group (2 mg/kg cisplatin twice a week by intraperitoneal injection for 4 weeks), QMF group of high, medium, and low doses (QMF at 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5 g/kg once daily with intragastrical administration for 4 weeks). The general conditions of the mice (i.e. spirit, hair, activity, etc.) were observed and the survival length was recorded. MTT was used to detect the inhibitory effects on the proliferation of LLC-luc cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect the change in the numbers of MDSCs and T cells in the spleen and tumor of the model mice and assess the CD107α degranulation efficacy of CD8+, T cells. RT-PCR was applied to exeamine the Arg1, iNOS, STAT3 and STAT1 mRNA expressions in the mouse spleen. Western blot was performed to detecd the protein expressions of Arg1, STAT3 and pSTAT3 in mouse spleen. HE staining and ELISA were used to determine the liver and kidney toxicity of QMF. Results QMF at medium dose could significantly prolong the survival of tumor bearing mice (P<0.05). Intervention of QMF at different concentrations has no direct inhibitory effect on the proliferation of LLC-luc cells. However, QMF at medium dose significantly reduced the quantity of MDSCs (P<0.01) and increased the amount of T cells (especially CD8 +, T cells) (P<0.01) in the spleen and tumor of model mice. Meanwhile, the CD107α degranulation ability of CD8+, T cells was also remarkably enhanced (P<0. 01). In addition, the mRNA expressions of Arg1 and STAT3 related to the activation of MDSCs were obviously decreased after medium-dose QMF administration, and the protein levels of Arg1, STAT3 and pSTAT3 were also down-regulated accordingly (P<0.01). Moreover, no abnormalities were found in the pathological examination of liver and kidney tissue slides and the biochemical parameters. Conclusion QMF may inhibit the proliferation and activation of MDSCs by down-regulating the STAT3 signaling pathway, thus prolonging the survival of tumor-bearing mice with lung cancer. In addition, it is safe to use with minimal toxicity on kidney and liver. This study is conducive to the expansion of clinical application of QMF, and validate the argument that lung cancer might be induced by phlegm.
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    Protective effects of timosaponin B-II on mitochondria of SH-SY5Y cell model of MPP+-induced Parkinson's disease*
    Zhang Jinkun, Zhou Mengqi, Ma Haojie, Zhang Yuxin, Cheng Cuicui, Yang Luping, Gai Cong, Gao Yushan, Sun Hongmei
    2020, 43 (12):  1027-1033.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.009
    Abstract ( 119 )   PDF (3869KB) ( 36 )   Save
    Objective To explore the protective effects of the effective component of timosaponin B-II (TB-II) on mitochondria in Parkinson’s disease (PD) model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridine (MPP+, ). Methods SH-SY5Y, a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma, was selected and treated with MPP+, to establish a PD cell model. TB-II at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 μmol/L were used for intervention. CCK-8 was used to detect cell survival rate of different groups, flow cytometry cell apoptosis rate and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and laser scanning confocal microscope mitochondrial activity. Image J software was used to evaluate mitochondrial morphology factor, average length of network branch and number of network branches. JC-1 was employed to detect mitochondrial membrane potential, and luciferase cellular ATP level. Results Compared with the model group, the cell survival rate of the TB-II low, medium, and high concentration groups were significantly increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), the apoptosis rate was significantly reduced, the mitochondrial activity, the morphological factors, the average length and the number of network branchesantagonizing the decreace of membrane potential, the relative ATP level, the cellular ROS level were increased significantly (P<0.01). In addition, it was observed that the TB-II medium concentration group performed best in antagonizing the decrease of membrane potential and increasing ATP levels. Conclusion TB-II can limit MPP+, induced damage to SH-SY5Y cell mitochondrial function, antagonize the reduction of membrane potential, increase ATP production, reduce ROS production, repair mitochondrial network morphology, thereby suppressing apoptosis and relieving PD.
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    TCM Informatics
    Establishment of prostate cancer diagnosis model based on big data of traditional Chinese medicine and graph convolutional network*
    Li Peng, Luo Aijing, Min Hui
    2020, 43 (12):  1034-1041.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.010
    Abstract ( 141 )   PDF (3527KB) ( 46 )   Save
    Objective Diagnosis of prostate cancer based on artificial intelligence technology attracts great academic attention at present. However, most of the existing intelligent diagnostic methods can only collect MRI, CT and other image data for prostate cancer diagnosis, and cannot process such data, resulting in huge limitations and unsatisfactory performance. In order to solve the problem, a prostate cancer diagnosis model based on graph convolutional neural network (PCa-GCN) is proposed in this paper. Methods Firstly, prostate cancer data samples were collected from various hospitals, and then the graph of medical record was constructed based on the preprocessing with the jieba word segmentation, the bag-of-words model and the maximum entropy model. Then the graph of medical record was inputted for GCN to learn the graph embedding representation of characteristics of prostate cancer. Finally, the mapping between such features and prostate cancer was accomplished by logic regression based on sigmoid for accurate diagnosis of prostate cancer. Results Experimental results based on k-fold cross validation showed that the PCa-GCN model is superior to the other diagnostic methods in terms of recall rate and ROC curve. Conclusion PCa-GCN model achieved precise diagnosis of prostate cancer and can provide technical support for prostate cancer data analysis and disease prevention.
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    Acupuncture & Moxibustion
    Discussion on “deqi” and “qizhi” in moxibustion*
    Peng Ruoxuan, Mao Hongrong, Wu Sai
    2020, 43 (12):  1042-1045.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.011
    Abstract ( 185 )   PDF (625KB) ( 72 )   Save
    The concepts “deqi” (literally, obtaining qi) and “qizhi” (literally, arrival of qi) are not unique to acupuncture, but also relevant in moxibustion. They refer to two characteristic manifestations in the process of moxibustion therapy. “Deqi” is mainly characterized by reddening of local skin accompanied with aching distention and hot pain caused by moxibustion, but these sensations might indicate the arrival of healthy qi or pathogenic qi, and thus may not necessarily suggest the arrival of qi that cures. On the other hand, “qizhi” often involves effective relief of superficial symptoms and improvement of pulse manifestation on the basis of “deqi” clinically. For different patterns, and with different moxibustion methods, acupoints, and supplementation/drainage manipulations, the characteristics and relationships between “deqi” and “qizhi” may vary. Understanding such subtle differences helps practitioners select the appropriate acupoints and methods according to different patterns during clinical moxibustion, and also assess the efficacy of moxibustion.
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    Clinical Studies
    Cross-sectional study on the traditional Chinese medicine pattern of metabolic syndrome with abnormal blood glucose based on factor analysis*
    Zhu Lili, Zhu Xiaoyun, Zhao Yuxue, Yuan Quan, Tang Yang, Liu Ximing
    2020, 43 (12):  1046-1052.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.012
    Abstract ( 131 )   PDF (780KB) ( 47 )   Save
    Objective To investigate the characteristics and distribution of TCM patterns of metabolic syndrome (MS) with abnormal blood glucose, so as to provide evidence for TCM clinical intervention of the disease. Methods Based on a clinical epidemiological investigation database of MS and healthy subjects from 9 research centers in 6 provinces and a munilipality directly under the Central Goverment, 2 284 cases of MS with abnormal blood glucose were extracted. The distribution and characteristics of TCM patterns of the disease were explored by factor analysis and other statistical methods. Results The TCM patterns of MS with abnormal blood glucose mainly fall into the following 6 categories (ranking in a descending order): phlegm-heat accumulation pattern, liver-kidney yin deficiency pattern, liver-fire exuberance pattern, quasi blood-stasis pattern, middle-energizer phlegm-damp stagnation pattern, and spleen deficiency with excessive dampness pattern. With the increase in age, the main pattern of MS with abnormal blood glucose gradually developed from phlegm-heat accumulation pattern into liver-kidney yin deficiency pattern. Male patients were more likely to suffer from excess patterns like the middle-energizer phlegm-damp stagnation pattern and quasi blood-stasis pattern. Female patients, on the other hand, were more liable to deficiency patterns such as liver-kidney yin deficiency pattern and spleen deficiency with excessive dampness pattern. Among patients with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), fasting blood glucose (FBG) was the highest in the patients with liver-kidney yin deficiency pattern and the lowest in patients previously diagnosed with diabetes with quasi blood-stasis pattern. Among patients previously diagnosed with diabetes, TG levels were relatively high in those with the phlegm-heat accumulation pattern, middle-energizer phlegm-damp stagnation pattern and quasi blood-stasis pattern. Conclusion The investigation into the patterns, their distribution and characteristics of MS patients with abnormal blood glucose based on epidemiological data could provide reference and basis for clinical pattern differentiation and treatment of the disease.
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    Clinical observation of 40 cases of Agkistrodon acutus bite treated with Lianhua Jiedu Tang*
    Chen Jun, Dong Degang, Yan Zhangren, Wang Wanchun, Yi Jun, Mao Wenli, Li Yanfang, Wang Jiangang, Zhang Naixin, Liu Liang, Wang Xi
    2020, 43 (12):  1053-1057.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1006-2157.2020.12.013
    Abstract ( 676 )   PDF (657KB) ( 45 )   Save
    Objective To observe the clinical effect of Lianhua Jiedu Tang (Bearded Scutellaria Toxin-removing Decoction, LHJDT) on Agkistrodon acutus bite. Methods 80 patients bitten by Agkistrodon acutus were randomly divided into control group and treatment group with 40 patients in each group. While the control group was given conventional Western medical treatment, patients in the treatment group took LHJDT orally in addition to the conventional treatment. During one-week treatment, the average recovery time, the time swelling, pain and ecchymosis took to subside, and the total scores of local symptoms and systemic signs of the two groups before and after treatment were measured and recorded; furthermore, the total effective rates of the two groups were compared. Results The total effective rates were 87.17% and 65.78% in the treatment and control groups respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups of patients in the average recovery time, the time swelling, pain and ecchymosis took to subside, and the total scores of local symptoms and systemic signs on Day 3 and Day 7 during the treatment course. The curative effect of the treatment group was better than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion LHJDT can inhibit the activity of snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus with definite therapeutic effect, and further clinical application is needed.
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